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Research Article

Milk Adulteration by Adding Water and Starch at Khartoum State

Ali Ahmad Hassabo Adam
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This research investigates the Adulteration of marketable fresh milk adulterated with water and starch at Khartoum state . Also the research shows the incidence of the adulteration to the consumers in addition to the economical loss which may happen during the processing. Three hundreds samples from Khartoum, Omdurman and Bahri were collected. All samples were chemically examined and analyzed to observe their quality. Then EKO milk device was used to find whether there was starch added to the milk or not on the other hand. Lactometer was used for testing the density of the samples . Further more an oven under (105)c was used to detect the total solids of the samples. The lish meddall equation was used for that analysis. The research concluded that the adulteration at Khartoum state is due to addition of water( 35.3%) rather than Starch. The research recommended to control the marketing of milk by regulation and rules which include the standards of the sold milk. Distribution, nominations of the producer and the distributors, good labs and Skilled technician in order to control the quality then to save consumer health and economy.

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  How to cite this article:

Ali Ahmad Hassabo Adam , 2009. Milk Adulteration by Adding Water and Starch at Khartoum State. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8: 439-440.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2009.439.440



Food and agricultural organization (FAO, 2006) reported that the fresh milk produced in the Sudan was 7.1 tones from local Breeds and most of the yield (95%) is produced by nomads and 5% in urban area while the producing cross bred cows about 500,000 head distributed in the towns and cities of the country and produce 95% milk yield produced in urban area of the total milk yield and this shows the potentiality of cross bred cows report, Khalid (2006).

The types of animals that Sudan are cows, sheep, goats and camels and they gave 74.3, 18-3, 6 and 1.5% of the total yield respectively.

The milk considered as a complete diet because it contains the major elements required for growth and production like Lactose, Fat, Protein, mineral and vitamins in balanced ratio rather than the other foods as mentioned by Fox (1992). Milk is necessary for children before and after weaning although humanization can be practiced where there is lack of fresh milk and the main components of milk are water, Ash, protein, at, lactose and whey protein and there are many factors but the type The specific gravity of cow milk varies from 1.028-1.034 under (15.5)c (Renner and Abd El Salam, 1991).

White the pH of the fresh milk is 6.6 and the boiling point is (100-17)c (Boume, 1982). The includes bacteria states like lactenine and other substances form the colon, also many milk diseases can transmitted through milk among them are brucellosis.

Tuberculosis E. collie salmonellas Q fever and Rift valley fever (Tarig, 2003). Any change in milk composition considered as adulteration especially its density or specific gravity.

The types of dairy animals that presented in Sudan are cows, sheep, goats and camels and they gave 74.2, 18-3, 6 and 1.5% of the total yield, respectively. The milk considered as a complete diet because it contains the major elements required for growth and production like lactose, Fat, protein, minerals and vitamins in balanced ratio rather than the other foods as mentioned by Fox (1992).


Detection of milk components as follows:

Total Solids, Fat and starch

The equipments used were Water Bath, Oven, Sensitive balance, Petri dishes, test tubes and Lactometer.

3 mls from any sample were weighed in test tube and put in water both for 15 min then to be poured on dish with a given weight then the samples put in side the oven under (195oC) for 3 h, then the samples weighed to find the total solid as follows:

Determination of fat (%): Milk fat to be determined according to lishmaddell equation.

Detection of starch: Equipment used were Test tubes and Distilater.

Chemicals iodine solution: Method 2 mL from the samples (milk) were taken with pipette and put into test tube then tow drops of the iodine solution were added to the sample.


The results confirms what mentioned by Khalid (2006) that the majority (95%) of cows located in Khartoum state are cross bred cows. Fat percentage 0% observed in the result (Table 3) seem to be lesser than the previous results, (Table 2) and this means either water was added to the milk or partially removal of milk fat is secretly done and it is very clear in the rural area, notice Table 2 and 3.

Table 1: Women milk compared with animal milk

Table 2: Chemical analysis of the milk samples collected form Jabel aulia locality (Cross bred cows)

Table 3: Chemical analysis of the milk samples collected form Sharg elneel

The moisture content of the cows milk is about 87% and that mean the total solid is about 13% and this is significantly different from what observed in the results.

The two tables of the results show that there is adulteration of milk by addition of water mainly at the peripheral districts of Khartoum state. Water was used without any consideration to its health whether contaminated or not and this may lead to stoma ices to the consumers also some seller used to sell their milk as cold milk by adding ice which may presser the milk for a long time, the average adulteration by water represents >95% of the total examined random samples.

The research concluded that the sellers adulterate water because its cheep rather than starch which may be expensive or difficult to be homogenized and obviously can be detected and discovered by the consumer.

The research recommended to organize all the steps of milk production of marketing especially the traditional sector in the urban and rural area.

1:  Boume, M.C., 1982. Food Texture and Viscosity, Concept and Meaturement. Academic Press Inc., New York, USA., pp: 11-19.

2:  Fox, P.F., 1992. Advanced Dairy Chemistry. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, London and New York, pp: 19.

3:  Renner, E. and M.H. Abd-El-Salam, 1991. Application of Ultrafiltration m the Dairy Industry. Eisevier Science Publishing Co. Inc., London, New York.

4:  Tarig, M., 2003. Milk Products and their Role in Human Feeding and Health. EL Bustan Press, Alexandria, Egpyt.

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