Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article

Manganese Deficiency in Bovines: Connection Between Manganese Metalloenzyme Dependent in Gestation and Congenital Defects in Newborn Calves

Paulo Reis de Carvalho, Maria Carolina Goncalves Pita, Jose Eduardo Loureiro, Helena Reiko Tanaka and Jose Carlos Soares Ribeiro
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail

In order to determine the relationship between diet low in mineral manganese and birth of calves with bone and joint abnormalities of all complexion in the skeleton develop congenital ataxia offspring, study was conducted in nine regions of the center western of São Paulo State. Were determined the mineral composition of forage plants used for beef cattle in nine regions between the years 1984-1992 and clinical observations of animals were carried out to date in the of year 2009. The forage Brachiaria decumbens used in cutting farm was studied during the four seasons of the year writing the collection of sampling the twelve months of the year. We used a completely randomized design with three replicates per season and each of the nine municipalities studied, resulting in the total sample of 108 samples of forage grasses to evaluate the behavior of the macrominerals: Ca, P and Mg and trace elements Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Co from the analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and P by molecular absorption of forage available for grazing cattle during the seasons spring, summer, autumn and winter. Still, we sampled animal tissue (liver) and soil to determine the mineral profile. The variation in averages were: Macro 0.36 g to 0.40 g% Ca, 0.05 g to 0.10 g% P, 0.14 g to 0.20 g% Mg. Microminerals: 30 ppm to 40 ppm Zn, 3 ppm to 8 ppm Cu, 0.06 ppm to 0.09 ppm Co and 40 ppm to 80 ppm Mn. Adjusting the requirements supplementation, through dry matter, all small macro: Ca, P and Mg and trace elements Cu, Co and Zn must also be supplemented second animal growth, reproduction and lactation. Trace minerals concentration in liver varied: 152.38 ppm Cu, 219.67 ppm Zn, 6.36 ppm Mn, 260.18 ppm Fe and 0.132 ppm Co. The results found here suggested that the matrix of epiphiseal growth plate cartilage was affected during embryogenesis by manganese deficiency in the diet of the animals causing reproductive malformation and birth of calves with congenital defects in the skeletal tissues manly and articulate.

Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

Paulo Reis de Carvalho, Maria Carolina Goncalves Pita, Jose Eduardo Loureiro, Helena Reiko Tanaka and Jose Carlos Soares Ribeiro, 2010. Manganese Deficiency in Bovines: Connection Between Manganese Metalloenzyme Dependent in Gestation and Congenital Defects in Newborn Calves. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 9: 488-503.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2010.488.503


1:  Alfaro, E., M.W. Neathery, W.J. Miller, C.T. Crowe and R.P. Gentry et al., 1988. Influence of a wide range of calcium intakes on tissue distribution of macroelements and microelements in dairy calves. J. Dairy Sci., 71: 1295-1300.
PubMed  |  

2:  Anonymous, 1969. Zinc in relation to DNA and RNA synthesis in regenerating rat liver. Nutr. Rev., 27: 211-211.

3:  AOAC, 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, pp: 1117.

4:  Asling, C.W. and L.S. Hurley, 1963. The influence of trace elements on the skeleton. Clin. Orthop. Relat Res., 27: 213-264.
PubMed  |  

5:  Baly, D.L., C.L. Keen and L.S. Hurley, 1985. Pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity in developing rats: Effect of manganese deficiency. J. Nutr., 115: 872-879.

6:  Baly, D.L., D.L. Curry, C.L. Keen and L.S. Hurley, 1985. Dynamics of insulin and glucagon release in rats: Influence of dietary manganese. Endocrinology, 116: 1734-1740.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

7:  Baly, D.L., I.H. Lee and R. Dosra, 1988. Mechanism of decreased insulinogenesis in manganese-deficient rats: Decreased insulin mRNA levels. FEBS Lett., 239: 55-58.
CrossRef  |  

8:  Bell, L.T. and L.S. Hurley, 1973. Ultrastructural effects of manganese deficiency in liver, heart, kidney and pancreas of mice. Lab. Invest., 29: 732-736.
PubMed  |  

9:  Bentley, O.G. and P.H. Phillips, 1951. The effect of low manganese rations upon dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci., 34: 396-403.

10:  Bruni, C. and D.M. Hegsted, 1970. Effects of choline-deficient diets on the rat hepatocyte. Electron microscopic observations. Am. J. Pathol., 61: 413-436.
Direct Link  |  

11:  Burch, R.E., H.K.J. Hahn and J.F. Sullivan, 1975. Newer aspects of the roles of Zinc, Manganese and Copper in human nutrition. Clin. Chem., 21: 501-520.
Direct Link  |  

12:  Cave, J.G., P.J. McLaren, S.J. Whittaker, L. Rast, A. Stephens and E.M. Parker, 2008. An extended outbreak of congenital chondrodysplasia in calves in South East Australia. Aust. Vet. J., 86: 130-135.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

13:  Conrad, J.H., L.R. MacDowell, G.L. Ellis and J.K. Loosli, 1985. Minerais Para Ruminantes em Pastejo em Regioes Tropicais. Embrapa-CNPGC, Campo Grande, pp: 90.

14:  Davis, C.D., D.M. Ney and J.L. Greger, 1990. Manganese, iron and lipid interactions in rats. J. Nutr., 120: 507-513.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

15:  De Rosa G., C.L. Keen, R.M. Leach and L.S. Hurley, 1980. Regulation of superoxide dismutase activity by dietary manganese. J. Nutr., 110: 795-804.

16:  DiCostanzo, A., J.C. Meiske, S.D. Plegge, D.L. Haggard and K.M. Chaloner, 1986. Influence of manganese copper and zinc on reproductive performance of beef cows. Nutr. Rep. Int., 34: 287-293.

17:  Doisey Jr., E.A., 1974. Effects of Deficiency of Manganese Upon Plasma Levels of Clotting Proteins and Cholesterol in Man. In: Trace Element Metabolism in Man and Animals, Hoekstra, J.W., J.W. Suttie, H.E. Ganther and W. Mertz (Eds.). University Park Press, Baltimore, Maryland.

18:  Dyer, I.A., W.A. Cassatt Jr. and R.R. Rao, 1964. Manganese deficiency in the etiology of deformed calves. Bioscience, 14: 31-32.
Direct Link  |  

19:  Dyer, I.A. and M.A. Rojas, 1965. Manganese requirements and functions in cattle. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 147: 1393-1396.
PubMed  |  

20:  Everson, G.J. and R.E. Shrader, 1968. Abnormal glucose tolerance in manganese deficient guinea pigs. J. Nutr., 94: 89-94.

21:  Erway, L.C., L.S. Hurley and A.S. Fraser, 1966. Neurological defect: Manganese in phenocopy and prevention of a genetic abnormality of the inner ear. Science, 152: 1766-1768.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

22:  Erway, L.C., L.S. Hurley and A.S. Fraser, 1970. Congenital ataxia and otolith defects due to manganese deficiency in mice. J. Nutr., 100: 643-654.

23:  Erway, L.C., A.S. Fraser and L.S. Hurley, 1971. Prevention of congenital otolith defect in pallid mutant mice by manganese supplementation. Genetics, 67: 97-108.
Direct Link  |  

24:  Grace, N.D., 1983. The Mineral Requirements of Grazing Ruminants. NZ Soc. Anim. Prod., Occas. Publ. 9. Palmerston North, New Zealand.

25:  Groenewald, J.W., 1960. Notes on trace element requeriments according to a rapid survey of the Union. J. S. Afr. Med. Ass., 31: 55-59.

26:  Groppel, B. and M. Anke, 1971. Manganese deficiency in ruminants. Arch. Exp. Veterinarmed., 25: 779-785.

27:  Hansen, S.L., J.W. Spears, K.E. Lloyd and C.S. Whisnant, 2006. Feeding a low manganese diet to heifers during gestation impairs fetal growth and development. J. Dairy Sci., 89: 4305-4311.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

28:  Hawkins Jr., G.E., G.H. Wise, G. Matrone and R.K. Waugh, 1955. Manganese in the nutrition of young dairy cattle fed different levels of calcium and phosphorus. J. Dairy Sci., 38: 536-547.

29:  Hidiroglou, M., 1975. Mn uptake by the ovaries and reproductive tract of cycling and anestrous ewes. Can. J. Phys. Pharm., 53: 969-972.

30:  Hidiroglou, M., 1979. Manganese in ruminant nutrition. Can. J. Anim. Sci., 59: 217-236.
CrossRef  |  

31:  Hidiroglou, M., M. Ivan, M.K. Bryan, C.S. Ribble, E.D. Janzen, J.G. Proulx and J.I. Elliot, 1990. Assessment of the role of manganese in congenital joint laxity and dwarfism in calves. Ann. Rech. Vet., 21: 281-284.
PubMed  |  

32:  Hidiroglou, M., S.K. Ho and J.F. Standish, 1978. Effects of dietary manganese levels on reproductive performance of ewes and on tissue mineral composition of ewes and day-old lambs. Can. J. An. Sci., 58: 35-41.

33:  Howes, A.D. and I.A. Dyer, 1971. Diet and supplemental mineral effects on manganese metabolism in newborn calves. J. Anim. Sci., 32: 141-145.
Direct Link  |  

34:  Howes, A.D., W.A. Holler and I.A. Dyer, 1969. Manganese determination in mammalian bone by neutron activation analysis. Life Sci., 8: 583-589.
PubMed  |  

35:  Howes, A.D., I.A. Dyer and W.A. Holler, 1973. Metabolism manganese and sparteine sulfate effects on mineral. J. Anim. Sci., 37: 455-458.
Direct Link  |  

36:  Huan-Chang, C.T. and G.J. Everson, 1967. Effect of manganese deficiency on the acid mucopoly-saccharides in cartilage of guinea pigs. J. Nutr., 91: 447-452.

37:  Hurley, L.S., 1976. Interaction of genes and metals in development. Fed. Proc., 35: 2271-2275.
PubMed  |  

38:  Hurley, L.S., 1976. Trace elements and teratogenesis. Med. Clin. North. Am., 60: 771-778.
PubMed  |  

39:  Hurley, L.S. and G.J. Everson, 1963. Influence of timing of short term supplementation during gestation on congenital abnormalities of manganese-deficient rats. J. Nutr., 79: 23-27.

40:  Hurley, L.S., C.L. Keen and B. Lonnerdal, 1982. Trace elements and teratology: An interactional perspective. Basic Life Sci., 21: 189-199.
PubMed  |  

41:  Hurley, L. and C. Keen, 1987. Manganese. In: Trace Elements in Human and Animial Nutrition, Mertz, W. (Ed.). Academic Press, San Diego, CA., pp: 85-223.

42:  Hurley, L.S. and G.J. Everson, 1959. Delayed development of righting reflexes in offspring of manganese-deficient rats. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 102: 360-362.
PubMed  |  

43:  Hurley, L.S., 1967. Studies on nutritional factors in mammalian development. J. Nutr., 91: 27-38.
Direct Link  |  

44:  Hurley, L.S., 1968. Approaches to the study of nutrition in mammalian development. Fed. Proc., 27: 193-198.
PubMed  |  

45:  Hurley, L.S., 1969. Nutrients and genes: Interactions in development. Nutr. Rev., 27: 3-6.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

46:  Hurley, L.S., 1981. Teratogenic aspects of manganese, zinc and copper nutrition. Physiol. Rev., 61: 249-295.
Direct Link  |  

47:  Hurley, L.S., 1981. The roles of trace elements in foetal and neonatal development. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B294: 145-152.
Direct Link  |  

48:  Hurley, L.S., D.E. Woolley, F. Rosenthal and P.S. Timiras, 1963. Influence of manganese on susceptibility of rats to convulsions. Am. J. Physiol., 204: 493-496.
Direct Link  |  

49:  Hurley, L.S., E. Wooten, G.J. Everson and C.W. Asling, 1960. Anomalous development of ossification in the inner ear of offspring of manganese-deficient rats. J. Nutr., 71: 15-19.

50:  Hurley, L.S., G.J. Everson and J.F. Geiger, 1958. Manganese deficiency in rats. Congenital nature of ataxia. J. Nutr., 66: 309-319.

51:  Jenkins, K.J. and M. Hidiroglou, 1991. Tolerance of the preruminant calf for excess manganese or zinc in milk replacer. J. Dairy Sci., 74: 1047-1053.
CrossRef  |  

52:  Lassiter, J.W., W.J. Miller, F.M. Pate and R.P. Gentry, 1972. Effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus on 54Mn metabolism following a single tracer intraperitoneal and oral doses in rats. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 139: 345-348.

53:  Leach Jr., R.M., 1967. Role of manganese in the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides. Fed. Proc., 26: 118-120.
PubMed  |  

54:  Leach Jr., R.M., 1968. Effect of manganese upon the epiphyseal growth plate in the young chick. Poult. Sci., 47: 828-830.
PubMed  |  

55:  Leach Jr., R.M., 1969. Perosis in chickens. Clin. Orthop., 62: 48-53.
Direct Link  |  

56:  Leach Jr., R.M., 1971. Role of manganese in mucopolysaccharide metabolism. Fed. Proc., 30: 991-994.
PubMed  |  

57:  Leach Jr., R.M. and C.V. Gay, 1987. Role of epiphyseal cartilage in endochondral bone formation. J. Nutr., 117: 784-790.

58:  Leach Jr., R.M., A.M. Muenster and E.M. Wien, 1969. Studies on the role of manganese in bone formation. II. Effect upon chondroitin sulfate synthesis in chick epiphyseal cartilage. Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 133: 22-28.
CrossRef  |  

59:  Leach Jr., R.M. and A.M. Muenster, 1962. Studies on the role of manganese in bone formation. I. Effect upon the mucopolysaccharide content of chick bone. J. Nutr., 78: 51-56.
PubMed  |  

60:  Leach Jr., R.M. and M.C. Nesheim, 1972. Further studies on tibial dyschondroplasia (cartilage abnormality) in young chicks. J. Nutr., 102: 1673-1680.

61:  Leach Jr., R.M. and M.S. Lilburn, 1978. Manganese metabolism and its function. World Rev. Nutr. Diet., 32: 123-134.
PubMed  |  

62:  Leach Jr., R.M. and E.D. Harris, 1997. Manganese. In: Handbook of Nutritionally Essential Mineral Elements, O'Dell, B.L. and R.A. Sunde (Eds.). Marcel Dekker, New York, pp: 335-356.

63:  Leipold, H.W., K. Huston and S.M. Dennis, 1983. Bovine congenital defects. Adv. Vet. Sci. Comp. Med., 27: 197-271.
PubMed  |  

64:  Luck, G. and C. Zimmer, 1972. Conformational aspects and reactivity of DNA. Effects of manganese and magnesium ions on interaction with DNA. Eur. J. Biochem., 29: 528-536.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

65:  McDowell, L.R. and J.H. Conrad, 1977. Trace mineral nutrition in Latin America. World Anim. Rev., 24: 24-33.

66:  McDowell, L.R., 1985. Nutrition of Grazing Ruminantsin Warm Climates. Academic Press, New York, pp: 443.

67:  McDowell, L.R., 1992. Minerals in Animal and Human Nutrition. Academic Press, New York pp: 370.

68:  McDowell, L.R., 1996. Feeding minerals to cattle on pasture. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 60: 247-271.
CrossRef  |  

69:  Minson, D.J., 1990. Forages in Ruminant Nutrition. Academic Press, New York pp: 483.

70:  National Research Council, 1966. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. No. 3, Washington, DG.

71:  NRC., 1980. Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC., USA., Pages: 557.

72:  NRC, 1984. Subcommittee of Beef Cattle Nutrition: Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle. 6th Edn., Academy Press, Washington, DC., pp: 90.

73:  National Research Council, 1996. Subcommittee on Beef Cattle Nutrition: Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle. 7th Revised Edn., National Academy Press, Washington, DC., USA., pp: 248.

74:  Orent, E.R. and E.V. McCollum, 1931. Effect of deprivation of manganese in the rat. J. Biol. Chem., 92: 651-678.

75:  Petukhova, E.A., 1971. Prevention of manganese deficiency in dairy cows. Veterinariia, 11: 73-74.

76:  Rojas, M.A., I.A. Dyer and W.A. Cassatt, 1965. Manganese deficiency in the bovine. J. Anim. Sci., 24: 664-667.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

77:  SAS Institute, 1994. SAS-STAT, User's Guide: Statistical Version. SAS Institute, Cary, NC., USA.

78:  Sever, L.E. and I. Emanuel, 1973. Is there a connection between maternal zinc deficiency and congenital malformations of the central nervous system in man. Teratology, 1: 117-117.
PubMed  |  

79:  Scrutton, M.C., M.F. Utter and A.S. Mildvan, 1966. Pyruvate carboxylase. VI. The presence of tightly bound manganese. J. Biol. Chem., 241: 3480-3487.
PubMed  |  

80:  Shils, M.E. and E.V. McCollum, 1943. Further studies on the symptoms of manganese deficiency in the rat and mouse. J. Nutr., 16: 1-19.

81:  Shrader, R.E. and G.J. Everson, 1967. Anomalous development of otoliths associated with postural defects in manganese-deficient guineapigs. J. Nutr., 91: 453-460.

82:  Shrader, R.E, L.C. Erway and L.S. Hurley, 1973. Mucopolysaccharide synthesis in the developing inner ear of manganese-deficient and pallid mutant mice. Teratology, 8: 257-266.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

83:  Song, M.K. and J.A. Hunt, 1988. Specific role of manganese and magnesium on RNA synthesis in rabbit bone marrow erythroid cell nuclei. Biol. Trace Elements Res., 16: 203-219.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

84:  Stock, R.H. and J.D. Latshaw, 1981. The effects of manganese, biotin and choline on hexosamine and hydroxyproline content as related to leg weakness. Poult. Sci., 60: 1012-1016.
PubMed  |  

85:  Underwood, E.J., 1966. The Mineral Nutrition of Livestock. Central Press, Aberdeen, pp: 237.

86:  Underwood, E.J., 1969. Los Minerals en la Alimentacion del Ganado. Zaragoza, Acribia, pp: 320.

87:  Underwood, E.J., 1976. Mineral imbalances in farm animals and their study and diagnosis with isotopic tracers. At. Energy Rev., 14: 591-619.

88:  Underwood, E.J., 1977. Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition. 4th Edn., Academic Press, New York, USA., ISBN: 0127090657, Pages: 545.

89:  Underwood, E.J., 1981. Sources of Minerals. In: The Mineral Nutrition of Livestock, Underwood, E.J. (Ed.). 2nd Edn., CABI, Farnhan Royal.

90:  Underwood, E.J., 1981. The Mineral Nutrition of Livestock. Academic Press, London, pp: 111.

91:  Underwood, E.J., 1983. Los Minerales on la Nutricion Del Ganado. Acribia, Zaragoza, pp: 210.

92:  Underwood, E.J. and W. Mertz, 1987. Introduction in Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition. In: Trace Elements in Human and Animal Nutrition, Mertz, W. (Ed.). 5 Edn., Academic Press, San Diego, pp: 1-19.

93:  Bruwaene, V.R., G.B. Gerber, R. Kirchmann, J. Colard and J.V. Kerkorn, 1984. Metabolism of Cr, Mn, Fe and Co in lactating dairy cows. Health Phys., 46: 1069-1082.

94:  Weiss, W.P. and M.T. Socha, 2005. Dietary manganese for dry and lactating holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci., 88: 2517-2523.
CrossRef  |  

95:  Wiberg, J.S. and W.F. Neuman, 1957. The binding of bivalent metals by deoxyribonucleic and ribonucleic acids. Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 72: 66-83.

©  2020 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved