Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Alterations in Serum Biochemical Parameters in Response to Gasoline Inhalation and the Protective Effects of Green Tea and Curcumin



Ata Sedik Ibrahim Elsayed
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

Herbal medicines derived from plant extracts are being increasingly utilized to treat a wide variety of clinical disease. More attention has been paid to the protective effects of natural antioxidants against drug-induced toxicities especially whenever free radical generation is involved. Flavonoids have been found to play important roles in the non-enzymatic protection against oxidative stress, especially in case of cancer. This study aimed to investigate the alterations in biochemical parameters in serum which measure liver functions, kidney functions, serum lipids and proteins due to inhalation of gasoline and the protective effects of some natural products against gasoline toxicity. Green tea extract and powdered curcumin were chosen as antitoxicity natural products. CD1 mice were taken as experimental model. Mice were exposed to gasoline vapor 2 h/day for 3 weeks in inhalation chamber. The concentration of gasoline is 9375 ppm and the concentration of benzene is 100 fold less than gasoline in equilibrium with pure benzene being 93.75 ppm. The results concluded that: 1-Liver functions did not affect in all animal groups. 2-Increase in globulin concentration in serum was observed in gasoline group, this was lowered in the other groups. 3-Triglycerides in serum were increased by gasoline and returned near to normal control by green tea extract and curcumin addition to diet. 4-Growth rate per day was reduced with gasoline inhalation and ameliorated with curcumin, but hepatosomatic and spleenosomatic indices were not affected in all groups.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Ata Sedik Ibrahim Elsayed , 2016. Alterations in Serum Biochemical Parameters in Response to Gasoline Inhalation and the Protective Effects of Green Tea and Curcumin. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 15: 15-22.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2016.15.22

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2016.15.22

REFERENCES
1:  Aggarwal, B.B., C. Sundaram, N. Malani and H. Ichikawa, 2007. Curcumin: The Indian solid gold. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 595: 1-75.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

2:  Allain, C.C., L.S. Poon, C.S.G. Chan, W. Richmond and P.C. Fu, 1974. Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol. Clin. Chem., 20: 470-475.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

3:  Anderson, R.A. and M.M. Polansky, 2002. Tea enhances insulin activity. J. Agric. Food Chem., 50: 7182-7186.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

4:  Arts, I.C.W., P.C.H. Hollman and D. Kromhout, 1999. Chocolate as a source of tea flavonoids. Lancet, 354: 488-488.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

5:  ATSDR., 1995. Toxicological profile for gasoline. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, June 1995.

6:  Babich, H., T. Gold and R. Gold, 2005. Mediation of the in vitro cytotoxicity of green and black tea polyphenols by cobalt chloride. Toxicol. Lett., 155: 195-205.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

7:  Bearden, M.M., D.A. Pearson, D. Rein, K.A. Chevaux, D.A. Carpenter, C.L. Keen and H. Schmitz, 2000. Potential Cardio Vascular Health Benefits of Procyanidins Present in Chocolate and Cocoa. In: Caffeinated Beverages: Health Benefits, Physiological Effects and Chemistry. Parliament, T.H., C.T. Ho and P. Schieberle (Eds.). Oxford University Press, Washington, DC., USA., pp: 177-186.

8:  Bors, W., C. Michel and M. Saran, 1994. Flavonoid antioxidants: Rate constants for reactions with oxygen radicals. Methods Enzymol., 234: 420-429.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

9:  Bucolo, G. and H. David, 1973. Quantitative determination of serum triglycerides by the use of enzymes. Clin. Chem., 19: 476-482.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

10:  Chen, W.F., S.L. Deng, B. Zhou, L. Yang and Z.L. Liu, 2006. Curcumin and its analogues as potent inhibitors of low density lipoprotein oxidation: H-atom abstraction from the phenolic groups and possible involvement of the 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl groups. Free Radical Biol. Med., 40: 526-535.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

11:  Cheng, T.O., 2006. All teas are not created equal: The Chinese green tea and cardiovascular health. Int. J. Cardiol., 108: 301-308.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

12:  Chyu, K.Y., S.M. Babbidge, X. Zhao, R. Dandillaya and A.G. Rietveld et al., 2004. Differential effects of green tea-derived catechin on developing versus established atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-null mice. Circulation, 109: 2448-2453.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

13:  Ciftci, O., S. Tanyildizi and A. Godekmerdan, 2010. Protective effect of curcumin on immune system and body weight gain on rats intoxicated with 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol., 32: 99-104.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

14:  Ciftci, O., I. Ozdemir, S. Tanyildizi, S. Yildiz and H. Oguzturk, 2011. Antioxidative effects of curcumin, β-myrcene and 1,8-cineole against 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced oxidative stress in rats liver. Toxicol. Ind. Health, 27: 447-453.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

15:  Ciftci, O., A. Beytur, O. Cakir, N. Gurbuz and N. Vardi, 2011. Comparison of reproductive toxicity caused by cisplatin and novel platinum-N-heterocyclic carbene complex in male rats. Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 109: 328-333.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

16:  Ciftci, O., M. Aydin, I. Ozdemir and N. Vardi, 2012. Quercetin prevents 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced testicular damage in rats. Andrologia, 44: 164-173.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

17:  Ciftci, O., I. Ozdemir, M. Aydin and A. Beytur, 2012. Beneficial effects of chrysin on the reproductive system of adult male rats. Andrologia, 44: 181-186.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

18:  Conney, A.H., Y.R. Lou, J.G. Xie, T. Osawa and H.L. Newmark et al., 1997. Some perspectives on dietary inhibition of carcinogenesis: Studies with curcumin and tea. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 216: 234-245.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

19:  Croft, K.D., 1998. The chemistry and biological effects of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 854: 435-442.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

20:  Doumas, B.T., W.A. Watson and H.G. Biggs, 1971. Albumin standards and the measurement of serum albumin with bromcresol green. Clin. Chim. Acta, 31: 87-96.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

21:  Erba, D., P. Riso, A. Bordon, P. Foti, P.L. Biagi and G. Testolin, 2005. Effectiveness of moderate green tea consumption on antioxidative status and plasma lipid profile in humans. J. Nutr. Biochem., 16: 144-149.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

22:  Frei, B. and J.V. Higdon, 2003. Antioxidant activity of tea polyphenols in vivo: Evidence from animal studies. J. Nutr., 133: 3275S-3284S.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

23:  Gornall, A.G., C.J. Bardawill and M.M. David, 1949. Determination of serum proteins by means of the biuret reaction. J. Biol. Chem., 177: 751-766.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

24:  Goupy, P., C. Dufour, M. Loonis and O. Dangles, 2003. Quantitative kinetic analysis of hydrogen transfer reactions from dietary polyphenols to the DPPH radical. J. Agric. Food Chem., 51: 615-622.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

25:  Gupta, M., U.K. Mazumder, T.S. Kumar, P. Gomathi and R.S. Kumar, 2004. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Buhinia racemosa against paracetamol and carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in rats. Iran. J. Pharmacol. Therapeut., 3: 12-20.
Direct Link  |  

26:  Halder, C.A., G.S. van Gorp, N.S. Hatoum and T.M. Warne, 1986. Gasoline vapor exposures. Part I. Characterization of workplace exposures. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J., 47: 164-172.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

27:  Harborne, J.B. and C.A. Williams, 2000. Advances in flavonoid research since 1992. Phytochemistry, 55: 481-504.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

28:  Higdon, J.V. and B. Frei, 2003. Tea catechins and polyphenols: Health effects, metabolism and antioxidant functions. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 43: 89-143.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

29:  Hodgson, J.M., K.D. Croft, T.A. Mori, V. Burke, L.J. Beilin and I.B. Puddey, 2002. Regular ingestion of tea does not inhibit in vivo lipid peroxidation in humans. J. Nutr., 132: 55-58.
Direct Link  |  

30:  Hotz, P. and R.R. Lauwerys, 1997. Hematopoietic and lymphatic malignancies in vehicle mechanics. Crit. Rev. Toxicol., 27: 443-494.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

31:  Ioku, K., T. Tsushida, Y. Takei, N. Nakatani and J. Terao, 1995. Antioxidative activity of quercetin and quercetin monoglucosides in solution and phospholipid bilayers. Biochimica Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Biomembr., 1234: 99-104.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

32:  Javelaud, B., L. Vian, R. Molle, P. Allain and B. Allemand et al., 1998. Benzene exposure in car mechanics and road tanker drivers. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health, 71: 277-283.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

33:  Jayaprakasha, G.K., L.J.M. Rao and K.K. Sakariah, 2005. Chemistry and biological activities of C. longa. Trends Food Sci. Technol., 16: 533-548.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

34:  Johnson, P.C., M.W. Kemblowski and J.D. Colthart, 1990. Quantitative analysis for the cleanup of hydrocarbon‐contaminated soils by in‐situ soil venting. Groundwater, 28: 413-429.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

35:  Kaplan, M.M. and A. Righetti, 1955. Colorimetric estimation of alkaline phosphatase. J. Clin. Inv., 34: 126-126.

36:  Ke, Y., T. Yang and Z. Gui, 2000. Preliminary observation of theasaponin effect on blood pressure in normal SD rats. Chin. J. Integr. Tradit. Western Med. Intensive Crit. Care, 7: 268-269.
Direct Link  |  

37:  Koo, S.I. and S.K. Noh, 2007. Green tea as inhibitor of the intestinal absorption of lipids: Potential mechanism for its lipid-lowering effect. J. Nutr. Biochem., 18: 179-183.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

38:  Lee, W., W.K. Min, S. Chun, Y.W. Lee and H. Park et al., 2005. Long-term effects of green tea ingestion on atherosclerotic biological markers in smokers. Clin. Biochem., 38: 84-87.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

39:  Lin, J.K. and S.Y. Lin-Shiau, 2001. Mechanisms of cancer chemoprevention by curcumin. Proc. Natl. Sci. Counc. Repub. China B., 25: 59-66.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

40:  Lin, J.K., N.H. Pan and S.Y. Lin-Shiau, 2000. Recent studies on the biofunctions and biotransformations of curcumin. Biofactors, 13: 153-158.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

41:  Maity, S., J.R. Vedasiromoni and D.K. Ganguly, 1998. Role of glutathione in the antiulcer effect of hot water extract of black tea (Camellia sinensis). Jpn. J. Pharmacol., 78: 285-292.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

42:  Mannino, D.M., J. Schreiber, K. Aldous, D. Ashley, R. Moolenaar and D. Almaguer, 1995. Human exposure to volatile organic compounds: A comparison of organic vapor monitoring badge levels with blood levels. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health, 67: 59-64.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

43:  Matito, C., F. Mastorakou, J.J. Centelles, J.L. Torres and M. Cascante, 2003. Antiproliferative effect of antioxidant polyphenols from grape in murine Hepa-1c1c7. Eur. J. Nutr., 42: 43-49.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

44:  McPhail, D.B., R.C. Hartley, P.T. Gardner and G.G. Duthie, 2003. Kinetic and stoichiometric assessment of the antioxidant activity of flavonoids by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. J. Agric. Food Chem., 51: 1684-1690.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

45:  Miura, Y., T. Chiba, S. Miura, I. Tomita, K. Umegaki and T. Tomita, 2000. Green tea polyphenols (flavan 3-ols) prevent oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins: An ex vivo study in humans. J. Nutr. Biochem., 11: 216-222.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

46:  Miura, Y., T. Chiba, I. Tomita, H. Koizumi and S. Miura et al., 2001. Tea catechins prevent the development of atherosclerosis in apoprotein E-deficient mice. J. Nutr., 131: 27-32.
Direct Link  |  

47:  Naik, R.S., A.M. Mujumdar and S. Ghaskadbi, 2004. Protection of liver cells from ethanol cytotoxicity by curcumin in liver slice culture in vitro. J. Ethnopharmacol., 95: 31-37.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

48:  Negishi, H., J.W. Xu, K. Ikeda, M. Njelekela, Y. Nara and Y. Yamori, 2004. Black and green tea polyphenols attenuate blood pressure increases in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats1. J. Nutr., 134: 38-42.
Direct Link  |  

49:  Nordlinder, R. and O. Ramnas, 1987. Exposure to benzene at different work places in Sweden. Ann. Occup. Hyg., 31: 345-355.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

50:  Okada, K., C. Wangpongtrakul, T. Tanaka, S. Toyouni, K. Uchida and T. Osawa, 2001. Curcumin and especially tetrahydrocurcumin ameliorate oxidative stress-induced renal injury in mice. J. Nutr., 131: 2090-2095.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

51:  Pietta, P.G., 2000. Flavonoids as antioxidants. J. Nat. Prod., 63: 1035-1042.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

52:  Popp, W., D. Rauscher, G. Muller, J. Angerer and K. Norpoth, 1994. Concentrations of benzene in blood and S-phenylmercapturic and t,t-muconic acid in urine in car mechanics. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health, 66: 1-6.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

53:  Reddy, A.C.P. and B.R. Lokesh, 1992. Studies on spice principles as antioxidants in the inhibition of lipid peroxidation of rat liver microsomes. Mol. Cell. Biochem., 111: 117-124.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

54:  Reitman, S., S. Frankel and J. Amer, 1957. Coloric determination of GOT or GPT activity. J. Clin. Pathol., 28: 56-56.

55:  Roberts, L., R. White, Q. Bui, W. Daughtrey and F. Koschier et al., 2001. Developmental toxicity evaluation of unleaded gasoline vapor in the rat. Reproductive Toxicol., 15: 487-494.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

56:  Rukkumani, R., M.S. Balasubashini and V.P. Menon, 2003. Protective effects of curcumin and photo-irradiated curcumin on circulatory lipids and lipid peroxidation products in alcohol and polyunsaturated fatty acid-induced toxicity. Phytother. Res., 17: 925-929.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

57:  Shehzad, A., T. Ha, F. Subhan and Y.S. Lee, 2011. New mechanisms and the anti-inflammatory role of curcumin in obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases. Eur. J. Nutr., 50: 151-161.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

58:  Shen, X., R. Lu and M. Wu, 1998. [Effects of tea polyphenol on blood lipid and antioxidation in vivo in aged rats]. Chin. J. Prev. Med., 32: 34-36, (In Chinese).
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

59:  Snyder, R., 2002. Benzene and leukemia. CRC Crit. Rev. Toxicol., 32: 155-210.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

60:  Stangl, V., M. Lorenz and K. Stangl, 2006. The role of tea and tea flavonoids in cardiovascular health. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 50: 218-228.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

61:  Talke, H. and G.E. Schubert, 1965. Enzymatische Harnstoffbestimmung in blut und serum im optischen test nachWarburg. Klinische Wochenschrift, 43: 174-175.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

62:  Terao, J., M. Piskula and Q. Yao, 1994. Protective effect of epicatechin, epicatechin gallate and quercetin on lipid peroxidation in phospholipid bilayers. Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 308: 278-284.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

63:  Vaya, J., S. Mahmood, A. Goldblum, M. Aviram and N. Volkova et al., 2003. Inhibition of LDL oxidation by flavonoids in relation to their structure and calculated enthalpy. Phytochemistry, 62: 89-99.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

64:  Wallace, L., 1996. Environmental exposure to benzene: An update. Environ. Health Perspect., 104: 1129-1136.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

65:  Waltner-Law, M.E., L.X. Wang, B.K. Law, R. Hal, M. Nawano and D.K. Granner, 2002. Epigallocatechin gallate, a constituent of green tea, represses hepatic glucose production. J. Biol. Chem., 277: 34933-34940.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

66:  Wang, D. and S. Wang, 1991. Pharmaceutical effects of tea polysaccharides on cardiovascular system. J. Tea, 2: 4-5.

67:  Zaveri, N.T., 2006. Green tea and its polyphenolic catechins: Medicinal uses in cancer and noncancer applications. Life Sci., 78: 2073-2080.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

68:  Barrett, A.J., 1976. An improved color reagent for use in Barretts assay of cathepsin B. Ann. Biochem., 76: 374-376.

©  2020 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved