Milk is an ideal medium for the growth and multiplication of diverse microorganisms resulting in its early deterioration. Consumption of raw milk should be discouraged, as numerous epidemiological outbreaks even death have been recorded. Amongst various methods, pasteurization is the widely adopted technology to render milk safe for human consumption. Microbiological quality of pasteurized milk is resultant of various factors including quality of raw milk, heat-treatment employed, storage conditions and extent of post-pasteurization contamination. In the present endeavor, attempts have been made to highlight microbiological considerations for the safety of pasteurized milk. Endeavour has been made to explore various factors affecting the microbiological quality of pasteurized milk and hygienic practices to be implemented for quality improvement. Reviewed literature indicated that to ensure safe pasteurized milk, an improvement in the microbiological quality of raw milk, proper pasteurization and prevention of post-pasteurization contamination is important. Introduction of microfiltration prior to pasteurization is suggested to ensure complete removal of spores thereby enhancing the microbiological safety of pasteurized milk.