Evidence Based Antibacterial Potentials of Medicinal Plants and Herbs Countering Bacterial Pathogens Especially in the Era of Emerging Drug Resistance: An Integrated Update
Mohd. Yaqoob Wani,
Shoor Vir Singh
Owing to rising incidences of antimicrobial resistance against various chemotherapeutic
and antimicrobial agents, the treatment of bacterial infections requires special
consideration that may otherwise lead to grave prognosis. Simultaneously, evolution
of many a Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR) bacterial strains have further aggravated
the present situation. In this scenario, scrutinizing for some alternative yet
effective antibacterial therapeutics like herbs, nutritional immunomodulators,
bacteriophages, avian egge antibodies and others have become need of the day.
Herbs have been a valuable source of medication in virtually all cultures and
societies worldwide due to their important antimicrobial principles and phytoconstituents
and wider therapeutic potentials. As various extracts of herbs and medicinal
plants are being reported with antibacterial activities, much effort should
be made in their identification, studying biologically active ingredients, efficacy
and potency testing and scientific validation for their significant and practical
multi-beneficial uses. The present review elaborates the potential role and
applications of several herbs in treating bacterial infections and various types
of bacterial diseases for safeguarding health of humans and their companion
animals. It highlights the salient beneficial applications of traditional herbs
and novel phytomedicines, from ancient periods to modern usages. Due emphasis
has been given regarding scientific approaches to be followed and future perspectives
with a vision to counter the emerging antimicrobial resistance. The review will
certainly promote and popularize herbs as alternatives to conventional antimicrobials,
particularly in the event of emerging MDR bacterial infections. Global usages
of herbs as alternative and complementary medicines to various antimicrobials
would lead not only to safeguard health issues and obtain optimum production
from animals but will also ensure the public health issues including of food
safety concerns viz., antibiotic residual effects in animal products (milk,
meat) and zoonotic threats.
to cite this article:
Kuldeep Dhama, Ruchi Tiwari, Sandip Chakraborty, Mani Saminathan, Amit Kumar, K. Karthik, Mohd. Yaqoob Wani, Amarpal, Shoor Vir Singh and Anu Rahal, 2014. Evidence Based Antibacterial Potentials of Medicinal Plants and Herbs Countering Bacterial Pathogens Especially in the Era of Emerging Drug Resistance: An Integrated Update. International Journal of Pharmacology, 10: 1-43.
Received: January 19, 2014;
Accepted: February 26, 2014;
Published: May 13, 2014
Initiation and development of a bacterial infection in an animal requires a
three dimensional interaction between bacterial agents, environment and the
immune status of the animal (Rahal et al., 2014a).
A bacterial disease can be initiated only when pathogenic bacteria comes in
contact with a susceptible host in a disease favouring environment (Engering
et al., 2013; Kuehn and Kesty, 2005; Jelsbak
et al., 2012). The environment plays a crucial role in modulating
the virulence of the pathogens as well as reducing the host defence (Martinez
and Baquero, 2002; Rahal et al., 2014a) and
thus increases the susceptibility of the host towards various pathogens. A pathogenic
agent can enter the animal body via., various possible routes of exposure (Kumar
et al., 2011; Dhama et al., 2014;
Verma et al., 2014a) but the immune system of
host can certainly phagocytise the pathogen (e.g., by secreting chemical factors)
and thus checks the disease progress. Moreover, alterations in the microenvironment
such as abrasions, wound, malnutrition, pathophysiological conditions may further
facilitate the disease development (Madenspacher et
For development of a disease, immune status of the animals and human population
is an important issue. A susceptible host population can favour even a mild
pathogen to produce an epidemic form of disease while immunocompetent population
can resist even highly pathogenic microbial strains. The immune status of the
animals depends on a number of environmental variables for its fluctuations
(Rahal et al., 2014a). Animals with immunocompromised
lungs usually show higher incidences of pathophysiology due to leukotoxins and
lipopolysaccharide exposures (Panayotova-Pencheva and Alexandrov,
2010). Both these toxins act as chemotactic factors for inflammatory cells
and promote inflammation and severe damage in the lung tissues. In immature
animals, such outbreaks may take an acute form but with high mortality rates.
Both these mechanisms of initiation of inflammation as well as cellular damage
are pharmacologically well understood and can be counteracted with the use of
phytoconstituents of herbs and plants (Rahal et al.,
2009, 2014a, b).
Even today, due to high cost of effective antibiotics and the predicament of
antibiotic resistance microbial strains worldwide, about 60-85% of the population
of developing world relies either on herbal or on indigenous forms of Complementary
and Alternative Medicine (CAM) medicines for their various general health related
issues and countering several diseases/disorders (Kochnar,
1981; Okeke et al., 1999; Ernst,
2000; Archana et al., 2011; Umashanker
and Shruti, 2011; Mahima et al., 2012;
Tiwari et al., 2012, 2013a,
b; Yarney et al., 2013;
Midrarullah et al., 2014). Herbal plants have
been used as a source of valuable medication in virtually all cultures worldwide
due to presence of important antimicrobial principles, immunomodulatory activities,
maintenance of general health, precious therapeutic properties and healing potentials;
thus ensure prevention and cure for several diseases and disorders of humans
and animals (Baquar, 1995; Rios and
Receo, 2005; Mahima et al., 2012; Rahal
et al., 2014b). The healing properties of these medicinal plants
and herbs were well accepted by our ancestors and nowadays also being scientifically
proven as well (Sharma et al., 2014). Extracts
or phytoconstituents derived from various parts of medicinal plants for prevention
and cure of several diseases provide therapeutic modalities with broad spectrum
antimicrobial activities against various pathogenic microorganisms (Suck,
1989; Gilani and Atta-ur-Rahman, 2005; Khan
et al., 2006; Oyetayo and Oyetayo, 2006;
Sudhakar et al., 2006; Kumar
et al., 2013a; Vashney et al., 2012;
Bhatia et al., 2013a; Sharma
et al., 2014). In last few decades, there has been an upsurge in
demand and delivery of various herbal products for multifaceted health benefits.
In first world country like the United States, herbal remedies still continue
as dietary supplements. A variety of herbal therapies have stood the test of
time because of their efficacy and potency in the treatment of various bacterial
infections with a few having scientific evidences of significant usefulness
(Blumenthal et al., 1998; Bisset
and Wicht, 2001, Mahima et al., 2012; Tiwari
et al., 2012; Rahal et al., 2014b).
Currently, the focus on herbal therapy is not only in third world developing
countries but also in developed countries. The studies regarding their assessment
of risks and benefits, identifying pharmacologically active components/principles
and biological activities; scientific validation and revealing ethnomedical
values are going on worldwide with regards to thousands of herbs and their extracts,
preparations and products which altogether would play vital role in perpetuating,
propagating, popularizing and promoting the wider usages of drugs/medicines
based on herbs. Active research on various aspects of herbs is being carried
out in Nigeria, Rawanda, Maltese Islands, India, Cuba, Eastern part of African
subcontinent, China, European countries, middle east, mediterranean and other
countries (Odebiyi and Sofowora, 1978; Lanfranco,
1992; Vlietinck et al., 1995; Fabry
et al., 1998; Barrett et al., 1999;
Bhatt et al., 2002; Cano
and Volpato, 2004; Arora and Kaur, 2007; Basha
and Sudarshanam, 2011; Mizaei-Aghsaghali, 2012;
Mahima et al., 2012; Midrarullah
et al., 2014).
Improper diagnosis of any microbial infection leads to untargeted therapy and
injudicious use of allopathic drugs, giving way to the emergence of antimicrobial
drug resistant pathogens (Kumar et al., 2010;
Tiwari et al., 2013a). Thus, due to exhaustive
and indiscriminate use of antibacterials the phenomena of antibacterial therapy
failure or ineffectiveness has evolved many drug resistant pathogens. Amongst
these, multidrug resistant pathogenic microorganisms are the concealed enemies
to the mankind and animals (Tiwari et al., 2013a).
The development of antimicrobial resistance among the bacteria is an important
issue for treatment of infectious diseases in man as well as animals. Although,
there is progress in research and development of new and improved salts of antimicrobial
agents but the bacteria are developing resistances to these antibiotics at a
higher pace from it. Antibiotic sensitivity testing of the currently available
bacterial agents, isolated from different cases of infections, revealed resistant
strains even against multiple drugs (Okeke et al.,
1999; Levy, 2002; Alp, 2007;
Tiwari et al., 2013a).
Nowadays, various risks factors have been identified which interfere in maintaing
a sound health and predispose to several diseases and disorders/ailments, thus
increasing the sufferings of both humans and animanls. Some of thes comprise
of various stresses, immune pressures, environmental changes especially the
global warming effects; increasing population, changing life styles and food
habbits and biodiversity changes. Common health problems being flared up due
to these predisposing factors in humans are diabetes, blood pressure, heart
ailments, arthritis, organ failures, increased incidences of tumors/cancers,
immunodepression and obesity. Apart from these, both infectious and non-infectious
diseases/disorders are showing an ever increasing trend both in humans and their
companion animals alongwith threats of zoonotic pathogens and even pandemics
(Taylor et al., 2001; Jones
et al., 2008; Myers and Patz, 2009; Dhama
et al., 2013a, b; Tiwari
et al., 2013a; Dhama et al., 2014;
Verma et al., 2014a, b).
In the present scenario of increasing emergence of drug resistance on behalf
of continuously evolving resistant microbial pathogens; injudicious use of antimicrobials
especially the antibiotics, residual toxic effects of drugs in food and in lieu
of emerging and re-emerging pathogenic strains, many novel and safer therapeutic
modalities are being explored. These approaches include a combination of immunological,
biotechnological and molecular methods. Some of these comprise of bacteriophages,
enzybiotics, virophages, mycophage, apoptins, cytokines, monoclonal antibodies,
egg yolk antibodies, stem cells, si-RNA, nanomedicines, nutritional immunomdulation,
probiotics, antioxidants, panchgavya elements, phytonutrients, fruits and vegetables
and herbal remedies; which altogether could be of great help in curbing emerging
and evolving pathogenic threats and zoonotic concerns (Natesan
et al., 2006; Chah et al., 2006; Chakravarthi
and Balaji, 2010; Shirley et al., 2011;
Gokulakrishnan et al., 2012; Dhama
et al., 2008, 2013c, d,
e, f, 2014;
Amarpal et al., 2013; Mahima
et al., 2012, 2013a, b;
Tiwari et al., 2012, 2013b,
2014a, b, c;
Karthik et al., 2014; Rahal
et al., 2014b). Out of all these alternative and novel therapies,
traditional homeopathic and ayurvedic/herbal therapies are again gaining much
momentum and particularly the herbal therapy is attaining wide popularity and
speeding up with a good pace (Mahima et al., 2012;
Dhama et al., 2013b).
Medicinal plants and herbs, the ancient period magical chemotherapeutic drugs
and natural treasure to prevent or cure various diseases and ailments are very
interesting and play crucial role in safeguarding various health related issues
(Farnsworth et al., 1985; Ernst,
2000; Krishnan, 2006; Zampini
et al., 2009; Umashanker and Shruti, 2011;
Mizaei-Aghsaghali, 2012; Mahima
et al., 2012; Dhama et al., 2013c,
f; Kumar et al., 2013a;
Tiwari et al., 2012, 2013b,
2014d, e). Nowadays, herbal
remedies are also getting popularity in providing a viable and safer alternative
to prevent and treat cancers (Wargovich et al., 2001;
Agarwal et al., 2011; Mahima
et al., 2012; Tiwari et al., 2012;
Dhama et al., 2013f; Yarney
et al., 2013). Being a valuable treasure of natural medicines, these
are gaining much attention with their demand increasing day by day; owing to
having several advantages over other medicinal sytems including of allopathy.
These possess multi-dimensional health benefits and show high utility in alternative
and complementary medicinal systems as effective prophylactic and therapeutic
regimens. Herbs also help in maintenance and boosting of general health condition,
serve as general tonics and have wider practical applications at global level.
Though variations in morphology, phytoconstituents, active principles and genetic
make occur but altogether the wonder world of herbs forms a bunch of safer (show
lesser or no side effects), cheaper/cost-effective and easily available natures
medicines (Dhar et al., 2006; Kumar
et al., 2007; Mahima et al., 2012).
Such valuable therapeutic alternatives need to be explored fully, tested, standardized,
validated and finally be used optimally for the cause of mankind.
Many studies have been performed at various places to know the exact therapeutic
mechanisms and sensitivity patterns of herbal products against specific food-borne
pathogens and bacterial agent of various infections/ailments in different species
of animals (cattle, buffalo, goat, horse, camel, dog and avian species) (Rota
et al., 2004; Kumar et al., 2010,
2011, 2013a; Adetutu
et al., 2011; Mahima et al., 2012;
Vashney et al., 2012; Bhatia
et al., 2013a; Sharma et al., 2014).
Many developed as well as developing nations including India are rich source
of plants used for medicinal purposes (2500 species of plants found) and exponential
growth has been observed in the application of herbal medicines while treating
bacterial infection. In India, a long list of medicinal plants and herbs have
been reported to possess high utility against several diseases and disorders
including of cancers and tumours and act as potent antimicrobial agents. These
medicinal plants are available in the treasures of herbal medicines such as
Ashwagandha, Amla, Tulsi, Heeng, Arjuna, Aloe vera, Garlic, Turmeric, Ginger,
Giloy, Shatavari, Neem, Guduchi, Pipali, Kiwifruit, Tut, Kamala, Tea tree, Palashlata,
Kokilaksha etc., (Archana et al., 2011; Umashanker
and Shruti, 2011; Mizaei-Aghsaghali, 2012; Mahima
et al., 2012; Dhama et al., 2013f;
Kumar et al., 2013b, 2013c;
Yakout et al., 2013; Midrarullah
et al., 2014; Tiwari et al., 2012,
2013b, 2014d, e).
These are being used for human and animal health benefits since long back and
are reported to have a therapeutic role in curing superficial wounds and other
disease conditions due to bacteria (Faoagali et al.,
1997; Parekh and Chanda, 2007a, b;
Mahima et al., 2012; Tiwari
et al., 2013b; Rahal et al., 2014b).
Moreover, an array of herbal remedies is in constant use as folk medicines used
by the various tribal communities of India and other countries both orally and
topically against various bacterial agents including of multi-drug resistant
bacteria. Some of the best known examples of such plants/herbs are Calotropis
procera, Acacia nilotica, Cassia fistula, Tridax procumbens,
Hypericum japonicum, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Heliotropium indicum,
Argemone maxicana, Terminellia chebulla, Terminellia balarica,
Plumbago zeylanicia, Chlorophytum borivialum, Moringa olifera,
Acalypha indica, Hypericum papuanum, Hypericum perforatum,
Cissus quadrangularis, Ocimum gratissimum, Ocimum sanctum,
Ageratum conyzoides, Soncus asper and many others (Shafiqur
et al., 2007; Kumar et al., 2011;
Mahima et al., 2012; Vashney
et al., 2012; Bhatia et al., 2013a,
b; Upadhyay et al., 2013;
Sharma et al., 2014).
The traditional system of medicines is supposed to evolve around 60,000 years
ago, incorporating usage of plants and herbs for therapeutic purposes. However,
lacking of proper documentation has restricted the use of herbal healers in
the urban society even though their ethnobotanical prospection and ethnopharmacological
aspects are well proven (Rigat et al., 2009;
Chakraborty and Pal, 2012; Rahal
et al., 2014b). The emergence of drug resistance as well as modern
developments in therapeutic field have revived the use of traditional medicines
and the plant-based remedies as potential source of therapeutic aids in health
systems all over the world for both humans and animals (Macfoy
and Cline, 1990; Rios and Recio, 2005; Mahima
et al., 2012). Apart from treating infectious and systemic diseases,
topical botanical/herbal application is equally effective against specific conditions
of ear infections, wounds, burns and skin irritations. Topical applications
like pultis/bandages of herbs and various sprays have advantage of being easy
to apply; these gives soothing effects and immediate relief from superficial
infections, burns, skin irritations and wounds due to bacterial etiology (Bowler
et al., 2001; Tiwari et al., 2013b;
Arun et al., 2013). Interestingly, 65% of the
population of the world has incorporated methodology of medicinal agents involving
plants into their primary health care modality as per the World Health Organization
(WHO) and today, the plants/herbs constitute 25% of all the drugs prescribed
(Farnsworth et al., 1985; Raskin
and Ripoll, 2004; Mahima et al., 2012; Rahal
et al., 2014b). The use of herbal medicine has proved positive upshot,
being very encouraging and has a strong potential to be widely used in traditional
health care around the globe (Farnsworth and Bingel, 1977;
Newall et al., 1996; Ramalivhana
et al., 2010).
The present mansuscript is a very exhaustive and comprehensive compilation
well supported with evidence based updated information narrating the potential
role and useful applications of several medicinal plants and herbs in treating
and combating important bacterial pathogens and various types of bacterial diseases.
It systematically covers most of the salient beneficial antibacterial applications
of traditional herbs and novel phytomedicines, from ancient periods to modern
usages. A special focus has also been given to various important phytoconstituents
present in various herbs, their biological activities and pharmacological principles,
mechanism of actions along with useful antibacterial effects with classical
examples. Due emphasis has been made regarding current scientific approaches
and advancements along with future perspectives of herbal remedies with a vision
to counter the emerging problem of antimicrobial resistance by exploring rich
heritage of medicinal herbs found in nature. The review will certainly help
in promoting and popularizing medicinal plants and herbs as potent alternatives
to conventional antimicrobials, particularly in the event of emerging MDR bacterial
infections. It will be highly useful for researchers, biologists, pharamacists,
medical and veterinary professionals, drug and pharmaceutical industries, animal
sector (livestock and poultry industry), medicinal practioners and the common
man too. Global usages of herbs as alternative and complementary medicines to
various antimicrobials could also help obtain optimum production from animals
apart from protecting health of both animals and humans. It can also take care
of various public health concerns associated with food safety issues viz., antibiotic
residual effects in animal products (milk, meat) and zoonotic threats which
would altogether help in safeguarding health of humans and their companion animals
in a holistic way.
IMPORTANT BACTERIAL PATHOGENS AND EMERGING ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
Important bacterial diseases affecting animals and thereby affecting the socio-economic
status of any country include anthrax (Bacillus anthracis); haemorrhagic
septicaemia (Pasteurella multocida); Brucellosis (Brucella abortus,
B. mellitensis); tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis); Johnes
disease (Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis); listeriosis
(Listeria monocytogenes); leptospirosis (Leptospires); campylobacteriosis
(Campylobacter spp.); glanders (Burkholderia mallei); swine erysipelas
(Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae); actinomycosis (Actinomyces bovis);
actinobacillosis (Actinobacillus lignieresii), black quarter, mastitis
and others (Jones et al., 2008; Deb
et al., 2013; Dhama et al., 2013b,
2014; Singh et al., 2014;
Verma et al., 2014a, b).
Important bacterial diseases of poultry are bacillary white diarrhea (Salmonella
pullorum); fowl typhoid (Salmonella gallinarum); fowl cholera (Pasteurella
multocida); Escherichia coli infections; infectious coryza (Haemophillus
paragallinarum), tuberculosis (M. avium complex); chronic respiratory
disease (Mycoplasma gallisepticum); avian spirochaetosis (Borrelia
anserina) and psittacosis (Chlamydophilla psittaci) (Saif
et al., 2003; Kataria et al., 2005;
Kabir, 2010; Dhama et al.,
2011; 2013b, 2014). Important
infectious diseases affecting humans include tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis);
Plague (Yersinia pestis); campylobacteriosis; salmonellosis; E. coli
infections; mud fever (Leptospires); whooping cough (Bordetella partusis);
Ornithosis (Chlamydia psittaci); sore throat (Streptococcus sp.);
Staphylococcosis (Staphylococcus aureus), tetanus (Clostridium tetani)
and others. Apart from these, several zoonotic bacterial diseases pose significant
public health concerns viz., anthrax (Bacillus anthracis); plague (Yersinia
pestis); glanders (B. mallei); Lyme disease (Borellia burgdoferi);
tuberculosis (M. bovis); salmonellosis (Salmonella sp.); campylobacteriosis
(Campylobacter jejuni); colibacillosis (E. coli); leprospirosis
(Leptospires), listeriosis (Listeria monocytogenes), chlamydiosis/psittacosis
(Chlamydophila psittaci); Q fever (Coxiella burnetti); tularaemia
(Francisella tularensis) and botulism (Clostridium botulinum)
(King, 2004; Kahn et al.,
2007; Wolfe et al., 2007; Myers
and Patz, 2009; Cascio et al., 2011; Verma
et al., 2012, 2014a, b;
Dhama et al., 2013b, g,
h, i, j,
Interaction of bacterial pathogens and human or animal host is a continuous
process. A series of events including the interactions of virulence attributes
of bacterial pathogens and protective mechanism of host cellular system occur
before the onset of any infection or disease. Proper balance of both is thus
essentially required to keep host healthy and free from infections. Pathogenic
microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi) are the concealed enemies of animals
and mankind and can enter through various routes including air, water and food
and are well known for their zoonotic concerns (Dhama et
al., 2013g, 2014; Verma
et al., 2014a). Among these, bacterial agents are very prevalent
viz., Staphylococcus species (S. aureus, S. albus, S.
citras, S. intermedius), Streptococcus sp., Bacillus
coli, B. pyocyaneus, E. coli, Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas,
Klebsiella, Aeromonas, Proteus sp., multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter
and Proteus sp. and many others as narrated above (Miyasaki
et al., 2010; Pratheepa et al., 2010;
Tiwari et al., 2013a; Verma
et al., 2014a). Bacterial infections are typically caused by colonizing
normal flora under certain circumstances and also by antibiotic resistant bacteria
such as MRSA (Methicillin Resistant S. aureus), CA-MRSA (Community Acquired
Methicillin Resistant S. aureus), VREF (Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus
faecalis) and other drug resistance bacteria. Superficial infections are
primarily caused by aerobic micro-organism such as Staphylococcus, Streptococcus
(Flesh eating bacteria), Vibrio or Aeromonas species, Corynebacteria
sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pasteurella multocida, Erysipelothrix
species but deeper areas may also be infected with anaerobic pathogens such
as Bacteroides and Clostridium species. Bacterial skin infections
which are common in small animal and veterinary practice, most frequently involve
Staphylococcus intermedius apart from E. coli and Proteus sp.,
S. intermedius which is a normal resident in the nasal cavity, oropharynx
and the perianal region of animals. It can be a transient resident in other
sites especially during trauma and is probably transferred to these sites from
the oral and anal mucosa during grooming. P. multocida is another principal
microbial agent especially found in subcutaneous abscesses in cats. Many other
pathogens play crucial role in different disease initiations and applications
of herbal preparations not only help in preventing their ill effects but also
cure animals from many of such ailments (Mahima et al.,
2012; Tiwari et al., 2012; Mizaei-Aghsaghali,
2012; Midrarullah et al., 2014). Gram negative
bacteria are generally the secondary invaders which are controlled by therapy
effective against Staphylococcus. Pseudomonas is difficult to
eliminate and requires specific therapy (Yah et al.,
2004). Enteric or diarrheal infections are another quandary of major public
health concerns in developing countries adding to the death toll of many million
patients and other economic losses annually. Enteric bacteria mainly of Salmonella
sp., E. coli, Campylobacter sp., Shigella sp., Proteus
sp., Klebsiella sp., Arcobacter sp., L. monocytogenes,
Clostridium perfringens, Cl. botulinum, Yersinia enterocolitica,
Pseudomonas sp., S. pneumoniae, S. agalactiae, Mycoplasma
sp., Vibrio cholerae, Bacillus cereus and S. aureus
act as major etiological agents of sporadic as well as epidemic diarrhea (Rani
and Khullar, 2004; Akins, 2005; Anbumani
et al., 2006; Miyasaki et al., 2010;
Pratheepa et al., 2010; Dhama
et al., 2013g).
Due to emerging drug resistant bacterial strains, nowadays many bacterial diseases
do not resposnd to prescribed antibiotic treatments options and thus infectious
diseases caused by various bacterial pathogens are flaring up and becoming uncontrollable
(Tiwari et al., 2013a). The most common antibiotic-resistant
organisms include E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Klebsiella,
Proteus, Vibrio cholarae Campylobacter sp., Enterococci and
others. Of these, few pathogens have become Multidrug Resistant (MDR) in nature
viz., Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Vancomycin-Resistant
Enterococci (VRE) among Gram positive bacteria; Klebsiella pneumoniae
Carbapenemase (KPC), Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBLs) producing Gram-negative
bacteria; S. enteritica serovar Typhimurium DT 104 (ACSSuT-phenotype);
Imipenem-resistant or MDR organisms Acinetobacter baumannii, A. baylyi,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides sp.; Clindamycin-resistant Clostridium
difficile, Streptomycin-resistant Thermus thermophilus; E. coli
resistant to multiple fluoroquinolone; Mycobacterium tuberculosis revealing
resistance to isoniazid, rifampin (Levy and Marshall, 2004;
Tiwari et al., 2013a; WHO,
2013). MDR, Extremely drug-resistant (XDR) strains and/or Totally Drug Resistant
(TDR) strains include Staphylococcus aureus, tuberculosis bacterium and
Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus many antibiotics like penicillin, methicillin,
tetracycline, erythromycin, fluoroquinolone, kanamycin, chloramphenicol, cefatoxime,
isoniazid, rifampin etc., are not having much values in treating bacterial diseases
effectively as they were of high use in earlier times (Tiwari
et al., 2013a). Some specific drugs/antibiotics viz., DDT, diclofenac,
paracetamol, aspirin, analgin, furazolidone, piperazine, nitrofurazone, penicillin
as skin or eye ointments, tetracycline as liquid oral preparation of drug and
many other drug combinations have been banned in many countries. It is because
of their side effects, residual toxicity and related food safety concerns. Also,
the use of penicillin, sulphonamides and many other drugs has raised public
health and industrial issues. The resistant bacteria in animals can be transmitted
to humans via consumption of improper/undercooked contaminated meat, milk or
eggs, close or direct contact with animals or through the environment and thus
poses significant food safety concerns and public health issues. Altogether,
the ever emerging issue of antibiotic resistance has posed an alarming public
health threat worldwide and increased the global worries, for which purpose
solutions are being thought of including of finding alternative and complemenray
therapeutic modalities (Byarugaba, 2004; Levy
and Marshall, 2004; Zhang et al., 2006; Aminov,
2009; Yeh et al., 2009; Mahima
et al., 2012; Dhama et al., 2013c;
Tiwari et al., 2013a; WHO,
HERBAL REMEDIES TO COUNTER BACTERIAL INFECTIONS
The plant world is an immense store of pharmacologically active chemical compounds
which exist as secondary phytoconstituents. The beneficial medicinal effects
of plant materials typically result from the combinations of secondary products
present in the plant. The medicinal actions of plants are unique to particular
plant species or a related group (Archana et al.,
2011; Umashanker and Shruti, 2011; Mahima
et al., 2012; Midrarullah et al., 2014;
Rahal et al., 2014b). This concept is consistent
with the fact that the combinations of secondary products in a particular plant
are often taxonomically distinct. The secondary products can have a variety
of functions in plants at the cellular level as plant growth regulators, modulators
of gene expression, in signal transduction and also have protective actions
in relation to abiotic stresses (Rahal et al., 2014c).
So, it is likely that their ecological function may have some bearing on potential
medicinal effects for humans and animals as well. Since, ancient times, antimicrobial
activity of indigenous herbs and their essential oils have been exploited to
promote human and animal health (Shelef, 1983; Zaika,
1988; Beuchat and Golden, 1989; Juven
et al., 1994; Chang, 1995; Archana
et al., 2011; Sant'Ana, 2011; Mizaei-Aghsaghali,
2012; Midrarullah et al., 2014). For the
last one decade, many a medicinal plant extracts have been developed and proposed
for use in human and animal food as natural antimicrobials (Del
Campo et al., 2000; Hsieh, 2000; Hsieh
et al., 2001; Mahima et al., 2012;
Rahal et al., 2014b).
In the role of secondary products as defense chemicals, many phytoconstituents
remain as a mixture of chemicals having additive or synergistic effects at multiple
target sites. These phytoconstituents not only ensure effectiveness against
a wide range of pathogens but also decrease the chances of these micro-organisms
to develop resistance or immune evasion mechanisms (Rahal
et al., 2014c). Such non-nutrient phytochemicals today form an important
component of our routine feeding menu as vegetable or fruits and yet go unnoticed
(Mahima et al., 2013a, b;
Rahal et al., 2014b). With an increasing focus
on the health care management using natural products, these plants and their
constituents are increasingly being recognized as potential health promoters.
These have been found useful in reducing the risks of various infectious and
systemic diseases including of cardiovascular diseases, blood pressure problems,
atherosclerosis; ameliorating various streses and help maintain a sound health
(Mahima et al., 2012; Rahal
and Kumar, 2014).
Antibacterial mechanisms of medicinal plants and herbs: The antibacterial
activities of herbs are multi fold and depend upon the phytoconstituents, concentration
of phytoconstituents/phytochemicals and bioactive principles and their synergistic
as well as antagonistic actions (Archana et al.,
2011; Umashanker and Shruti, 2011; Mizaei-Aghsaghali,
2012; Mahima et al., 2012; Midrarullah
et al., 2014). These phtochemicals include flavonoids, steroids,
β-carotene, anthocyanins, anthraquinones, glycosides, coumarins, alkaloids,
saponins, tannins, phenolic acids alkaloids, gallic acid and others (Kwon
et al., 2000; Miyazaki et al., 2005;
Islam, 2008; Pochapski et al.,
2011; Sandhya et al., 2011; Mahima
et al., 2012; Bhatia et al., 2013b;
Kumar et al., 2013c; Sharma
et al., 2014). Various mechanisms of action and antibacterial abilities
of herbal remedies relies on their several beneficial properties viz., immunomodulatory
nature with enhancement of both humoral and cell mediated immunity as well ameliorating
stress and immunosuppression; cytokine regulation; anti-inflammatory, antioxidative
and inhibiting pathogens by a variety of pathways (Archana
et al., 2011; Mizaei-Aghsaghali, 2012;
Mahima et al., 2012; Midrarullah
et al., 2014; Rahal et al., 2014b).
Many herbs have anti-oxidative potential by counteracting free radicals or metaboloites
produced during various biochemical pathways (Barreto et
al., 2007; Morais et al., 2010; Rufino
et al., 2009, 2010; Rahal
et al., 2014c). A vast number of herbal plants show anti-inflammatory
action by selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2, 5-lipoxygenase, glutathione
S-transferase and thus inhibiting the prostaglandin biosynthesis. Several herbs
decreases the production of of inflammatory agents (histamine, bradykinin, serotonin),
enhance activity of cortisol and augments bllod circulation which help removing
bacterial toxins out of the body (Nahrstedt et al.,
2006; Rahal et al., 2014c). Certain plants
contain vitamin C and carotenoids which have been found to augment both humoral
and cell-mediated immune function, thereby reducing risk of infectious by enhancing
the antigenic surveillance of the immune system (Bendich,
1989; Henson et al., 1991; Ringer
et al., 1991; Mahima et al., 2012).
Immunomodulation of most of herbal extracts are governed by cytokine regulation
as well as anti-inflammatory properties (Wildfeuer and
Mayerhofer, 1994; Bhatia et al., 2013b;
Kumar et al., 2013c; Dhama
et al., 2013e; Sharma et al., 2014).
Certain plants facilitate proliferation of CD4+ T-helper and B type
immune cells. Others have been found beneficial in blocking bacterial adherence
to different body cells thus help preventing the infection; blocking NF-êB
pathway and the motogenic responses in infected cells; causing damage to cell
membrane with loss of electrolytes and intracellular contents leading to bacteria
death; downregulating the synthesis of LasA protease, LasB elastase and AHL
molecules which inhibits the bacterial pathogenesis phenomenon by quorum sensing
(Ruberto et al., 2000; Joe
et al., 2004; Lee et al., 2006; Choi,
2008; Akram et al., 2010; Kang
and Min, 2012; Yoo et al., 2012; Diao
et al., 2014). Steroidal alkaloids and steroidal lactones present
in herbs enhance engulfing activity of macrophages, increases the activity of
white blood cells and other immune cells which in turn enhances their antimicrobial
potentials (Gunning, 1999; Govindarajan
et al., 2005; Owais et al., 2005;
Tiwari et al., 2014d). All these factors decide
the ultimate effect on host and pathogens and remedial effects of various herbs.
Such mechanisms of actions, nature of phytoconstituents and potential antibacterial
role/applications of many well established herbs and medicinal plants have been
briefly enlisted in Table 1 and depicted in Fig.
Alternative/traditional medicines are becoming progressively more popular and
worth to overcome many multi-resistant organisms like as seen with potent efficacy
of herbal extracts against multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (Miyasaki
et al., 2010; Vashney et al., 2012;
Sharma et al., 2014). Such activities of plant
extracts are mainly observed due to the presence of saponin, tannins, alkaloids,
anthraquinone and cardiac glycosides; suggesting possible antimicrobial effects
with marked bacteriostatic but not bacteriocidal effect (Azu
et al., 2007; Sharma et al., 2014).
|Plants/herbs, common name, type of extract, pharmacological
active components and their antibacterial activity
Overview of the mechanism of actions
and potential antibacterial role/applications of herbs
Similarly, many plant and herb species have been analyzed for phytochemical
substances and their antibacterial activities (Mahima et
al., 2012; Tiwari et al., 2012, 2014d,
e). Berberine, a natural isoquinoline present in a
number of plants viz., Coptis chinensis, Berberis vulgaris,
Berberis lyseum and Hydrastis canadensis has been found to be active
against S. aureus in vitro with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC)
of 25.0 mg mL-1; which can be further potentiated by bioflavones.
This antibacterial effect appears to be due to inhibition of a Multidrug Resistance
(MDR) pump of S. aureus (Chi et al., 1991;
Gentry et al., 1998; Haq
et al., 1999; Stermitz et al., 2002).
Another well known medicinal herb, Artemisia annua has been employed
for assessing the presence of inhibitors of bacterial MDR resistance pumps.
Flavones (chrysoplenol-D and chrysoplenetin) from the plant possess weak growth
inhibitory action which can be enhanced along with berberine (Stermitz
et al., 2000). A petroleum ether extract of the aerial parts of Hypericum
perforatum (St. Johns wort) has been found to be active against Gram
positive bacteria especially MRSA. Hyperforin, a phloroglucin derivative, has
got an excellent antimicrobial activity with a MIC value of 1.0 μg mL-1
against MRSA hyperforin (Reichling et al., 2001).
Plants such as Aloe arborescens, A. striatula and Psidium guajava
possess significant antibacterial activities against strains of Salmonella,
Shigella, Escherichia, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas
and Enterococcus. This reflect credence of their use in ethnomedicine
against Multidrug Resistance (MDR) enteric pathogens; especially against S.
enterica serotype Typhi followed by S. enterica serotype Typhimurium
strains exhibiting Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBLs) (Parekh
and Chanda, 2007a; Bisi-Johnson et al., 2012).
Similarly, different herbal and plant preparations play vital role in the prevention
and cure of disease development mechanism (Mahima et
al., 2012). The role and useful applications of herbal constituents
against bacterial pathogens is multifaceted. The herbs may either influence
the pathogenicity of the pathogen, improve the immune status of the host or
may even modulate the micromilieu of the disease production site.
Herbs affecting virulence of bacterial pathogens: Thymol and carvacrol
(active ingredients that are present in thyme) produce their antibacterial action
by penetration into the Gram negative bacteria (Helander
et al., 1998). Juven et al. (1994)
postulated that the ingredients which are actively present in thyme bind to
the amine as well as hydroxylamine groups of the membrane protein of bacteria
resulting in lysis of bacterial cell. Examples of medicinal plants having activity
against E. coli include essential oils extracted from anise (Pimpinella
anisum), angelica (Angelica sinensis), basil (Ocimum basilicum),
carrot (Daucus carota); celery (Apium graveolens), cardamom (Elettaria
cardamomum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), dill weed (Anethum
graveolens), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), oregano (Origanum vulgare),
parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis);
as tested during in vitro studies (Elgayyar et
al., 2001; Mahady, 2005; Sharma
et al., 2014).
In Asia, plants like Cassia tora, Calendula officinalis as well
as Momordica charantia are well known for their wide range of antibacterial
activities. In India, they have been used as folk remedy as decoctions as well
as infusions. These herbs have been subjected to successive extraction using
various solvents in order to evaluate their antibacterial activity against both
Gram positive as well as Gram negative organisms (Bhatia
et al., 2013a; Upadhyay et al., 2013;
Sharma et al., 2014). S. aureus has shown
an increasing pattern of development of resistance against the common antibacterial
agents that are available at present (Upadhyay et al.,
2013). The aqueous extracts of the seeds of Cassia tora as well as
M. charantia and flowers of C. officinalis have been found to
possess better antibacterial activity against bacteria in comparison to the
petroleum ether/methanolic or ethanolic extracts (Christopher,
2005; Roopashree et al., 2008).
Herbs modulating the host factors: Any impairment in antioxidant defence
mechanism of the host facilitates the instigation and growth of the micro-organisms
(Nathan and Shiloh, 2000). The phagocytic killing, the
primary defence system of the host, indicates a microbicidal role of Reactive
Oxygen Species (ROS) and Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS) (Halliwell
and Gutteridge, 2007). These free radicals are produced from macrophages
and neutrophils to combat the invading microbes. However, reactive species can
also injure the host tissues (immunopathological changes) as well as observed
during chronic inflammationc leading to extensive tissue damage with a subsequent
burst in oxidative stress (Sorci and Faivre, 2009;
Rahal et al., 2014c). The multicomponent flavoprotein
NADPH oxidase which play vital role in inflammatory processes by catalyzing
the production of superoxide anion radical (O2¯) and ROS, leads
to cellular damage. This cellular damage in general leads to altered immune
response to microbes and ultimately altered susceptibility to bacterial, viral
and parasitic infections (Puertollano et al., 2011).
There are many herbs which have counter active metaboloites to act againest
free radicals directly or by modifying many biochemical pathways, indirectly.
Like certain photochemicals have been found to augment both humoral and cell-mediated
immune function. Vitamin C and carotenoids have beneficial effects on immune
function, thereby reducing risk of infectious by enhancing the antigenic surveillance
of the immune system (Bendich, 1989; Henson
et al., 1991; Ringer et al., 1991).
Steroidal alkaloids and steroidal lactones of Ashwagandha root, the Indian ginseng,
have been found to enhance engulfing power of macrophages and other immune cells
which in turn enhances the antimicrobial properties of this plant against organism
like Salmonella (Govindarajan et al., 2005;
Owais et al., 2005; Tiwari
et al., 2014d). Vaccinium macrocarpon (Cranberry) when taken
as a juice or administered as a concentrated tablet form helps interfere with
adherence of bacteria to the lining of bladder and thus can prevent the infection.
At a dose of 4-32 ounces a day of V. macrocarpon juice, prevention of
bacterial adherence has been reported (www.herbco.com).
Centella asiatica, a very important medicinal herb belonging to the family
Umbellifere (Apiceae) and commonly known as Mandukparni
or Indian pennywort or Jalbrahmi, has been used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine
system for several years; being listed in the historic Sushruta Samhita.
The herb is also known as miracle elixirs of life and its extracts
are recommended in the treatment of various skin conditions such as leprosy,
lupus, varicose ulcers, eczema, psoriasis along with its wound healing properties
(Chandra and Purohit, 1980; Zheng
and Qin, 2007; Dash et al., 2011; Upadhyay
et al., 2013).
Herbs affecting macro and microenvironment of disease: The inception
of a bacterial disease in a tissue depends on several factors of both bacteria
and host. Oxidative stress is a normal biochemical and physiological phenomenon.
Under normal conditions, the physiologically important intracellular levels
of ROS are maintained at low levels by various enzyme systems participating
in the in vivo redox homeostasis. Increased oxidative stress is a prerequisite
for the production of a disease (Rahal et al., 2014c).
Oxidative stress is also a biomarker for the stress in a tissue. The ROS produced
in the tissues cause direct damage to macromolecules of the cell, such as lipids,
nucleic acids and proteins (Pechan et al., 2003),
with polyunsaturated fatty acids as one of the favored oxidation targets. DNA
bases may also undergo oxidation and cause mutations and deletions in both nuclear
and mitochondrial DNA. Mitochondrial DNA is equally prone to oxidative damage
due to its close proximity to a ROS origin and deficient repair capacity. These
oxidative modifications thus lead to functional changes in both enzymatic as
well as structural proteins, thereby producing a substantial physiological impact.
Similarly, redox modulation of transcription factors may modify the gene expression
(Rahal et al., 2014c).
Herbs in wound healing process: Application of herbs and herbal preparations
on wounds and other skin ailments is commonly used all over the world and these
are supposed to be boon for the cure of skin and wound conditions (Pawar
and Toppo, 2012; Tiwari et al., 2013a, b,
2014e). Elaeis guineensis of Arecaceae family
is widely used in conventional medicine in African countries and in other parts
of globe. Leaf extract of E. guineensis has potent wound healing capacity
and is famous for its antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal properties which
help in preparation of a potent antimicrobial natural ointment (Chong
et al., 2008). Similarly, oleanolic acid obtained from Andredera
diffusa has wound healing potentials (Moura-Letts et
al., 2006). Lonicera japonica, a widely used traditional Chinese
medicinal plant, also possess wound healing capacity as evidenced by its greater
tissue regeneration effects on fibroblasts and angiogenesis and wound contraction;
thus help to accelerate wound repair by anti-inflammatory properties of the
Similarly, Acalypha indica extract has shown to affect the process of
dermal wound healing by its antioxidative potential. A. indica contains
four glycosides namely mauritianin, clitorin, nicotiflorin, biorobin and many
other phytochemical constituents like flavonoids, acalyphamide, alkaloids and
glycosides (Nahrstedt et al., 2006). Furthermore,
L. japonica has significant antimicrobial activity against S. aureus,
S. epidermidis, E. coli, Candida albicans and C. tropicalis.
Other prominent herbs identified for reducing the inflammatory processes include
Achillea millefolium (yarrow), Allium sativum (garlic), Convallaria
majalis (lily of the valley), Cratageus laevigata (hawthorn), Cynara
scolymus (globe artichoke), Gingko biloba (gingko) and Viburnum
opulus (cramp bark). Drymis brasiliensis Miers (Casca-d'anta) is
an antinflamatory spice (Lago et al., 2010).
Echinacea angustifolia and E. pallida have antiseptic properties
due to complex mixtures of secondary plant metabolites like phenylpropenes and
terpenes which have made these plants as most widely used herb. E. pallida
as well as Eleutherococcus senticosus (Siberian Ginseng) show immunostimulatory
property and increases the activity of the white blood cells. Hence, they are
used for prevention as well as for treatment of viral, bacterial and fungal
infections particularly and have been found useful in treating cases of chronic
arthritis and upper respiratory tract infections (Gunning,
One of the most extensively researched medicinal plants is garlic (Zingiber
officinale) which has potent antibacterial action due to allicin that has
inhibitory effects (multiple) on various enzyme systems that are thiol dependent.
A range of potencies have been shown by individual constituents like garlic
oil and garlic powder during in vitro studies against enteric bacteria
in human including Helicobacter pylori. It has been found that against
certain strains of H. pylori, garlic and omeprazole have synergistic
effects but their concurrent administration is not much effective (Boon
and Smith, 1999; McNulty et al., 2001; Ross
et al., 2001). Garlic contains ajoene which exhibit antifungal and
antidermatophytic activity. Aqueous extract of garlic is effectual against 90%
of the dermatophytes and is capable of inhibiting a wide range of fungi in cases
of ringworm infections (Agarwal, 1996).
Extracts of cinnamon in vitro have been found to have inhibitory effect
on the growth as well as urease activity of a number of strains of H. pylori
and thus have encouraged a number of researchers for conducting clinical trials.
It has been suggested that the eradication of this particular organism can be
achieved by the use of higher concentrations of cinnamon on a regimen by combined
use of antibiotic as well as herbal therapy along with it (Tabak
et al., 1999; Nir et al., 2000).
Gosyuyu is a crude extract from the fruit of Evodia rutaecarpa (a Chinese
herbal medicine) which is having antibacterial activity in vitro against
H. pylori. The two active components in this herb include 1-methyl-2-[(Z)-8-tridecenyl]-4-(1H)-quinolone
and 1-methyl-2-[(Z)-7-tridecenyl]-4-(1H)-quinolones. The Minimum Inhibitory
Concentration (MIC) of these compounds against reference strains as well as
H. pylori clinically isolated has been found to be similar to the MIC
of amoxicillin as well as clarithromycin. Similarly, the urease activity of
H. pylori is inhibited by the tea (Camellia sp.) as well as rosemary
(Rosmarinus officinales) (Matsubara et al.,
Ipomoea batatas, popularly known as Sweet Potato (SP), has been effectively
used in herbal medicine to treat inflammatory as well as infectious oral, viral
and microbial diseases. It contains different effective active principles like
flavonoids, triterpenes/steroids, β-carotene, anthocyanins, caffeoyl quinic
acid derivatives, anthraquinones, coumarins, alkaloids, saponins, tannins and
phenolic acids that promote the process of curing the infection (Kwon
et al., 2000; Miyazaki et al., 2005;
Islam, 2008; Pochapski et al.,
2011; Sandhya et al., 2011).
The bark of plant Carallia brachiata Merrill, belonging to Rhizophoracea
family, has been found effective in the treatment of itching, cuts and wounds,
oral ulcers. Elephantopus scaber, belonging to family Asteraceae,
contains sesquiterpene, lactones, deoxyelephantopin, isodeoxyelephantopin, scabertopin,
epifriedelinol, lupeol and stigmasterol. These plant extract promotes the wound
healing when applied over the surfaces of wounds. Leaf paste of Myrsinaceae
member Embelia ribes cures the wounds due to cation of quinone derivative
embelin, an alkaloid christembine and a volatile oil vilangin. Hibiscus rosa
sinensis (Malvaceae) is a herb used to rejuvenate the inflamed skin
and in the treatment of wounds. Jasminum auriculatum and Jasminum
grandflorum, member of Oleaceae, contains lupeol and jasminol
which has remarkable effects on wounds (Deshpande and
Upadyaya, 1967; Kumari et al., 2013). When
extract of leaves of J. auriculatum is applied over the wounds in the
form of jelly, beneficial effects have been observed in the form of endorse
wound healing. Lycopodium serratum, member of family Lycopodiaceae,
is the plant especially useful in the treatment of burns, sores, cuts and wounds.
A thick paste of this plant prepared by boiling in water has widely been used
by the tribes for treating wounds. Rafflesia hasseltii buds and flowers
extracts are very effective in accelerating the wound healing process (Chandra
and Purohit, 1980; Chopra et al., 1981; Kumari
et al., 2013). Honey in combination with Azadirachata indica
(neem) bark decoction can be used for the treatment of chronic wounds (Chandra
and Purohit, 1980; Kelmanson et al., 2000;
Srinivasan et al., 2001; Abu-Shanab
et al., 2004; Mohanasundari et al., 2007;
Vasu and Singaracharya, 2008; Kwakman
et al., 2008; Raja et al., 2011;
Dorai, 2012; Gokulakrishnan
et al., 2012, Kumari et al., 2013;
Tiwari et al., 2013b, 2014e).
There are certain other plants that contain several active components like
saponin and alkaloids; fatty acids and sterols; amino acids and amino glycosides
which are essentially effective in the treatment of various bacterial infections.
Melaleuca alternifolia oil, popularly known as tea tree oil, is used
topically for treatment of bacterial and fungal infections. Tea tree oil has
shown in vitro activity against microorganisms such as Propionibacterium
acnes, S. aureus, MRSA, E. coli, C. albicans, Trichophyton
mentagrophytes and T. rubrum. Extracts from Derris elliptica,
D. indica and D. trifoliate, Cinnamon, Citrus aurantifolia
and C. aurantium (Rutaceae); Punica granatum (Punicaceae); Phyllanthus
acidus (Euphorbiaceae); Crescentia cujete (Bignoniaceae); Rosmarinus
officinalis (Lamiaceae); Urena lobata (Malvaceae); Cimicifuga
sp.; Terminalia chebula, T. bellerica; Ocimum sanctum;
Acacia nilotica and Tamarindus indica (Caesalpiniaceae) possess
strong in vitro antibacterial activity against many bacteria agents.
These plant extracts have shown activity against Helicobacter pylori,
E. coli, Pseudomonas sp., Proteus sp., Bacillus sp.,
Streptococcus sp., Klebsiella sp. and S. aureus (Binutu
and Lajubutu, 1994; Takenaka et al., 1997;
Nir et al., 2000; Mazumder
et al., 2001; Khan et al., 2006; Melendez
and Capriles, 2006, Kumar et al., 2011;
Vashney et al., 2012; Bhatia
et al., 2013a; Sharma et al., 2014).
Leaf extract of Aegle marmelos, member of family Rutaceae, exerts immune
response in freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae), to enhance
the disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection (Pratheepa
et al., 2010; Laphookhieo et al., 2011).
Leaves of Siam weed (Chromolaena odorata) possess antibacterial properties
against aerobic bacterial isolates of wound infections as these contain phenolic
compounds (Phan et al., 2001; Oyetayo
and Oyetayo, 2006). Examples include: Aegle marmelos, Allamanda
catharica, Allium sativum, Datura alba (Qureshi
et al., 2011), Dendrophthoe falcata, Flabellaria paniculata,
Flaveria trinervia, Mimosa pudica (Zhang et
al., 2011), Morinda citrofolia and Moringa oleifera (Sharma,
Oxidative stress and altered immune function: The correlation between
oxidative stress and immune function of the body is beyond doubts. The skilled
phagocytic cells (macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils) possess an enzyme,
the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Hampton
et al., 1998; Babior, 1999); which is responsible
for the production of ROS following an immune challenge. The host defense mechanism
uses the lethal effects of ROS and RNS in the killing pathogens. At the commencement
of an immune response, phagocytes increase their oxygen demand by 10-20 folds
via., process of respiratory burst. The nascent oxygen generated by this enzyme
serves as the starting material for the production of an array of reactive species.
Production of other powerful pro-oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2),
hypochlorous acid (HOCl), peroxynitrite (ONOO¯) and possibly hydroxyl (OH●)
and ozone (O3) by these cells have also been reported. Although,
these highly reactive endogenous metabolites damage all the the bacterial cells
non-specifically, they can also injure the host tissues (Rice-Evans
and Gopinathan, 1995). Cashewnut, (Anacardium occidentale) is an
antioxidant and is used in indigenous system for immunomodulation purposes (Barreto
et al., 2007; Morais et al., 2010;
Rufino et al., 2009, 2010).
Increased production of Nitric Oxide (NO) has been documented in dengue and
in monocyte cultures infected with different types of viral infections and has
role in inflammation and in the relationship between oxidative stress and immunomodulation
(Valero et al., 2013). Increased level of stress
leads to activation of hypothamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and indirectly the
release of endogenous antistress hormone, cortisol. The herb may act by its
anti-inflammatory activity thus reduces the oxidative stress in the target tissue
and ultimately facilitates the system against the pathogenic bacteria. Immunomodulation
of most of herbal extracts are governed by cytokine regulation. Up and down
regulation of cytokine governs immunomodulation as well as anti-inflammatory
activities (Wildfeuer and Mayerhofer, 1994; Dhama
et al., 2013e; Bhatia et al., 2013a;
Sharma et al., 2014).
IMPORTANT HERBS AND THEIR VITAL ROLES/APPLICATIONS AGAINST BACTERIAL PATHOGENS
Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum or Holy Basil): Ocimum is a household remedy
throughout tropical and semitropical region of India and other Asian countries.
Different parts of tulsi are traditionally utilized in the Ayurveda and Siddha
systems of medicine for treatment of several aliments (Kumar
et al., 2013c). The phytoconstituents of Ocimum sanctum is
complex and include: Eugenol and urosolic acid; alkaloids and flavonoids; tannins
and carbohydrates. The antibacterial activities of the plant is well proven
against a wide variety of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria including
enteric organisms viz., E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus
mirabilis, Klebsiella aerogens, Shigella dysentriae, Salmonella
Typhimurium, Vibrio cholera and S. aureus (Bhatia
et al., 2013a; Kumar et al., 2011,
2013c). Equally are susceptible the fungi and viruses
(including fish pathogens) indicating versatility of its anti-infective properties.
Methanolic extracts and aqueous suspension of leaves and seeds oil of tulsi,
all bear immunomodulatory properties. The leaves of the plant can induce cytokine
secretion. The fixed oil and linolenic acid of tulsi possess good analgesic,
antipyretic as well as anti-inflammatory activities (Bhatia
et al., 2013b; Kumar et al., 2013c).
Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa): Black cohosh has a long history
of use in traditional medicine since 18th century (Rahal
et al., 2013). It has been used to relieve pre-menstrual symptoms,
dysmenorrhea and discomfort of menopause. In homeopathy, preparations of C.
racemosa have been used for treating discomfort in late pregnancy, labor
pains, headache and depression. It is an effective ecofriendly drug for the
management of abortions, prolapse as well as post-parturient care in large animals.
The black roots of C. racemosa contain 15-20% amorphous resinous substance,
cimicifugin and racemosin. Also the herb contains triterpene constituents, actein,
cimigenol, cimicifugioside and 27-deoxyacetylacetol and the glycoside, 27-deoxyactein
(27-deoxyacetylacetol-O-D-xylopyranoside). The anti-inflammatory potential of
the alcoholic extract of C. racemosa has been scientifically proven (Rathore
et al., 2012). The constituents, actaealactone, cimicifugic acid
and fukinolic acid display an antioxidant activity (Nuntanakorn
et al., 2006, 2007).
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia): Essential oils of Cinnamon have
been found to possess antimicrobial properties against B. cereus (Kalemba
and Kunicka, 2003; Valero and Salmeron, 2003) and
H. Pylori (Tabak et al., 1999). A blend
of cinnamon and nisin accelerated the death of S. typhimurium and E.
coli O157:H7 in apple juice, thereby increasing its safety and shelf life
(Yuste and Fung, 2004). An equal volume mixture of extracts
of chive (Allium tuberosum), cinnamon and corni fructus (Cornus officinalis)
has been found to possess a good antimicrobial spectrum in orange juice, pork
and milk against common foodborne microorganisms; thereby increases their stability
to heat, pH and storage (Mau et al., 2001). The
cinnamon extract was well tolerated and side effects were minimal (Nir
et al., 2000). A hydroethanolic extract of cinnamon bark inhibits
the activity of bacterial endotoxin (Azumi et al.,
1997) and growth of fluconazole resistant Candida sp. which cause
an emerging illness. Cinnamaldehyde (CNA, 1), 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (2-CNA),
coumarin (2) and cinnamyl acetate have been identified as chief antibacterial
pytocinstituents of the essential oil of cinnamon (Choi
et al., 2001; Sharma, 2010).
Curcuma longa (Turmeric): Curcuma longa, a perennial herb,
is a member of the Zingiberaceae family. The roots form an important ingredient
of Chinese and Ayurvedic systems of medicine. The rhizomes of C. longa
possess a large inventory of moniterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids and curcuminoids
(Tang and Eisenbrand, 1992; Fang
et al., 2003), which show antibacterial, anti-inflammatory as well
as antineoplastic activities. Curcuminoids, which are basically bioflavonoid
compounds, exhibit a variety of beneficial therapeutic and preventive health
effects (Joe et al., 2004). Curcumin is the principal
curcuminoid along with desmethoxycurcumin and bis-desmethoxycurcumin, the other
two curcuminoids (Akram et al., 2010). Insecticidal
activity of the turmeric rhizome has also been reported (Chander
et al., 1991, 1992). Curcumin has antioxidant,
anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antifungal actions (Akram
et al., 2010). Curcumin blocks NF-κB and the motogenic response
in H. pylori infected epithelial cells and carries thremendous therapeutic
potential. It acts as an inhibitor for cyclooxygenase, 5-lipoxygenase and glutathione
S-transferase. In addition to this, turmeric has been found to reduce the release
of inflammation-inducing histamine, increase and prolongs the action of cortisol
and improves circulation; thus increases the flushing toxins out of the body.
Curcumin facilitates proliferation of CD4+ T-helper and B type immune
Turmeric acts as a cholagogue, stimulating bile production, thus increases
the digestion of fats and eliminating toxins from the liver. Wound healing and
detoxifying properties of turmeric curcumin have also received considerable
attention (Joe et al., 2004). The ethyl acetate
extract of C. longa has demonstrated an excellent antibacterial activity
against MRSA at a concentration of 0.125-2 mg mL-1 (Kim
et al., 2005). A study by Limtrakul et al.
(2004) using RT-PCR showed that all three curcuminoids isolated from C.
longa rhizomes inhibit expression of MDR-1 gene. The oleoresin (second fraction
of the turmeric oil) contains ar-turmerone, turmerone and curlone and has been
proven antibacterial against B. cereus, B. subtilis, B. coagulans,
E. coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa (Negi
et al., 1999).
Piper nigrum (Black pepper): Both aqueous and ethanol extracts
of black pepper inhibit the growth of penicillin G resistant strain of S.
aureus (Dorman and Deans, 2000). The extracts from
Piper longum contain pharmacological molecules piperlonguminine, piperine
and pellitorine which exhibit significant antibacterial activity against Gram
positive bacteria and moderate activity against Gram negative bacteria (Reddy
et al., 2001). Piperine, [1-[5-[1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl]-1-oxo-2,4,
pentadienyl piperidine, a pungent alkaloid present in P. nigrum, enhances
the bioavailability of various structurally and therapeutically diverse drugs.
Perhaps, it forms non-polar complexes with drug molecules and increases their
permeability across the barriers (Khajuria et al.,
1998). The Piper longum fruit extracts have also shown significant
anti-mycobacterial activity against MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Singh
et al., 2011). Along with potent antimicrobial activity, black
pepper is used to treat asthma, chronic indigestion, colon toxins, obesity,
sinus congestion, fever, intermittent fever, cold extremities, colic, gastric
ailments and diarrhea (Khajuria et al., 1998;
Rahal et al., 2014b).
Syzgium aromaticum (Clove) (Syn-Caryophyllus aromaticum,
Eugenia aromatica, Eugenia caryophyllus, Eugenia caryophyllata):
The aqueous and methanolic extract from whole clove is being efficiently used
as an antimicrobial agent against food spoilage bacteria and food borne pathogens
(S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, E. coli). The bread with a maximal of 1% clove
extract is acceptable for human consumption (Pandey and
Singh, 2011; Saeed et al., 2013). Essential
oils of clove possess antimicrobial properties (Kalemba and
Kunicka, 2003) against four Gram positive bacteria such as Brochothrix
thermosphacta, Carnobacterium piscicola, Lactobacillus curvatus
and Lactobacillus and Gram negative bacteria such as P. fluorescens
and Serratia liquefaciens, E. coli, L. monocytogenes
and S. enterica (Friedman et al., 2002).
Its antimicrobial properties are utilized in meat industry. A positive relationship
has been established between the inhibitory effect of essential oils and the
presence of eugenol and cinnamaldehyde (Ouattara et al.,
1997). Crude methanolic extract inhibits gram-negative anaerobic pathogens,
including Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia.
Eight pharmacologically active principles (5,7-dihydroxy-2-methylchromone 8-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside,
biflorin, kaempferol, rhamnocitrin, myricetin, gallic acid, ellagic acid and
oleanolic acid) have been identified following chromatographic fractionation
of clove oil. The bioflavonoid, kaempferol and myricetin also show potent growth-inhibitory
activity against the periodontal bacteria, Porphyromous gingivalis and
P. intermedia (Cai and Wu, 1996). Clove and clove
oils are used in day todays life as potent anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory
and analgesic agents (Rahal et al., 2014b).
Thymus vulgaris (Thyme): The oil of thyme is a naturally occurring
antibacterial, anticandidal and antioxidant agent when used topically due to
which it is gaining popularity (Venugopal and Venugopal,
1995; Naganawa et al., 1996; Caelli
et al., 2000; Dursun et al., 2003;
Akins, 2005; Carson et al.,
2006; Shenefelt, 2011). Thyme has a broad antibacterial
spectrum against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria with a highly
sensitivity against the former group (Nevas et al.,
2004). Thymol and carvacrol are active constituents of ethanolic extract
of thyme. The essential oil of thyme has been found to have strong inhibition
activity against S. sonnei, B. subtilis, L. monocytogenes S. enterica,
C. jejuni and E. coli O157:H7 (Fan and Chen,
2001; Friedman et al., 2002). The aqueous
extract of thyme on the other hand was found to have significant inhibitory
effects on the growth of H. pylori (Tabak et al.,
1999). Thymol decreases the viable count of S. typhimurium and S.
sonnei in vitro (Juven et al., 1994). Carvacrol
showed a dose-dependent inhibition of B. cereus (Ultee
et al., 2000). The MIC was as low as 0.03% (v/v) thyme oil against
C. albicans and E. coli (Hammer et al.,
1999). The activity of thyme was modulated by alterations in pH and sodium
chloride concentration of the medium (Bagamboula et
al., 2003). The bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties of essential
oil of thyme were evident against the non-toxigenic strain of E. coli O157:H7
in a broad temperature range. Lecithin weakened the antibacterial properties
(Burt and Reinders, 2003). Thyme showed greatest inhibitory
potenital against Aeromonas hydrophila compared to other psycrotrophic
food-borne bacteria such as A. hydrophila, L. monocytogenes and
Y. enterocolitica in in vitro conditions.
Zingiber officinale (Ginger): Z. officinale possess antimicrobial
action against both Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms (Martin
et al., 2001; Srinivasan et al., 2001).
It has potent anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and antimicrobial activities.
Methanolic extract of the dried powdered ginger rhizome contains 6-, 8-,10-gingerol
and 6-shogoal which inhibited growth of different strains of H. pylori in
vitro with a MIC of 6.25-50 μg mL-1. Higher antibacterial
efficacy has been shown by gingerols of the crude extract against H. pylori
with an MIC range of 0.78-12.5 μg mL-1 showed significant
activity against the CagA+ strains (Mahady, 2005).
Antibacterial activity has also been reported against the pathogens like
S. aureus, S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae.
The MIC and MBC values of various ginger extracts ranged from 0.0003-0.7 μg
mL-1 and 0.135-2.04 μg mL-1, highlighting its therapeutic
value (Akoachere et al., 2002).
Aloe vera: Aloe vera is obtained from the mucilaginous part of the centre
of the leaf. Worldwide several studies have been suggested that Aloe vera, or
Aloe vera gel has wide array of utility against various health-related disorders
when applied orally and/or topically. The Aloe vera gel contains sugars,
amino acids, vitamins A, B, C, E, enzymes, polysaccharides and minerals. Several
reports have also shown encouraging role of Aloe vera in the management
of both acute and chronic infected burn wounds (Raina et
al., 2008). B-sitosterol, acemannan and glycoprotein constituents of
Aloe vera have therapeutic potentials. The antimicrobial potential of
Aloe vera juice has been proved against a range of clinically relevant
bacteria during in vitro studies. The various Gram positive bacteria
(Mycobacterium smegmatis, S. aureus, MRSA, Enterobacter cloacae,
E. bovis, E. faecalis, Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus
sphericus); Gram negative bacteria (P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae,
E. coli, Shigella flexneri and Salmonella typhimurium) and
fungi (Candida albicans) were found susceptible to Aloe vera juice.
Furthermore, Aloe vera extract has antimicrobial activity against M.
smegmatis, E. faecalis, M. luteus and B. sphericus.
Aloe vera juice can effectively be used in cosmetics and food industary
as it has inhibitory effects against pathogenic bacteria causing food poisoning,
especially the Gram-positive bacteria (Habeeb et al.,
2007; Grace et al., 2008; Alemdar
and Agaoglu, 2009; Rahal et al., 2014b).
Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha): Ashwagandha has been found
to show remarkable antibacterial properties, owing to its glycoprotein glycowithanolides,
withaferin and withanolides (Tiwari et al., 2014d).
Antibacterial activities have been demonstrated aginst various bacterial pathogens
viz., Neisseria gonorrhoea, E. coli, Salmonella, Bordetella
pertussis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, P. aeruginosa, Bacillus
subtilis, L. monocytogenes, Clvibacter michiganensis subsp.
Michiganensis and Staph. aureus (Akinyemi
et al., 2004; Owais et al., 2005;
Girish et al., 2006; Teixeira
et al., 2006; Kulkarni et al., 2007;
Kambizi and Afolayan, 2008; Mehrotra
et al., 2011; Sundaram et al., 2011;
El-Boshy et al., 2013). Ashwagandha has also been
found useful to counter even Multidrug Resistant (MDR) strains of few bacteria
like of methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (Mehrotra
et al., 2011).
Azadirachta indica (Neem): Neem leaves and oil possesses proven
beneficial effects on several skin conditions and bacterial infections (Drabu
et al., 2012; Tiwari et al., 2014e).
The methanol extract from the leaves of Azadirachta indica has the highest
antibacterial activity followed by the hexane, methanol, chloroform extracts
from it (Koona and Budida, 2011). The water and hexane
extracts from the seeds of A. indica inhibits the growth of Gram positive
more strongly than Gram negative bacteria. Neem leaf extracts and oil have been
demonstarted to posses wide antibacterial activity against various pathogens
viz., E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas hydrophila,
B. cerus, B. pumilus, S. aureus, S. typhi, K.
pneumonae, Proteus sp., P. vulgaris, Vibrio sp., S.
dysenterae, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus sp. (S.
mutans, S. mitis, S. sanguis, S. salivarius), M.
tuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica (SaiRam
et al., 2000; Biswas et al., 2002;
Parekh and Chanda, 2007b; Prashant
et al., 2007; Anyaehie, 2009; Dhayanithi
et al., 2010; Mehrotra et al., 2010;
Sarmiento et al., 2011; Maragathavalli
et al., 2012; Vinoth et al., 2012;
Chava et al., 2012; Harjai
et al., 2013; Rosaline et al., 2013;
Tiwari et al., 2014e). Antibacterial potential
of leaf extract of neem has been been proven against methicillin-resistant S.
aureus (Sarmiento et al., 2011). The hexane
extracts from the seeds produces larger zones of growth inhibition diameter,
lower MIC and MBC values when compared to aqueous extracts (El-Mahmood
et al., 2010). Moreover, it has been reported that the neem oil has
low MIC against S. aureus, S. typhi, E. coli and P.
aeruginosa. In vitro studies have also shown the antibacterial
activity of neem oil and which indicated that 92% S. pyogenes, P.
aeruginosa, Proteus sp. and E. coli are susceptibile to it
(Jahan et al., 2007). Irodin A, recovered from
leaves of neem, acts as a potent anti-malarial agent (WHO,
2008; Anyaehie, 2009). The bark and oil of this
plant have anti-tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) and anti-leprotic properties
(Subramanian and Lakshmanan, 1996; Tiwari
et al., 2014e). Neem oil show antiplaque actions while chewing its
twigs help control dental tartar and caries (Prashant
et al., 2007; Elavarasu et al., 2012).
Recently, Kumar et al. (2013b) indicated the
utility of neem preparations for treating endometritis in cattle.
Morinda citrifolia (Noni plant): M. cirifolia has been
used by Polynesians for more than 2000 years for the treatment of various conditions
and was commonly known as Noni plant (Chan-Blanco et
al., 2006; Singh, 2012). Acubin, L-asperuloside
and alizarin are the major bioactive molecules isolated from the noni fruit
and scopoletin, anthraquinone compounds are obtained chiefly from noni roots.
Various extracts from the fruits and leaves have shown potent antibacterial
activities against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis,
Vibrio alginolyticus, E. coli, P. morgaii, Salmonella typhosa,
S. schottmuelleri, S. montevideo, Lactobacillus lactis,
S. thermophilus and Shigella paradys. Noni is mainly used for the
treatment of broken bones, bruises, sores and wounds, colds, fevers, skin infections
and other bacteria induced ailments (Dittmar, 1993;
Selvam et al., 2009; Usha
et al., 2010; Natheer et al., 2012).
A coumarin compound, scopoletin, has also been isolated from noni plant which
inhibits the growth of E. coli and also helps to heal stomach ulcer by
inhibiting the bacteria H. pylori. Murray et
al. (2008) had observed similar in vitro effectiveness of noni
juice along with chlorhexidine gluconate and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) to
remove the smear layer of E. faecalis from the canal walls of endodontically
instrumented teeth. The antibacterial activity of iridoids (deacetyl asperulosidic
acid and asperulosidic acid) in M. citrifolia fruits against C. albicans,
E. coli and S. aureus has been evaluated recently by West
et al. (2012). Moreover, M. citrifolia leaf extract has shown
anti-tubercular activity and can effectively kills 89% of M. tuberculosis
compared to anti-TB drug rifampcin which kills 97% of bacteria at the similar
dose concentrations. Various bioactive components like cycloartenol, E-phytol,
beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, ketosteroids stigmasta-4-en-3-one, campesta-5,7,22-trien-3beta-ol
and stigmasta-4-22-dien-3-one were isolated from hexane fraction from noni and
which are responsible for the pronounced antitubercular activity of noni (Saludes
et al., 2002; West et al., 2012).
Areca catechu: Leaves, buds, shoots, husks and roots of Areca
catechu are of medicinal values. Antibacterial and growth inhibitory effects
of areca leaves have been seen against B. cereus, P. fluorescens,
Streptococcus mutans, S. salivarius, S. mitis, Lactobacillus
acidophilus, C. albicans and Prevotella intermedia. Active
principles include alkaloids like arecoline and arecaine, catechin, tannins,
gallic acid, fat, gum etc. (Lalithakumari and Sirsi, 1965;
Samappito et al., 2012).
Berberis lyceum: Berberis lyceum, a member of family Berberidaceae
is a shrub distributed in the temperate and subtropical parts of Asia, Europe
and America. The plant contains flavonoids and alkaloids including berberine,
tannins, saponins and triterpenoids. The principal alkaloid, berberine, is present
in the rhizomes and used in the preparation of drugs for treating leprosy cholera,
diarrhoea, dysentery and eye problems. It is also recommended orally for treating
bacterial dysentery. However, its combination with Glycyrrhiza species abolishes
its therapeutic effect (Hong et al., 2005; Irshad
et al., 2013).
Carallia brachiata (Karalla): Carallia brachiata belongs
to family Rhizophoraceae and is an evergreen decorative tree. It has been used
against stomatitis, throat inflammation and for treating oral ulcers. The bark
of the tree contains steroids, triterpenoids, phenols, carbohydrates, fixed
oils, fats, proanthocyanidins (carallidin, mahuannin A, para-hydroxy benzoic
acid, tannins, flavonoids) and glyceroglycolipids. The extract has shown antibacterial
efficacy against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria like Micrococcus
luteus, B. subtilis, S. aureus, E. coli, Proteus
vulgaris and S. Typhi (Krishnaveni et al.,
2009; Neeharika et al., 2010; Abraham
and Thomas, 2013).
Centella asiatica: Centella asiatica is a perennial creeping
herb of the family Umbeliferae that grows in moist areas of many tropical
and subtropical countries. C. asiatica is the source of active constituents
viz., saponins, asiaticoside, triterpenoids, madecassoide, madecassic acid,
asiatic acid, terpenoids, sitosterol, glucose, rhamnose and stigmasterol. Others
include fatty oils consisting of glycerides of palmitic acid, linoleic acid,
stearic acid, linolenic acid and vitamins like ascorbic acid along with minerals
like calcium, iron and phosphate. Different extracts of C. asiatica have
been found very effective in inhibiting the growth of four pathogenic bacteria
viz., P. vulgaris, S. aureus, B. subtilis and E. coli
and two fungal strains of A. niger and C. albicans. The plant
has a promising scope to be developed as a novel broad spectrum antibacterial
and antifungal herbal formulation due to potent fungicidal, antibacterial, antioxidant
and anticancerous properties (Chandra and Purohit, 1980;
Zheng and Qin, 2007; Gohil et
al., 2010; Dash et al., 2011).
Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl): Pyrostegia venusta Miers
is member of Bignoniaceae and is an ornamental tree cultivated in tropics of
South America. Various parts of this plant show antioxidant, antimicrobial,
antiviral, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic,
antipruritic, anti-angiogenic, antitumor, antiallergic, immunomodulatory and
wound healing potentials. The plant contains phyto-chemicals such as iridoid
glucosides, naphthoquinones, alkaloids, flavones, triterpenes, polyphenols,
tannins, allo-tannic acid, oleanolic acid, seed oils, glycoside bellericanin,
acacetin-7-O-β-glucopyranoside and β-sitosterol. It has been found
to be effective against diarrhea, cough, respiratory disorders and skin infections
such as leukoderma, vitiligo and many bacterial and fungal pathogens. The various
pathogens against which P. venusta has been tried include B. subtilis,
S. epidermidis, S. pyogenes, S. aureus, Micrococcus luteus,
Enterobacter aerogenes, E. coli, S. typhi, P. aeruginosa,
Aspergillus niger, C. albicans and C. tropicana (Ferreira
et al., 2000; Roy et al., 2011, 2012;
Mostafa et al., 2013).
Peperomia galioides (Silver bush): It is commonly called as tuna
congona, congona grande or shiny bush. The herb is enriched with ethnomedicinal
uses as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, diuretic, antibacterial and analgesic.
Plant is enriched with many components of medicinal importance, having the potential
be be used in the treatment of several health disorders viz., Parkinsons
disease, Alzheimers disease, headache, cancer, cardiovascular disorders,
renal disorders, inflammation, abscesses, acne, boils, colic, fatigue, gout,
rheumatic pain; as well as utility against various bacterial and viral infections.
It possess various alkaloids, tannins, grifolin, grifolic acid, resins, piperogalin,
steroids, essential oils, phenols and carbohydrates responsible for broad spectrum
antimicrobial activity against a range of pathogens viz., S. aureus,
S. epidermidis, B. subtilis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa,
K. pneumoniae, S. Typhi, C. albicanas, Penicillum notatum,
A. niger and Rhizopus stolon (Bojo et al.,
1994; Mahiou et al., 1995; Aziba
et al., 2001; Oloyede et al., 2011).
Panax ginseng: Ginseng contains many phytochemical compounds
such as tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins (ginsenosides), polyphenolic compounds,
polyacetylenes and acidic polysaccharides. It exhibits anti-bacterial capacity
by inhibiting survival mechanisms of pathogens. Ginseng extracts have been found
to repress the synthesis of LasA protease, LasB elastase and AHL molecules;
hence inhibits the pathogenesis mechanism of P. aeruginosa by phenomenon
of quorum sensing. Similarly, pectin-type polysaccharides of P. ginseng
as PG-F2, acidic heteroglycans and PG-HMW act against Porphyromonas gingivalis,
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Propionibacterium acnes, S.
aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, B. subtilis,
E. coli, Serratia marcescens, H. pylori and many viruses including
of influenza, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and rota virus (Lee
et al., 2006; Choi, 2008; Kang
and Min, 2012; Yoo et al., 2012).
Plantago major: Popularly known as way bread, Plantago major
is a perennial herb of the Plantaginacea family which grows abundantly beside
paths, roadsides and as a weed in crops. The genus name Plantago has
been derived from a Latin word planta, meaning as sole of the foot.
The plant has been extensively used in folklore medicine since long back because
of its anti-tubercular, anti-malarial, anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative
and anti-tumor activities. The inhibitory effects of the herb have been scientific
validated against Cryptococcus, Francisella, Listeria,
Mycobacteria, many herpes and adeno viral infections, influenza and viral
hepatitis (Chiang et al., 2002; Oto
et al., 2011). Leaf extract of P. major contains phenolic
compounds, organic acid groups, essential fatty acids, flavonoids, oleanolic
acid, ferulic acid, ursolic acid, carotenes and terpenoids (Samuelsen,
2000; Turel et al., 2009; Nazarizadeh
et al., 2013). Mechanism behind the anti-inflammatory action is the
selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 by ursolic acid thus inhibiting the
prostaglandin biosynthesis. Acetone extract of P. major L. leaves has
shown effective actions against B. cereus, B. subtilis, S.
aureus, S. epidermidis, E. coli, K. pneumoniae,
P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis, S. enteritidis, C. albicans
and C. tropicalis. Soluble pectin polysaccharide (PMII) of P.
major leaves showed prophylactically protective effects against systemic
S. pneumoniae infections (Metiner et al.,
2012). Scrophularia nodosa (Figwort): Scrophularia nodosa
is a flowering herb belonging to family Scrophulariaceae. It contains
biologically active compounds like phenylethanoids, acylated iridoid glycosides,
phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, iridoids, iridoid glycosides and terpenoids. S.
nodosa crude extract possess significant antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal,
antitumor, anti-inflammatory and diuretic activities and have been used in the
treatment of wounds, psychological, nervous and gastrointestinal disorders (Stevenson
et al., 2002; Ahmad et al., 2012).
Tamarindus indicus (Tamarind tree): Tamarind has been known as
a medicinal plant due to its antimicrobial, antibacterial, antifungal and antiseptic
properties. Tamarind leaves show broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity that
can be attributed to its phytoconstituents like flavonoids, xyloglucan, benzyl
benzoate, limonene, hexadecanol, pentadecanol and other polyphenols metabolites.
Thses phytoconstituents have shown antibacterial and antifungal activities against
B. subtilis, E. faecalis, S. aureus, E. coli,
S. Typhimurium, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans (Pino
et al., 2004; Muthu et al., 2005;
Doughari, 2006; Escalona-Arranz
et al., 2010).
Vitis vinifera: Vitis is affluent source of potentially
bioactive polyphenols as reseveratrol, flavonoids, flavonols and stilbenes.
Leaves of Vitis are especially rich in total phenols and their extracts
have useful antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The antibacterial and
antifungal activities of the extracts has been tested against S. aureus,
B. cereus, E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella infantis,
P. aeruginosa, C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. krusei
(Thimothe et al., 2007; Katalinic
et al., 2013; Oliveira et al., 2013).
Stephania glabra: The ethanolic extract of Stephania glabra
has active principals against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria
such as S. mutans, S. epidermidis, E. coli, K. pneumoniae
with MIC of 50 μg mL-1 (Semwal et
al., 2009). By realizing these benefits, S. glabra has long been
used in folklore medicine for the treatment of pyrexia, inflammatory conditions,
hyperglycemia, asthma, tuberculosis, dysentery, intestinal disturbances, cancers
and sleep disturbances. The tetrahydroberberine alkaloid called as 8-(4-methoxybenzyl)-xylopinine
has been isolated from the ethanolic extract of its tubers and which showed
antibacterial activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S.
typhi and S. aureus with Inhibition Zone Diameter (IZD) of 8-19 mm
at MIC of 25-100 ìg/ml (Semwal et al., 2012).
Calotropis gigantea (Akanda): The methanol extract and its chloroform
fraction from the root bark of Akanda have demonstrated antibacterial activity
against Sarcina lutea, P. aeruginosa and Bacillus megaterium.
In addition, its petroleum ether fraction showed inhibitory activity against
Shigella sonnei and B. subtilis. The ethyl acetate fraction of
Calotropis gigantea also showed antibacterial activity against E.
coli and P. aeruginosa (Alam et al.,
2008). Anitha et al. (2014) also evaluated
the antibacterial effect of C. gigantea latex extract against wide variety
of pathogenic bacteria such as S. aureus, Enterococcus faecalis,
E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. mirabilis. The methanolic and
ethanolic extracts have shown enhanced and wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity
as compared to other extracts of the same plant. Hot aqueous and hot hydro methanolic
extracts of C. procera also revealed mild to moderate dose dependent
antibacterial activity against S. aureus, E. coli, K. pneumoniae
and P. mirabilis (Sharma, 2010).
Nelumbo nucifera: Both the white and pink flowers of Nelumbo
nucifera extracts have shown significant antibacterial activity in a concentration
dependent manner. The flowers showed maximal efficacy against S. aureus,
E. coli and B. subtilis and moderate effectiveness against P.
aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae. Variation and concentration in pytoconstituents
like flavonoids, tannins and alkaloids alter antimicrobial activity of individual
plant extracts. Such variation might occur within the same species with minor
differences. Further, colour variations of flowers revealed differences not
only in antibacterial activity but also in the level of activity of Nelumbo.
The hydro ethanolic extract of white flowers showed significant antibacterial
activity as compared to pink flower extracts. The white flower extract exhibited
lowest MIC against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as compared
to pink flowers. Moreover, Gram negative bacteria were found more amenable to
antibacterial activity of these flower extracts than the Gram positive bacteria
(Brindha and Arthi, 2010).
Lantana indica Roxb and Lantana camara: The methanolic
and aqueous extracts of the leaves from Lantana indica Roxb exhibit strong
antibacterial against Gram positive bacteria such as B. subtilis,
S. aureus, Streptococcus pyrogens as well as Gram negative bacteria
such as E. coli, P. vulgaris and K. pneumoniae. The ethyl
acetate extract showed moderate activity against S. Typhi and P. aeruginosa
(Venkataswamy et al., 2010). The chemical
constituents of essential oil from the fresh leaves of Lantana are davanone,
α-humulene, β-caryophyllene, bicyclogermacrene and sabinene. These
bioactive compounds showed significant antibacterial activity against B.
cereus, S. aureus, B. subtilis and E. coli (Saikia
and Sahoo, 2011).
Jatropha curcas: The ethanolic and methanolic extracts of
Jatropha curcas possess broad spectrum antibacterial activities. The extracts
have lower potency for K. pneumoniae in comparison to other bacteria.
The methanolic extract on the other hand showed significant antibacterial activity
(MIC 0.5-10 mg mL-1) than the ethanolic extract (MIC 0.5-6.25 mg
mL-1). This activity may be due to the presence of soluble phenolic
and polyphenolic compounds (Igbinosa et al., 2009).
Psidium guajava L. (Guava): The antibacterial compound mainly
found in guava are reducing sugar, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phlobatannins,
terpenoids and poly phenols. The crude aqueous and methanol extract from the
leaf and bark of guava possess strong antibacterial activity against MDR Vibrio
cholerae. The in vitro MIC for the crude aqueous and methanolic extract
is 1,250 and 850 μg mL-1, respectively. These concentrations
were bactericidal against 107 CFU mL-1 of V. cholera.
The antimicrobial activity of guava has other advantage of being stable at 100°C
for 15-20 min, indicating the nonprotein nature of the active component (Rahim
et al., 2010). The ethanol and hot water extracts possess less antibacterial
activity compared to methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts (Pandey
and Shweta, 2011).
Ficus carica L. (Mulberry tree): Ficus carica belongs
to the family Moraceae which is one of the oldest fruits in the world and widely
used for various diseases. It has been used as an anti-inflammatory agent ulcers
and eruptions as well as digestion promoter. The methanolic extract of F.
carica leaves have antimicrobial activity against MRSA (MIC 2.5-20 mg mL-1)
isolated from clinical samples. The methanolic extract also shows synergistic
activity in combination with oxacillin or ampicillin and induces a more rapid
decrease in the concentration of bacteria. The antibacterial effect has been
suggested to act in a dose dependent manner against common bacterial pathogens
(Lee and Cha, 2010; Al-Yousuf,
Solanum nigrum: The methanolic extract and different fractions
(ethyl acetate, n-butanol, chloroform and n-hexane) of Solanum nigrum leaves
possess antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, Pasteurella multocida,
E. coli and B. subtilis (Zubair et al.,
2011). Likewise, the ethanolic and methanolic extracts from stem, berries
and whole plant of S. nigrum inhibits the growth of B. subtilis,
E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa. The methanolic
extract generally shows higher antibacterial activity than the ethanolic extracts.
Furthermore, the extracts of the whole plant have been reported to possess anti-bacterial
activity (Parameswari et al., 2012).
Glycyrrhiza glabra (Licorice) and Uncaria tomentosa (Cat's
claw): G. glabra and U. tomentosa extract show good antibacterial
activity against oral pathogens such as S. aureus E. faecalis and C.
albicans, suggesting their possible role to control dental caries and endodontic
infections (Ccahuana-Vasquez et al., 2007; Herrera
et al., 2010; Sedighinia et al., 2012).
The ethanolic and aqueous extracts from leaves and root extracts of licorice
show dose dependent antibacterial activity against B. subtilis, E. faecalis,
S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and E. coli.
Moreover, the ethanolic extract of the leaves is better against Gram positive
bacteria (Irani et al., 2010).
Brassica campestris: The ethanolic, petroleum ether, methanol
and ethyl acetate extracts from root, stem and leaves of B. campestris
plant show excellent antibacterial activity against many Gram positive bacteria
such as S. aureus, S. epidermidis, B. cereus and Gram negative
bacteria such as P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Although, benzene
and chloroform extracts have antibacterial potential but these effects are least
as compared to other other alcoholoic extracts (Agrawal
et al., 2013).
Picrorrhiza kurroa: The crude extract of Rhizome of P. kurroa
has been used for long as traditional medicine to treat various gastrointestinal
diseases especially diarrheal infections as well as skin and urinary tract infections.
The rhizome contains various bioactive phytochemical constituents which includes
phenolic compounds, sterols, cucurbitacins (triterpenoids) and iridoid glycosides
(picroside I and kutkoside). Most of these compounds are extracted mainly as
methanolic extracts and have significant antibacterial activity against P.
aeruginosa and S. aureus and moderate effects against Micrococcus
luteus, E. coli and B. subtilis (Rathee
et al., 2012; Usman et al., 2012).
Actinidia macrosperma: The hydrodistillate of leaf oil from A.
macrosperma has shown variety of pharmacological activities against leprosy
and cancers in cats. Its leaf oil contains high amount of monoterpenes. The
major bioactive components include the linalool, linolenic acid methylester,
(E)-phytol and 1, 2-dimethyl-lindoline. Studies have shown that the oil has
mild antibacterial activity against S. aureus and B. subtilise
and significant activity against Gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli
(Lu et al., 2007, 2012;
Lau et al., 2012).
Astragalus membranaceus and A. gombiformis: A. membranaceus
belongs to family Fabaceae and is commonly used to treat a wide variety
of infections. The root contains various alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids
and cardiac glycosides. Both the methanolic and ethanolic extracts from dried
root show significant in vitro antibacterial activity against both Gram
positive and Gram negative bacteria especially diarrhea causing pathogens (Balachandar
et al., 2012). The methanolic extract from the leaves of wild A.
gombiformis Pomel have been shown to exert antibacterial activity against
S. typhimurium and P. aeruginosa (Teyeb et
Emblica officinalis (Amla) and Coriandrum sativum (Coriander):
The aqueous extract from the fruit pulp of E. officinalis and C. sativum
showed significant level of antibacterial activity against 345 bacterial isolates
belonging to 6 different genera of especially those of Gram negative type (Saeed
and Tariq, 2007). The methanolic extract of E. officinalis revealed
higher antibacterial activity in comparison to leaf and stem extracts of O.
sanctum (Vijayalakshmi et al., 2007). Recently,
ethanolic and aqueous-ethanolic extracts of Coriander have shown variable antibacterial
activity against B. subtilis, S. aureus, E. coli, P.
aeruginosa, P. vulgaris, K. peunomonia and L. monocytogenes
(Yakout et al., 2013).
Catharanthus roseus: C. roseus contains many phytochemical
constituents such as reducing sugar, soluble sugar, amino acids, protein, total
chlorophyll, lipids, ortho-dihydroxyphenols and phenol (Govindasamy
and Srinivasan, 2012). The ethanolic and methanolic extract showed excellent
antibacterial activity against S. aureus, B. subtilis, E.
coli, S. thyphi and P. aeuroginosa. Maximal antibacterial
activity has been observed against S. aureus at a concentration of 100
mg mL-1 from its leaf extract (Goyal et al.,
Foeniculum vulgare (Common fennel) and Crithmum maritimum (Marine
fennel): Fennel is commonly used as a culinary spice for preservation of
food spoilage. The main antioxidant compounds isolated from fennel are the essential
oils which have significant antibacterial activity. Trans-anethole and estragole
are the major components which show the antibacterial activity against the food-borne
pathogens. These compounds inhibit the growth of the Gram positive bacteria
such as B. subtilis and S. albus. They also exhibit antibacterial
activity against Gram negative bacteria such as S. typhimurium, Shigella
dysenteriae and E. coli. The essential oils are more active againest
S. dysenteriae as compared to other bacteria. The possible mechanism
of action of the essential oil is by causing damage to cell membranes, resulting
in leakage of electrolytes and losses of intracellular contents (Ruberto
et al., 2000; Diao et al., 2014).
Alternanthera sessilis: A. sessilis, a member of family
Amaranthaceae, is known for its antioxidant, hepatoprotective properties and
antimicrobial activities along with wound healing potentials. The plant leaves
contain active molecules such as Α- and β-spinasterols, β-sitosterol
and stigmasterol and have been used effectively in the treatment of cuts, wounds
and skin diseases. The methanol extracts of A. sessilis leaves revealed
antimicrobial potential against E. coli (Ryan, 1992;
Shyamala et al., 2005; Lin
et al., 1994; Jalalpure et al., 2008).
Andrographis paniculata: A. paniculata belongs to family
Acanthaceae, is an annual herb distributed in Sri Lanka and many parts of India.
It is enriched with medicinal properties of antimalarial, antidiarrhoeal, antihypertensive,
antipyretic, antithrombotic, choleretic, immunostimulant and anti-inflammatory
activities. The ethanol extract of plant is a potent growth inhibitor of both
Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria especially B. cereus and S.
aureus. The antibacterial properties of the plant may be attributed to the
actions of tannins, andrographolide, flavonoids and saponins (Mishra
et al., 2009; Malahubban et al., 2013;
Vidyalakshmi and Ananthi, 2013).
Angelica acutiloba (Japanese Dong Quai): A. acutiloba
is used maily for treating gynecological disorders. Also, Arabinogalactans obtained
from Angelica acutiloba plant, have immunomodulatory and antiviral effect
in animals (Kiyohara et al., 1981; Kumazawa
et al., 1982; Enriquez et al., 1995;
Liu et al., 2011).
Taxus baccata (Yew): The active compound isolated from Taxus
baccata, (--)-rhododendrol, is active against Pseudomonas syringae
and S. Typhimurium. The other two compounds obtained from thesame plant
include 4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-butan-2-one and 4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-trans-but-3-en-2-one
which exhibit antibacterial activity against P. syringae and B. sphaericus
(Erdemoglu and Sener, 2001; Reddy
et al., 2001).
Allium cepa (Onions) and A. sativum (Garlic): The ethanolic
extracts from the cloves of A. sativum show antibacterial activity against
MDR pathogens responsible for nosocomial infection (Karuppiah
and Rajaram, 2012). The ethanolic and aqueous extracts from the bulbs of
A. cepa have been found to have antibacterial action against the common
causes of urinary tract infections, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, especially
those isolated from high vaginal swabs (Azu et al.,
Annona squamosa: The bacterial inhibition of the extracts from
the leaves of A. squamosa is positively correlated with their phenolic
contents. The acetone, boiling water, methanol and ethanolic extracts of A.
squamosa showed low to moderate antibacterial activity in comparison to
standard antibacterial drugs (El-Chaghaby et al.,
Acorus calamus: The crude methanol extracts from rhizomes of
A. calamus have significant antimicrobial activities against filamentous
fungi and a low degree of activity against bacteria (MIC 5-10 mg mL-1)
(Phongpaichit et al., 2005).
Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi/Amrita): It is an extensively used
herbal plant in folk Ayurvedic medicine and rasayanas to enhance the immune
system and body resistance against infections. The ethanolic extract has been
found to show significant antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria
such as S. aureus, E. faecalis, Serratia marcesenses and
Gram negative bacteria such as E. coil, P. vulgaris and S.
typhi (Jeyachandran et al., 2003; Nagaprashanthi
et al., 2012).
Woodfordia fruticosa: The methanolic and ethanolic extract from
dried leaves of W. fruticosa exibit excellent antibacterial activity
against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria including E. coli,
Bacillus subtilis P. aeroginosa, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella
typhimurium, Shigella sonnei, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus
and P. vulgaris (Chougale et al., 2009;
Kumar et al., 2013d).
Betula utilis: The methanol extract of Betula utilis possess
significant antibacterial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative
bacteria as compared to its aqueous and ethanolic extracts. However, its petroleum
ether and chloroform extracts did not have any significant antibacterial activity
(Kumaraswamy et al., 2008).
Terminalia arjuna, T. Bellerica and T. chebula:
These are commonly used herbal preparations in traditional medicinal system
of India. Different preparations of their leaves, stem, bark and seeds are used
either as aqueous, ethanolic, methanolic or hydromethanolic extracts. These
have been proven antibacterial activities. Tannins as antimicrobial constituents
have been purified from T. chebula Retz which are effective against MRSA
infection. Moreover, aqueous and hydromethanolic extracts have been reported
to have antibacterial activity against bacterial pathogens isolated from the
cases of bovines mastitis (Sato et al., 1997;
Chaudhari and Mengi, 2006; Vashney
et al., 2012).
Capsicum minimum: This particular plant along with other peppers
both strengthes and improves digestion as well as lesser the chance of bacterial
infections due to unsanitary food as well as water consumption practices (Grubben
and Denton, 2004).
Arnebia densiflora: The genus A. densiflora, member of
family Boraginaceae, contain alkannin derivatives, namely β, β-dimethylacrylalkannin,
teracrylalkannin and isovalerylalkannin, α-methyl-n-butylalkannin, naphthoquinones
and shikonin; which are known for their potential antibacterial, anti-inflammatory
and wound healing properties (Kosger et al., 2009).
Agathosma betulina (Buchu): The leaves of this plant have an
effective antimicrobial as well as anti-inflammatory potential. Buchu
oil is obtained from this plant is among most renowned botanical assets of South
Africa (Posthumus et al., 1996; Lis-Balchin
et al., 2001; Moolla et al., 2007).
Laurus nobilis (Bay Leaf): Bay leaf oil exhibits bactericidal
effect against S. enterica and E. coli (Friedman
et al., 2002). The activity may be attributed due to the presence
of essential oils extracted from bay leaf (Raharivelomanana
et al., 1989; Rahman et al., 2008).
Acalypha indica: A. indica contains flavonoids, acalyphamide,
alkaloids and glycosides which exerts antibacterial efficacy by inhibiting pathogens
like E. coli and V. cholerae (Nahrstedt et
al., 2006; Krishnaraj et al., 2010).
Herbal antimicrobial as feed additives: The exact mechanism by which
antibacterial agents improve growth performance is not known, however, several
theories have been proposed to explain their beneficial effects:
||Because they reduce the thickness of small intestinal epithelium
and nutrients are more efficiently absorbed from the intestinal lumen (Boyd
and Edward, 1967; Fuller et al., 1984)
||Nutrients are spared because the number of competing microorganisms is
reduced (Eyssen, 1962)
||The different microorganisms responsible for subclinical infections are
either reduced or eliminated completely (Barnes et
||There is a reduction in production of the growth-depressing toxins or
metabolites by intestinal microflora (Dang et al.,
Literature supports that the use of herbal preparations not only act as dietary
supplements but also as agents to avert or control various bacterial infections
especially enteric, respiratory or systemic infections. Organic extracts of
many herbal preparations are available in Indian market viz., Triphala churna,
Hareetaki churna, Dashmula churna, Manjistadi churna,
Sukhsarak churna, Ajmodadi churna, Shivkshar pachan churna,
Mahasudarshan churna, Swadist virechan churna and Pipramool
churna. These were tested for their antibacterial potential against enteric
bacterial pathogens such as E. coli, S. aureus, E. aerogenes,
P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, K. pneumoniae, S. typhi,
S. epidermidis, S. Typhimurium and P. vulgaris, respectively.
Result revealed potent antibacterial activity of Triphala churna, Hareetaki
churna, Dashmula churna against S. epidermidis, P. vulgaris,
S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. typhi (Anesini
and Perez, 1993; Tambekar et al., 2007; Tambekar
and Dahikar, 2011).
OTHER CONVENTIONAL/TRADITIONAL AND EMERGING ANTIBACTERIAL THERAPEUTICS
The Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) system includes long standing
remedies passed on to generations to be practiced by common people such as herbal,
Ayurveda, Siddha, Iranian, Unani, Islamic, Chinese, Acupuncture, Vietnamese
and African health care practices all over the globe. Historical evidences suggest
that in ancient times, honey, wine, vinegar, turmeric, indigenous herbs and
dietary therapies were very successfully used for the management of wound. Some
parts of plants can be used as a part of diet to support and hasten the healing
process such as turmeric in lukewarm milk and citrous fruits to yield vitamins.
These plants thus boost the formation of healthy granulation tissue network.
At the time of war, commonly available materials like for treating gunshot wounds
were boiling oil, egg yolk, turpentine, yogurt, oil from tea leaves, honey,
palm oil and thin peelings of potato which have been used as therapeutic agents.
The use of honey in infected wound management has even been described in the
holy books like Bible and the Quran. The first documentary proof of the use
of honey as a natural remedy in wound management is well documented in 2000
BC old Egypt literature (Tiwari et al., 2013b).
Being viscous and hypertonic in nature honey shows effective antiseptic as well
as anti-inflammatory action. Also, because of hyperosmolarity of honey, it absorbs
the exudates from the wound and enhances the healing process (Yusof
et al., 2007; Tiwari et al., 2013b).
Furthermore, honey is rich in antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory
properties especially against S. aureus, coagulase negative staphylococci,
community-acquired MRSA, E. coli O157:H7 and S. typhimurium infections.
The anti-bacterial properties are mainly due to the multifarious interaction
of the various components of honey viz. hydrogen peroxide, bee defensin-1
and methylgyoxal. Moreover, concentrated and medical grade honey has greater
anti-bacterial action (Badawy et al., 2004;
Kwakman et al., 2008; Moussa
et al., 2012). In recent years, researchers have also revived their
interest in pancghavya element of cow urine for the treatment of various diseases
and disorders viz., rheumatoid arthritis, bacterial/viral infections, tuberculosis,
chicken pox, hepatitis, leucorrhoea, leprosy and many others (Dhama
et al., 2013d). Studies revealed that cow urine can kill a number
of drug resistant bacteria and viruses. Owe to its medicinal properties, cow
urine has been granted U.S. Patents (No. 6896907 and 6,410,059), particularly
for its use along with antibiotics for the control of bacterial infection and
as a bioenhancer of anti-tuberculous drugs (Dhama et
al., 2013d; Randhawa, 2010). Apart from these,
in the current era of emerging drug resistance, various other novel and emerging
antibacterial therapeutic regimens are upcoming nowadays viz., bacteriophages,
enzybiotics, avian egg antibodies, probiotics, immunomodulators, nutritional
elements (Dhama et al., 2008, 2013c,
d; Tiwari et al., 2014a,
c). To overcome with hurdles of evoloving microbial
resistance these various alternative and novel therapies are opening new avenues
to fight against various bacterial pathogens.
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
Encountering a bacterial infection is a routine part of the human and animal
life. New treatment modalities are constantly sprouting with the advances in
medicinal science. Use of various herbs and traditional medicine is safe as
well as economical in the present scenario of escalating health care cost. Emergence
of MDR microorganisms and a decrease in efficacy of allopathic medicines has
driven health care professionals and practitioners to revisit the old ancient
healing methods of traditional and alternative medicines. Hence, an abreast
is required to dig out as much as possible from the treasure of nature in order
to shore up the good health among the advancements in various therapeutic regimens
for getting desired protection from several diseases and ailments. A thorough
reviewing is therefore mandatory in order to observe and describe and at the
same time investigate and validate experimentally the various indigenous drugs
along with better understanding of their biological and pharmacological properties.
In the safety class rating there is great variation in case of herbal therapy.
Many of them are though biologically more active they have the concurrent disadvantages
of being toxic as well which must be viewed very carefully regarding dose standardization
and extraction procedures. Every phytoconstituent has its pharmacological activity
that varies with concentration and presence of another phytoconstituent. Synergistic
as well as antagonistic action of phytoconstituents may be beneficial or harmful
as toxicity of phytoconstituents at higher concentrations is well documented.
Moreover, various pharmacological activities of individual pytoconstituents
or their combinations are yet to be established. At the same time a much needed
emphasis is required on traditional remedies and new therapeutic approaches.
However, at every point a full detailed and well organised and scientifically
proved facts based on molecular mechanisms and clinical trilas are required
in order to avoid the popularized bias towards thi important medical sector.
Herbal therapy acts thus as a much cheaper, safer and most widely accepted concept
of humanity throughout globe, possessing multi-dimensional health benefits..
However, traditional medicinal plants require exhaustive scientific validation
as well as standardization and safety evaluation before they can be accepted
for commercialization. In the present scenario of emerging MDR, herbal therapy
is opening new avenues to prevail over superbugs also. Last but not the least,
in the field of antibacterials, herbal therapy has immense scope of development
for which modern methodology must be employed by new investigations in addition
to clinical studies on animals as well as humans. In the current era of One
World One Health One Medicine Concept,
these efforts would altogether pave a way to develop novel broad spectrum antibacterial
herbal formulations out of the natural resources for safeguarding several health
issues of humans as well as their companion animals.
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