Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl. (Bottle gourd), of the family Cucurbitaceae, is a climbing perennial plant widely cultivated as a vegetable crop in tropical countries, such as India, Japan and Thailand. Fruits of which are widely used in Ayurveda and other folk medicines traditionally used for its cardioprotective, cardiotonic, general tonic, diuretic, aphrodisiac, antidote to certain poisons, scorpion strings, alternative purgative and cooling effects. It cures pain, ulcers and fever and used for pectoral cough, asthma and other bronchial disorders-especially syrup prepared from the tender fruits. The fruit is reported to contain the triterepeniode cucurbitacins B, D, G, H and 22-deoxy cucurbitacin the bitter principle of cucurbitaceae. Two sterols i.e., fucosterol and campesterol, aerpene byonolic acid (an allergic compound), flavone-C glycosides, a ribosome inactivating protein), Lagenin, (antiproliferative, immunosuppressive, antifertility). This study is an attempt to compile an up-to-date and comprehensive review of Lagenaria siceraria that covers its traditional and folk medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.