Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Abstract
Fulltext PDF
References
Research Article
 

Effects of Dietary Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis) Waste on Crude Protein Digestibility and Body Weight of Padjadjaran Rams



Tubagus Benito Achmad Kurnani, Lovita Adriani, Ujang Hidayat, Elvia Hernawan and Sri Bandiati
 
ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) being an environmental threat and having many dietary beneficial effects, it could be used in the diet of livestock. Therefore, the present study was conducted with the objective to study the effect of dietary inclusion of Citrus sinensis waste on Padjadjaran sheep. Materials and Methods: This study used 20 Padjadjaran rams with average body weight of 30.42±4.50 kg. The rams were divided into 4 treatments of 5 animals. The sweet orange waste was used at the rate of 0% (control group-R0), 12% (R1), 17% (R2) and 22% (R3). The parameters estimated were crude protein digestibility, initial body weight, final body weight, body weight increase and crude protein of feed. Results: The results indicated that the dietary inclusion of sweet orange waste had no significant (p>0.05) effect on the crude protein digestibility of rams when compared with the control group. However, the highest crude protein digestibility (55.26±13.27%) was observed in the group wherein diet of rams was supplemented with 12% sweet orange waste (R2), followed by (53.40±9.04%) the control group. Further, there was no significant (p>0.05) effect on the body weight of rams fed various levels of sweet orange waste when compared with the control group. Highest body weight (0.63±0.94) was found in the control group, followed by (0.59±0.67) R3 group (fed 22% sweet orange waste in the diet). Conclusion: The inclusion of sweet orange waste up to 22% in the diet had no negative effect in terms of crude protein digestibility and body weight increase of Padjadjaran rams.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Tubagus Benito Achmad Kurnani, Lovita Adriani, Ujang Hidayat, Elvia Hernawan and Sri Bandiati, 2018. Effects of Dietary Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis) Waste on Crude Protein Digestibility and Body Weight of Padjadjaran Rams. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 17: 21-24.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2018.21.24

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2018.21.24
 
Received: July 21, 2017; Accepted: November 09, 2017; Published: December 15, 2017


Copyright: © 2018. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

INTRODUCTION

Citrus is botanically a large family whose dominant members include sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine orange (Citrus reticulata) and grape fruit (Citrus paradisi)1. Sweet orange is grown in more than 125 countries and its worldwide production has increased from 24 million tonnes in 1961 to 71 million tonnes in 19902. Its production in Indonesia reached 23,55,550 t/year in 20093. The orange fruits represented the 63% of the world citrus production. Citrus fruits contain nitrogen (1-2 g kg– 1 on a wet basis), lipids (oleic, linoleic, linolenic, palmitic, stearic acids, glycerol and a phytosterol), sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose), acids (primarily citric and malic), insoluble carbohydrates (cellulose, pectin) and enzymes (pectin esterase, phosphatase, peroxidase). Besides, they are rich in flavonoids (hesperidin, naringin), bitter principles (limonin, isolimonin), peel oil (d-limonene), volatile constituents (alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, hydrocarbons, acids), pigments (carotenes, xanthophylls), vitamins (ascorbic acid, vitamin B complex, carotenoids) and minerals, primarily calcium and potassium4. During orange juice production, great amounts of residue (peel, pulp, seeds, orange leaves and whole orange fruits that do not reach the quality requirements) are generated as waste. This waste is generally available in large quantities during the citrus season and thus it may cause an environmental problem since it does not have any productive use. Rather than discarding the orange wastes, they can be sun-dried and then milled in grinding machine to fine particle to obtain the orange waste meal which can be included in livestock diets5. The nutrient composition of citrus waste powder is 90.01% dry matter, 6.50% crude protein, 12.76% crude fiber, 3.40% crude fat and 7.70% ash6.

Padjadjaran sheep is a local genetic material, still in the breeding process for meat and have white hair and wide ears as their identity7. They have high potential as meat source and are highly adaptive. In West Java province of Indonesia, the sheep is the fourth meat contributor after poultry, cattle and swine contributes 16.12% to national meat production with population of 59.52% 3. There is a trend to modify the animal cholesterol and fat content in order to produce high quality products. Consuming such products has been reported to lower risk of obesity, cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases8,9.

Since, Citrus sinensis waste has many benefits and in order to reduce the environmental threat, it could be used in the diet of livestock. Therefore, the present study was conducted with the objective to study the effect of dietary inclusion of Citrus sinensis waste on Padjadjaran sheep.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study animals and treatments: This experimental study used 20 Padjadjaran rams with average body weight of 30.42± 4.50 kg. The rams were obtained from the breeding station of Animal Husbandry Faculty, Universitas Padjadjaran.

Feed used in the study consisted of concentrated ration 40% and Brachiaria brizantha grass 60%. The forage was given twice a day, in the morning and afternoon at the rate of 2.8-3.0 kg or on an average 2.825 kg/head/day. The composition of concentrate ration in various treatments have been given in Table 1 and 2. It was fed at the rate of 300 g/head/day. The rams were divided into 4 treatments of 5 animals. The sweet orange waste was used at the rate of 0% (control group-R0), 12% (R1), 17% (R2) and 22% (R3). The nutrient composition of experimental diet was calculated as described by Winfeed10.

Collection and processing of sweet orange waste: Citrus sinensis waste was collected from some restaurants around Bandung city. The collected waste was sun dried and oven dried at 50°C until its water content reached 8%. Afterwards, it was ground in order to obtain its powder form, which was then used in the diet.

Parameters estimated
Nutrient digestibility: Digestibility of feed ration was done in two phases, i.e., initial phase and collection phase.

Table 1: Ingredient composition of various diets

Table 2: Nutrient composition of various diets

The initial phase was consisted of 7-10 days. The ration was given twice a day at 08.30 and 15.30 West Indonesian Time (WIT). The objective of this initial phase was to familiarize the ram to the ration and the surroundings12. Drinking water was provided after the ram were fed with ration in the excessive (ad libitum) scheme. Consumption of the ration was worked out every day by subtracting the ration consumption with ration remnant.

Collection phase and data collection were done in the period of 5-15 days after preliminary phase finished. In this period, ration consumption and feces were measured. Collecting, weighing and recording of excreted feces were done in 7 days. According to Tillman12 collection phase should be completed in 5-15 days. The procedures of collection phase and data collection were as follows:

Weighing the ram that will be used in feed digestibility experiment
Feeding the ram with the ration twice a day at 08.30 and 15.30 WIT. Excessive drinking water to be provided after ration feeding before forage feeding
Recording ration consumption and feces production every day
Collecting feces at 07.00 WIT from stall 1 to stall 20, respectively and put into separate plastic bag. The collected feces then weighed and sprayed with 5% boric acid (H3BO3) to fix nitrogen so that it will not get converted into NH3 gas
Weighing and oven drying of collected feces every day. After being dried, the feces to be weighed again. Finally, 10% out of the collected feces to be used in crude protein digestibility in the laboratory
Feed digestibility (in vivo) was calculated using the following equation as per Vansoest and Robertson13:

Where:
KPK = Crude protein consumption (g)
FPK = Crude protein fraction in feces (g)

Other parameters calculated were:

Initial body weight
Final body weight
Body weight increase
Crude protein consumption of feed

Statistical analysis: Data collected were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) as per Steel and Torrie14 and Duncan’ s multiple range test15 was used to test the significance of difference between means considered significant at p<0.05.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The crude protein digestibility of various treatment groups is given in Table 3. The results indicated that the dietary inclusion of sweet orange waste had no significant effect on the crude protein digestibility of rams when compared with the control group. However, the highest crude protein digestibility (55.26± 13.27%) was observed in the group wherein diet of rams was supplemented with 12% sweet orange waste (R2), followed by 53.40± 9.04% in the control group. This indicates that the incorporation of sweet orange waste in the diet of sheep did not have negative effect on crude protein digestibility. Presence of saponins and tannins in sweet orange waste16 has been reported to influence the crude protein digestibility by reducing protein degradation in the rumen and in turn improving post-rumen protein availability. Bampidis and Robinson17 also reported that the presence of tannin and saponin lowers the solubility of proteins entering the abomasums and small intestine for digestion.

The ration’ s crude protein conmsuption was also calculated and presented in Table 3. There was no significant effect on the crude protein conmsuption of rams as a result of dietary inclusion of sweet orange waste at various levels. The crude protein conmsuption of ration decreased, though non-significantly in all the groups fed various levels of sweet orange waste in the diet when compared with the control. Further, Table 3 shows the increase in the body weight of rams fed sweet orange waste in the diet.

Table 3: Effect of dietary sweet orange waste on crude protein digestibility and body weight of rams
Calculation based on Winfeed10, Animal requirement based on Kearl11

There was no significant effect on the increase in body weight of rams fed various levels of sweet orange waste when compared with the control group. Highest body weight increase (0.63± 0.94) was found in the control group, followed by 0.59± 0.67 in the group fed 22% sweet orange waste in the diet (R3). The increase in the body weight was depressed, though non-significantly in all the groups fed various levels of sweet orange waste in the diet when compared with the control.

CONCLUSION

It can be concluded that the inclusion of sweet orange waste up to 22% in the diet had no negative effect in terms of crude protein digestibility and body weight increase of Padjadjaran rams. The sweet orange waste could thus be recommended of inclusion in the diet of rams from economics and environmental point of view.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors would like to thank a group of students who helped in the study. An appreciation is also tendered to PUPT Project of Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education through the University of Padjadjaran in 2016.

REFERENCES
Adriani, L., E. Hernawan and U. Hidayat, 2014. Decreasing cholesterol and triglyceride level on blood by adding orange (Citrus sinensis) waste on Padjajaran I sheep. Scient. Ser. D: Anim. Sci., 57: 70-73.
Direct Link  |  

Agriculture Department, 2010. Prospects and directions citrus agribusiness development. Agriculture Department, Kementerian Pertanian, Republic of Indonesa. http://www.litbang.deptan.go.id/special/komoditas/b3jeruk.

Babayemi, O.J., O.A. Ekokoto and U.A. Inyang, 2009. Evaluation of ensiled cassava peels together with Albizia Saman pods. Proceedings of the 34th Animal Conference of the Nigerian Society for Animal Production, March 15-18, 2009, University of Uyo, Uyo, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria, pp: 544-546.

Bampidis, V.A. and P.H. Robinson, 2006. Citrus by-products as ruminant feeds: A review. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 128: 175-217.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Duncan, D.B., 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics, 11: 1-42.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Grundy, S.M., R. Pasternak, P. Greenland, S. Jr. Smith and V. Fuster, 1999. Assessment of cardiovascular risk by use of multiple-risk-factor assessment equations: A statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology. Circulation, 100: 1481-1492.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Kearl, L.C., 1982. Nutrient Requeriment of Ruminant in Developing Countries. International Feedstuff Institute, Logan Utah, USA.

Oluremi, O.I.A., J. Ngi and I.A. Andrew, 2007. Phytonutrients in citrus fruit peel meal and nutritional implication for livestock production. Livest. Res. R. Dev., Vol. 19, No. 7.

Oluremi, O.I.A., V.O. Ojighen and E.H. Ejembi, 2006. The nutritive potentials of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) rind in broiler production. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 5: 613-617.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Oyewole, B.O., 2011. Nutritional potential of fermented Sweet orange (Citrus senensis) fruit peel meal in the diets of pullet chicks, grower and layers. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Animal Nutrition, University of Agriculture, Makurdi.

Prajoga, S.B.K. and I. Permana, 2009. Genetic evaluation of priangan sheep using multivariate maternal genetic effect and their variation of sheep mitochondrial-DNA. Biotechnol. Anim. Husbandry, 25: 917-924.
Direct Link  |  

Steel, R.G.D. and J.D.H. Torrie, 1980. Principles and Procedures of Statistics, with Special Reference to Biological Science. 1st Edn., McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., New York.

Tillman, A.D., 1991. Basic Animal Food Science. Gadjah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Vansoest, P.J. and J.B. Robertson, 1979. System Analysis for Evaluation Fibrous Feed. In: Standaritation of Analitical Methodology for Feed, Pigdem, W.J., C.C. Balch and M. Graham (Eds.)., IDRC., Canada.

Voigt, J. and H. Hagemeister, 2001. Dietary influence on a desirable fatty acid composition in milk from dairy cattle. J. Anim. Feed Sci., 10: 87-104.
Direct Link  |  

Wardowshi, W.F., S. Nagy and W. Griespn, 1986. Fresh Citrus Fruits. Macmillan Publishers, UK., Pages: 571.

WinFeed, 2016. Users guide 2016. WinFeed, Ltd., Cambridge, UK.

©  2019 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved
Fulltext PDF References Abstract