Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Effect of Vitamin A, Zinc and Vitamin E Supplementation on Immune Response in Seropositive Leprosy Subjects



M. Zen Rahfiludin, Adriyan Pramono and Onny Setiani
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

The immune response plays an important role in leprosy prevention. Here we analyzed the effect of vitamin A, zinc and vitamin E supplementation on the immune response in seropositive leprosy patients by measuring serum levels of retinol, zinc, α-tocopherol, interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-2 (IL-2). Subjects were randomly divided into either the treatment or control group. The treatment group received high dose vitamin A once and a daily dose of Zn and vitamin E supplementation for 45 days, while the control group received pills that were identical in appearance but lacked supplements. Supplement consumption compliance was recorded weekly. After 45 days of supplementation, IFN-γ and IL-2 levels were measured again. Upon study initiation both groups had normal retinol, zinc and α-tocopherol serum levels. After 45 days, serum levels of retinol and α-tocopherol increased only in the supplementation group (p = 0.046 and p = 0.033, respectively), while zinc serum levels decreased in both the supplementation (p = 0.001) and placebo (p = 0.000) groups. IFN-γ levels decreased slightly in the supplementation group, although the change was not significant (p = 0.098). Meanwhile, IFN-γ levels in the control group decreased significantly (p = 0.022). IL-2 levels decreased slightly in both the supplementation and placebo groups, but the changes were not significant (p = 0.421 and p = 0.556, respectively). Together our results indicate that supplementation with zinc and vitamins A and E could be a useful alternative therapy for maintaining immune response of seropositive leprosy patients.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

M. Zen Rahfiludin, Adriyan Pramono and Onny Setiani, 2016. Effect of Vitamin A, Zinc and Vitamin E Supplementation on Immune Response in Seropositive Leprosy Subjects. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 15: 40-44.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2016.40.44

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2016.40.44

REFERENCES
1:  Agrewala, J.N., B. Kumar and H. Vohra, 1998. Potential role of B7-1 and CD28 molecules in immunosuppression in leprosy. Clin. Exp. Immunol., 111: 56-63.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

2:  Bao, B., A.S. Prasad, F.W.J. Beck, D. Snell and A. Suneja et al., 2008. Zinc supplementation decreases oxidative stress, incidence of infection and generation of inflammatory cytokines in sickle cell disease patients. Trans. Res., 152: 67-80.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

3:  Chattree, V., N. Khanna and D.N. Rao, 2007. Alterations in T cell signal transduction by M. leprae antigens is associated with downregulation of second messengers PKC, calcium, calcineurin, MAPK and various transcription factors in leprosy patients. Mol. Immunol., 44: 2066-2077.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

4:  Cousins, R.J., R.K. Blanchard, M.P. Popp, L. Liu, J. Cao, J.B. Moore and C.L. Green, 2003. A global view of the selectivity of zinc deprivation and excess on genes expressed in human THP-1 mononuclear cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 100: 6952-6957.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

5:  Engin, K.N., 2009. Alpha-tocopherol: Looking beyond an antioxidant. Mol. Vision, 15: 855-860.
Direct Link  |  

6:  IZiNCG., 2007. Determining the risk of zinc deficiency: Assessment of dietary zinc intake. Technical Brief No. 3, International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZincG), USA.

7:  Kassu, A., T. Yabutani, Z.H. Mahmud, A. Mohammad and N. Nguyen et al., 2006. Alterations in serum levels of trace elements in tuberculosis and HIV infections. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 60: 580-586.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

8:  Lima, E.S., I.A. de Roland, M.F. Maroja and J.L. Marcon, 2007. Vitamin a and lipid peroxidation in patients with different forms of leprosy. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo, 49: 211-214.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

9:  Pinheiro, R.O., J.S. Salles, E.N. Sarno and E.P. Sampaio, 2011. Mycobacterium leprae-host-cell interactions and genetic determinants in leprosy: An overview. Future Microbiol., 6: 217-230.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

10:  Prasad, A.S., 2007. Zinc: Mechanisms of host defense. J. Nutr., 137: 1345-1349.
Direct Link  |  

11:  Prasad, A.S., 2013. Discovery of human zinc deficiency: Its impact on human health and disease. Adv. Nutr., 4: 176-190.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

12:  Rahfiludin, M.Z., B. Wirjatmadi, I. Agusni and Y.P. Dahlan, 2011. Zinc supplementation could modulate T cell to maintain interleukin-2 level in seropositive contact of leprosy patients. Med. J. Ind., 20: 201-204.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

13:  Schalcher, T.R., R.S. Borges, M.D. Coleman, J.B. Junior and C.G. Salgado et al., 2014. Clinical oxidative stress during leprosy multidrug therapy: impact of dapsone oxidation. Plos One, Vol. 9. 10.1371/journal.pone.0085712

14:  Scollard, D.M., L.B. Adams, T.P. Gillis, J.L. Krahenbuhl, R.W. Truman and D.L. Williams, 2006. The continuing challenges of leprosy. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 19: 338-381.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

15:  Trimbake, S.B., A.N. Sontakke and V.V. Dhat, 2013. Oxidative stress and antioxidant vitamins in leprosy. Int. J. Res. Med. Sci., 1: 226-229.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

16:  Vazquez, C.M.P., R.S.M. Netto, K.B.F. Barbosa, T.R. de Moura, R.P. de Almeida, M.S. Duthie and A.R. de Jesus, 2014. Micronutrients influencing the immune response in leprosy. Nutr. Hosp., 29: 26-36.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

17:  Vijayaraghavan, R., C.S. Suribabu, B. Sekar, P.K. Oommen, S.N. Kavithalakshmi, N. Madhusudhanan and C. Panneerselvam, 2005. Protective role of vitamin E on the oxidative stress in Hansen's disease (Leprosy) patients. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 59: 1121-1128.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

18:  WHO., 2012. Weekly epidemiological record: Global leprosy situation. World Health Organ., 87: 317-328.
Direct Link  |  

©  2020 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved