Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article

Protein-Energy Malnutrition Still Exists in Kenya in the Twenty-First Century

Mary Khakoni Walingo and Tabitha Sewe
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail

Malnutrition among preschool children is an indicator of underdevelopment and is high in many developing communities. Malnutrition affects performance of children in the later adulthood life. Though determinants of malnutrition vary from region to region, the underlying cause for malnutrition is poverty. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify prevalence and determinants of nutrition status of preschool children in the Rift Valley in Kenya. Mothers of these children were respondents who provided information on selected variables. Nutrition status was measured by weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height. General prevalence of malnutrition was still high in this population, with more males than females having poor nutrition status as measured by weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height. Risk factors for malnutrition in this population were age, sex, education level of the head of household, time taken by women on other household chores (especially collecting fuel wood), number of pregnancies a mother has had, income of the head of household and income from cash crop farming. Education level of household heads could improve nutrition through appreciating the role of good nutrition for child development and availing resources at the household level for adequate nutrition and health. The major determinants of malnutrition included time spent on household chores (30%), income (12%) and gender (10%).

Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

Mary Khakoni Walingo and Tabitha Sewe, 2015. Protein-Energy Malnutrition Still Exists in Kenya in the Twenty-First Century. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 14: 614-619.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2015.614.619


1:  Anoop, S., B. Saravanan, A. Joseph, A. Cherian and K.S. Jacob, 2004. Maternal depression and low maternal intelligence as risk factors for malnutrition in children: A community based case-control study from South India. Arch. Dis. Child, 89: 325-329.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

2:  Kar, B.R., S.L. Rao and B.A. Chandramouli, 2008. Cognitive development in children with chronic protein energy malnutrition. Behav. Brain Funct., Vol. 4. 10.1186/1744-9081-4-31

3:  Bloss, E., F. Wainaina and R.C. Bailey, 2004. Prevalence and predictors of underweight, stunting and wasting among children aged 5 and under in Western Kenya. J. Trop. Pediatr., 50: 260-270.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

4:  DeClerck, F.A., J. Fanzo, C. Palm and R. Remans, 2011. Ecological approaches to human nutrition. Food Nutr. Bull., 32: 41S-50S.
Direct Link  |  

5:  FAO, 2009. The state of insecurity in the World. Rome, FAO.

6:  Grosse, S. and K. Roy, 2008. Long-term economic effect of early childhood nutrition. Lancet, 371: 365-366.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

7:  Henry, F.J., A. Briend, V. Fauveau, S.A. Huttly, M. Yunus and J. Chakraborty, 1993. Gender and age differentials in risk factors for childhood malnutrition in Bangladesh. Ann. Epidemiol., 3: 382-386.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

8:  Horton, S. and R.H. Steckel, 2011. Copenhagen consensus on human challenges. Malnutrition-Global economic losses attributable to malnutrition 1900-2000 and projections to 2050, Assessment paper.

9:  Hoddinott, J., J. Maluccio, R. Berhrman, R. Flores and R. Martorell, 2008. Effect of a nutrition intervention during early childhood on economic productivity in Guatemalan adults. Lancet, 371: 411-416.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

10:  Leenstra, T., L.T. Petersen, S.K. Kariuki, A.J. Oloo, P.A. Kager and F.O. ter Kuile, 2005. Prevalence and severity of malnutrition and age at menarche: Cross-sectional studies in adolescent schoolgirls in Western Kenya. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 59: 41-48.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

11:  Levitsky, D.A. and B.J. Strupp, 1995. Malnutrition and the brain: Changing concepts, changing concerns. J. Nutr., 125: 2212S-2220S.
Direct Link  |  

12:  Manyike, P.C., J.M. Chinawa, A. Ubesie, H.A. Obu, O.I. Odetunde and A.T. Chinawa, 2014. Prevalence of malnutrition among pre-school children in south-east Nigeria. Italian J. Pediatr., Vol. 40. 10.1186/s13052-014-0075-5

13:  Musa, T.H., E.A. Ali, H.H. Musa and A. Khan, 2013. Anthropometric parameters of malnutrition in children 5-15 years old in Khartoum State, Sudan. J. Public Health Epidemiol., 5: 313-318.
Direct Link  |  

14:  Rikimaru, T., J.E. Yartey, K. Taniguchi, D.O. Kennedy and F.K. Nkrumah, 1988. Risk factors for the prevalence of malnutrition among urban children in Ghana. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol., 44: 391-407.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

15:  Sharghi, A., A. Kamran and M. Faridan, 2011. Evaluating risk factors for protein-energy malnutrition in children under the age of six years: A case-control study from Iran. Int. J. General Med., 4: 607-611.
CrossRef  |  

16:  Udani, P.M., 1992. Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM), brain and various facets of child development. Indian J. Pediatr., 59: 165-186.
PubMed  |  

17:  Upadhyay, S.K., A. Saran, D.K. Agarwal, M.P. Singh and K.N. Agarwal, 1992. Growth and behavior development in rural infants in relation to malnutrition and environment. Indian. Pediatr., 29: 595-606.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

18:  World Bank, 2006.. Repositioning malnutrition as central to development. World Bank, Washington, DC., USA.

19:  Walingo, M.K. and B. Musamali, 2008. Nutrient intake and nutritional status indicators of participant and nonparticipant pupils of a parent-supported school lunch program in Kenya. J. Nutr. Educ. Behav., 40: 298-304.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved