Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article

Effect of Sulfur Supplementation on in vitro Fermentability and Degradability of Ammoniated Rice Straw

Mardiati Zain, N. Jamarun and Nurhaita
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail

In vitro studies were conducted to determine effect of supplementation various amount of sulfur (Ammonium sulphate) on fermentability and degradability of ammoniated rice straw. The in vitro experiment was carried out following the first stage of Tilley and Terry method. The treatments consisting of four levels of sulfur, were A = ammoniated Rice Straw (RS) (control), B = A + 0.15% Sulfur (S) supplement, C = A + 0.3% Sulfur supplement and D = A + 0.45% sulfur supplement on dry matter. Completely randomized design was used as the experimental design and differences among treatment means were examined using Duncan multiple range test. Variables measured were Ammonia (NH3) and Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA) concentrations, as fermentability indicators, as well as degradability indicators including degradability of Dry Matter (DM), Organic Matter (OM), Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF), Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF) and cellulose. The results indicated that fermentability and degradability of diets consisting ammoniated RS with Sulfur supplementation were significantly higher than the control diet (p<0.05). It is concluded that sulfur supplementation is important to improve fermentability and degradability of rations containing ammoniated RS. The best level of sulfur supplementation is obtained at 0.3% on dry matter.

Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

Mardiati Zain, N. Jamarun and Nurhaita , 2010. Effect of Sulfur Supplementation on in vitro Fermentability and Degradability of Ammoniated Rice Straw. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 9: 413-415.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2010.413.415



1:  AOAC., 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA., USA

2:  Akin, D.E., G.L.R. Gordon and J.P. Hogan, 1983. Rumen bacterial and fungal degradation of Digitaria pentzii grown with or without sulfur. Applied Environ. Microbiol., 46: 738-748.
Direct Link  |  

3:  Akin, D.E. and R. Benner, 1988. Degradation of polysaccharides and lignin by ruminal bacteria and fungi. Applied Environ. Microbiol., 54: 1117-1123.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

4:  Bach, A., S. Calsamiglia and M.D. Stern, 2005. Nitrogen metabolism in the rumen. J. Dairy Sci., 88: E9-E21.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

5:  Bal, M.A. and D. Ozturk, 2006. Effects of sulfur containing supplements on ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis. Res. J. Anim. Vet. Sci., 1: 33-36.
Direct Link  |  

6:  Harrison, D.G. and A.B. McAllan, 1980. Factors Affecting Microbial Growth Yields in the Reticulorumen. In: Digestive Physiology and Metabolism in Ruminant, Ruckebusch, Y. and P. Thievend (Eds.). MTP Press Ltd., Lancaster, pp: 205-226
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

7:  Hegarty, R.S., J.V. Nolan and R.A. Leng, 1991. Sulfur availability and microbial fermentation in the fauna- free rumen. Arch Tierernahr, 41: 725-736.
PubMed  |  

8:  Kandylis, K., 1984. The role of sulphur in ruminant nutrition. A review le role du soufre dans la nutrition des ruminants: Revue bibliographiquedie bedeutung des schwefels in der wiederkauerernahrung. Eine litereturubersicht Livest. Prod. Sci., 11: 611-624.
CrossRef  |  

9:  Karsli, M.A. and J.R. Russell, 2001. Effects of some dietary factors on ruminal microbial protein synthesis. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 25: 681-686.
Direct Link  |  

10:  Komizarczuk, S. and M. Durand, 1991. Effect of Mineral on Microbial Metabolism. In: Rumen Microbial Metabolism and Ruminant Digestion, Jouany, J.P. (Eds.). INRA Publication, Versailes, France

11:  Little, D.A., 1986. The Mineral Content of Ruminant Feed and the Potential for Mineral Supplementation. In: South-East Asia with Particular Reference to Indonesia, Dixon, R.M. (Ed.). IDP, Canberra, Australia

12:  Qi, K., C.D. Lu and F.N. Owen, 1992. Sulphate supplementation of Alpine goats. Effect on milk yield and composition, metabolites, nutrient digestibilities and acids base balance. J. Anim. Sci., 70: 3541-3550.
Direct Link  |  

13:  Slyter, L.L., W. Chalupa, R.R. Oltjen and J.M. Weaver, 1986. Sulfur influences on rumen microorganisms in vitro and in sheep and calves. J. Anim. Sci., 63: 1949-1959.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

14:  Steel, R.G.D. and J.H. Torrie, 1980. Principles and Procedure of Statistics. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., New York, USA

15:  Strorry, J.E. and D. Miller, 1965. The determination of steam-volatile fatty acids in rumen liquor,blood plasma and milk fat. J. Sci. Food Agric., 16: 417-420.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

16:  Tilley, J.M.A. and R.A. Terry, 1963. A two-stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. Grass Forage Sci., 18: 104-111.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

17:  Goering, H.K. and P.J. van Soest, 1970. Forage fiber analysis (apparatus, reagents, procedures and some applications). USDA Agricultural Handbook No. 379, Washington, DC., USA., pp: 1-20.

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved