In vitro studies were conducted to determine effect of supplementation various amount of sulfur (Ammonium sulphate) on fermentability and degradability of ammoniated rice straw. The in vitro experiment was carried out following the first stage of Tilley and Terry method. The treatments consisting of four levels of sulfur, were A = ammoniated Rice Straw (RS) (control), B = A + 0.15% Sulfur (S) supplement, C = A + 0.3% Sulfur supplement and D = A + 0.45% sulfur supplement on dry matter. Completely randomized design was used as the experimental design and differences among treatment means were examined using Duncan multiple range test. Variables measured were Ammonia (NH3) and Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA) concentrations, as fermentability indicators, as well as degradability indicators including degradability of Dry Matter (DM), Organic Matter (OM), Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF), Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF) and cellulose. The results indicated that fermentability and degradability of diets consisting ammoniated RS with Sulfur supplementation were significantly higher than the control diet (p<0.05). It is concluded that sulfur supplementation is important to improve fermentability and degradability of rations containing ammoniated RS. The best level of sulfur supplementation is obtained at 0.3% on dry matter.
PDF References Citation
How to cite this article
Mardiati Zain, N. Jamarun and Nurhaita, 2010. Effect of Sulfur Supplementation on in vitro Fermentability and Degradability of Ammoniated Rice Straw. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 9: 413-415.
- Akin, D.E., G.L.R. Gordon and J.P. Hogan, 1983. Rumen bacterial and fungal degradation of Digitaria pentzii grown with or without sulfur. Applied Environ. Microbiol., 46: 738-748.
- Akin, D.E. and R. Benner, 1988. Degradation of polysaccharides and lignin by ruminal bacteria and fungi. Applied Environ. Microbiol., 54: 1117-1123.
- Bach, A., S. Calsamiglia and M.D. Stern, 2005. Nitrogen metabolism in the rumen. J. Dairy Sci., 88: E9-E21.
- Bal, M.A. and D. Ozturk, 2006. Effects of sulfur containing supplements on ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis. Res. J. Anim. Vet. Sci., 1: 33-36.
- Harrison, D.G. and A.B. McAllan, 1980. Factors Affecting Microbial Growth Yields in the Reticulorumen. In: Digestive Physiology and Metabolism in Ruminant, Ruckebusch, Y. and P. Thievend (Eds.). MTP Press Ltd., Lancaster, pp: 205-226.
- Hegarty, R.S., J.V. Nolan and R.A. Leng, 1991. Sulfur availability and microbial fermentation in the fauna- free rumen. Arch Tierernahr, 41: 725-736.
- Kandylis, K., 1984. The role of sulphur in ruminant nutrition. A review le role du soufre dans la nutrition des ruminants: Revue bibliographiquedie bedeutung des schwefels in der wiederkauerernahrung. Eine litereturubersicht Livest. Prod. Sci., 11: 611-624.
- Karsli, M.A. and J.R. Russell, 2001. Effects of some dietary factors on ruminal microbial protein synthesis. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 25: 681-686.
- Qi, K., C.D. Lu and F.N. Owen, 1992. Sulphate supplementation of Alpine goats. Effect on milk yield and composition, metabolites, nutrient digestibilities and acids base balance. J. Anim. Sci., 70: 3541-3550.
- Slyter, L.L., W. Chalupa, R.R. Oltjen and J.M. Weaver, 1986. Sulfur influences on rumen microorganisms in vitro and in sheep and calves. J. Anim. Sci., 63: 1949-1959.
- Strorry, J.E. and D. Miller, 1965. The determination of steam-volatile fatty acids in rumen liquor,blood plasma and milk fat. J. Sci. Food Agric., 16: 417-420.
- Tilley, J.M.A. and R.A. Terry, 1963. A two-stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. Grass Forage Sci., 18: 104-111.