Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Abstract
Fulltext PDF
References
Research Article
 

Impact of Maternal Copper and Zinc Status on Pregnancy Outcomes in a Population of Pregnant Nigerians



Emmanuel I. Ugwuja, Emmanuel I. Akubugwo, Udu A. Ibiam and Onyechi Obidoa
 
ABSTRACT

Micronutrient deficiencies, especially during pregnancy have been identified as important public health problem especially in economically disadvantaged settings. To determine the effect of maternal deficiencies of copper and zinc on pregnancy outcomes in a population of pregnant Nigerians, 349 pregnant women aged 15-40 years (mean; 27.04±2.75 years) recruited at gestational age of <25 week (mean; 21.8±3.14 wks) were evaluated for plasma copper and zinc using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The women were followed-up till delivery during which maternal morbidity and foetal outcomes were recorded. Both maternal sociodemographic and obstetric data were obtained by questionnaire. One hundred and sixty (45.8%) women were zinc deficient (mean = 2.65±1.16 μmol/l), 58.2% were deficient in copper (mean = 3.26±1.80 μmol/l), 23.8% were deficient in both copper and zinc while 18.6% were not deficient in either copper or zinc. There was comparative prevalence of illness in copper-deficient and copper-adequate mothers, except for hypertension which was significantly (p = 0.021) higher in the former. Significantly (p = 0.026) higher proportion of zinc adequate pregnant women suffered upper respiratory tract infections and malaria when compared with their zinc deficient counterparts. However, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher in mothers who were zinc deficient. Both plasma copper and zinc status had no significant effect on foetal outcome. The reason for the lack of effect of copper and zinc deficiencies on foetal outcomes in the presence of adverse maternal outcomes remained unknown.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Emmanuel I. Ugwuja, Emmanuel I. Akubugwo, Udu A. Ibiam and Onyechi Obidoa, 2010. Impact of Maternal Copper and Zinc Status on Pregnancy Outcomes in a Population of Pregnant Nigerians. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 9: 678-682.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2010.678.682

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2010.678.682

REFERENCES
Ajose, A., B. Fasuba, J.I. Anetor, D.A. Adelekan and N.O. Makinde, 2001. Serum zinc and copper concentrations in Nigerian women with normal pregnancy. Nig. Postgraduate Med. J., 8: 161-164.
PubMed  |  

Alvarez, S.I., S.G. Castanon, M.L.C. Ruata, E.F. Aragues and P.B. Terraz et al., 2007. Updating of normal levels of copper, zinc and selenium in serum of pregnant women. J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol., 21: 49-52.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Anaud, J., P. Preziosi and L. Mashako, 1994. Serum trace elements in Zairian mothers and their newborns. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 48: 341-348.
PubMed  |  

Arquilla, E.R., S. Packer, W. Tarmas and S. Miyamoto, 1978. The effect of zinc on insulin metabolism. Epidemiology, 103: 1440-1449.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Balai, K.S., V. Pendse, R. Gupta and S. Gupta, 1992. Effect of maternal anaemia on iron status of the new born. In. J. Mat Child Health, 3: 54-56.
PubMed  |  

Baum, M.K., G. Shor-Posner and A. Campa, 2000. Zinc status in human immunodeficiency virus infection. J. Nutr., 130: 1421S-1423S.
Direct Link  |  

Bhutta, Z.A., R.E. Black, K.H. Brown, J.M. Gardner and S. Gore et al., 1999. Prevention of diarrhea and pneumonia by zinc supplementation in children in developing countries: Pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials. Zinc Investigators Collaborative Group. J. Pediatr., 135: 689-697.
PubMed  |  

Black, M.M., 1998. Zinc deficiency and child development. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 68: 464S-469S.
PubMed  |  

Black, R.E., 2001. Micronutrients in pregnancy. Br. J. Nutr., 85: S193-S197.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Bo, S., M. Durazzo, R. Gambino, C. Berutti and N. Milanesio et al., 2008. Associations of dietary and serum copper with inflammation, oxidative stress and metabolic variables in adults. J. Nutr., 138: 305-310.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Dacie, J.V. and S.M. Lewis, 1994. Practical Haematology. 8th Edn., Churchill Livingstone, Edinburg, pp: 49-59.

Ebbs, J.H., F.F. Tisdall and W.A. Scott, 1984. The influence of prenatal nutrition on mother and child. J. Nutr., 22: 515-526.

Fawzi, W.W., G.I. Msamanga, W. Urassa, E. Hertzmark, P.M. Petraro, W.C. Willett and D. Spiegelman, 2007. Vitamins and perinatal outcomes among HIV-negative women in Tanzania. New Eng. J. Med., 356: 1423-1431.
Direct Link  |  

Fischer Walker, C.L. and R.E. Black, 2007. Micronutrients and diarrheal disease. Clin. Infect. Dis., 45: S73-S77.
PubMed  |  

Fox, P.L., B. Mazumder, E. Ehrenwald and C.K. Mukhopadhyay, 2000. Ceruloplasmin and cardiovascular disease. Free Radic Biol. Med., 28: 1735-1744.
CrossRef  |  

Gibson, R.S. and J.M. Huddle, 1998. Suboptimal zinc status in pregnant Malawian women: Its association with low intakes of poorly available zinc, frequent reproductive cycling and malaria. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 67: 702-709.
Direct Link  |  

Goel, R. and P.K. Misra, 1982. Study of plasma zinc in neonates and their mothers. In. Paediatr., 19: 611-614.
PubMed  |  

Hill, P.G., 1985. The measurement of albumin in serum and plasma. Ann. Clin. Biochem., 22: 565-578.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Hussain, F., M. Arif-Maan, M.A. Sheikh, H. Nawaz and A. Jamil, 2009. Trace elements status in type 2 diabetes. Bangladesh J. Med. Sci., 8: 52-56.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Jones, A.A., R.A. Disilvestro and M. Oleman, 1997. Copper supplementation of adult men: Effect on blood copper enzyme activity and indicators of cardiovascular disease risk. Metabolism, 46: 1380-1383.
Direct Link  |  

Kirksey, A., T.D. Wachs and F. Yunis, 1994. Relation of maternal zinc nutriture to pregnancy outcomes and infant development in an Egyptian village. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 60: 782-792.
Direct Link  |  

Leone, N., D. Courbon, P. Ducimetiere and M. Zureik, 2006. Zinc, copper and magnesium and risks for all-cause, cancer and cardiovascular mortality. Epidemiology, 17: 308-314.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Malek, F., E. Jiresova, A. Dohnalova, H. Koprivova and R. Spacek, 2006. Serum copper as a marker of inflammation in prediction of short term outcome in high risk patients with chronic heart failure. Int. J. Cardiol., 113: E51-E53.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Martin-Lagos, F., M. Navorro-Alarcon, C. Terres-Martos, H. Lopez-Garcia de la Serrana, V. Perez and M.C. Lopez-Martinez, 1998. Zinc and copper concentrations in serum from Spanish women during pregnancy. Biol. Trace Elem. Res., 61: 61-70.
CrossRef  |  

Meram, I., A.I. Bozkurt, S. Ahi and S. Ozgur, 2003. Plasma copper and zinc levels in pregnant women in Gaziantep, Turkey. Saudi Med. J., 24: 1121-1125.
PubMed  |  

O'Connel, B.S., 2001. Selected vitamins and minerals in the management of diabetes. Diabetes Spectrum, 14: 133-148.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Okonofua, F.E., A. Isinkaye, U. Onwudiegwu, F.A. Amole, W.A. Emofurieta and N.C. Ugwu, 1990. Plasma zinc and copper in pregnant Nigerian women at term and their newborn babies. Int. J. Gynaecol. Obstet., 32: 243-245.
CrossRef  |  

Pathak, P. and U. Kapil, 2004. Role of trace elements zinc, copper and magnesium during pregnancy and its outcome. Indian J. Paediatr., 71: 1003-1005.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  

Perveen, S., W. Altaf, N. Vohra, M.L. Bautista, R.G. Harper and R.A. Wapnir, 2002. Effect of gestational age on cord blood plasma copper, zinc, magnesium and albumin. Early Human Dev., 69: 15-23.
PubMed  |  

Raman, L. and J. Leela, 1992. Role of maternal nutrition. Natl. Inst. Nutr., 93: 47-50.

Robets, W.L., G.A. McMillin, C.A. Burtis and D.E. Bruns, 2006. Reference Information for Clinical Laboratory. In: Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis, Burtis, C.A., E.R. Ashwood and D.E. Bruns (Eds.). Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis Missouri, India, pp: 2251-2302.

Rock, E., A. Mazur, J.M. O'Connor, M.P. Bonham, Y. Rayssiguier and J.J. Strain, 2000. The effect of copper supplementation on red blood cell oxidizability and plasma antioxidants in middle-aged healthy volunteers. Free Radic Biol. Med., 28: 324-329.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  

Sazawal, S., R.E. Black, M. Ramsan, H.M. Chwaya and A. Dutta et al., 2007. Effect of zinc supplementation on mortality in children aged 1-48 months: A community-based randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet, 369: 927-934.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Turley, E., A. McKeown, M. Chopra, L.J. Harvey and M.P. Bonham, 2000. Copper supplementation in humans does not affect the susceptibility of low density lipoprotein to in vitro induced oxidation (FOODCUE project). Free Radic. Biol. Med., 29: 1129-1134.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  

Upadhyaya, C., S. Mishra, P. Ajmera and P. Sharma, 2004. Serum iron, copper and zinc status in maternal and cord blood. Int. J. Clin. Biochem., 19: 48-52.
CrossRef  |  

WHO, 1992. The Prevalence of Anaemia in Women: A Tabulation of Available Information. World Health Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland.

WHO, 1996. Zinc. World Health Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland, pp: 72-104.

©  2019 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved
Fulltext PDF References Abstract