Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Physical Fitness in Normal and Overweight Elementary School Children



Budi Setiawan, Ima Karimah and Ali Khomsan
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

Sedentary lifestyle in children caused low physical activity and increase incident of overweight and obesity. Low physical activity leads to physical fitness decline. The objective of this study was to analyze differences of physical fitness in normal and overweight elementary school children. This study was conducted on 108 children as subjects. They were on the fifth grade of elementary school, consisted of normal and overweight student. Physical fitness was measured by some physical tests, i.e., 40 meters sprint, pull up, sit up, jump up and 600 meters run. The result showed that physical fitness of normal and overweight children were significantly different (p<0.05). The average physical fitness score of normal children (13.4±2.1) was higher than overweight children (10.9±1.7). The speed, muscle endurance, explosive muscle power and cardiovascular endurance of normal children were significantly different from overweight children (p<0.05). Nutritional status significantly influenced physical fitness of elementary school children (p<0.05).

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Budi Setiawan, Ima Karimah and Ali Khomsan, 2014. Physical Fitness in Normal and Overweight Elementary School Children. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 13: 22-27.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2014.22.27

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2014.22.27

REFERENCES
1:  Aires, L., P. Silva, G. Silva, M.P. Santos, C. Ribeiro and J. Mota, 2010. Intensity of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index in youth. J. Phys. Activity Health, 7: 54-59.

2:  Al Barwani, S., M. Al Abri, K. Al Hashmi, M. Al Shukeiry and K. Tahlilkar et al., 2001. Assessment of aerobic fitness and its correlates in Omani adolescents using the 20-metre shuttle run test: A pilot study. J. Scient. Res. Med. Sci., 3: 77-80.
Direct Link  |  

3:  Botelho, G., M. Aguiar and C. Abrantes, 2013. How critical is the effect of body mass index in physical fitness and physical activity performance in adolescents. J. Phys. Educ. Sport, 13: 19-26.

4:  Brunet, M., J.P. Chaput and A. Tremblay, 2007. The association between low physical fitness and high body mass index or waist circumference is increasing with age in children: The Quebec en Forme project. Int. J. Obesity, 31: 637-643.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

5:  Cvejic, D., T. Pejovic and S. Ostojic, 2013. Assessment of physical fitness in children and adolescents. Phys. Educ. Sport, 11: 135-145.
Direct Link  |  

6:  Dollman, J., T. Olds, K. Norton and D. Stuart, 1999. The evolution of fitness and fatness in 10 11 year old Australian schoolchildren: changes in distributional characteristics between 1985 and 1997. Pediatric Exercise Sci., 11: 108-121.

7:  FAO., 2001. Human energy requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation, Rome. http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/y5686e/y5686e00.HTM.

8:  He, Q.Q., T.W. Wong, L. Du, Z.Q. Jiang and T.S.I. Yu et al., 2011. Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity among Chinese children. Preventive Med., 52: 109-113.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

9:  Huang, Y.C. and R.M. Malina, 2002. Physical activity and health-related physical fitness in Taiwanese adolescents. J. Physiol. Anthropol., 21: 11-19.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

10:  Kaluski, D.N., G.D. Mazengia, T. Shimony, R. Goldsmith and E.M. Berry, 2009. Prevalence and determinants of physical activity and lifestyle in relation to obesity among schoolchildren in Israel. Public Health Nutr., 12: 774-782.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

11:  Ministry of Health of Indonesia, 2008. [Result of 2007 basic health research]. National Report 2007, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, Departemen Kesehatan, Republik Indonesia, Desember 2008, (In Indonesian).

12:  Ministry of Health of Indonesia, 2010. [Result of 2010 basic health research]. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan, Departemen Kesehatan, Republik Indonesia, Desember 1, 2010, (In Indonesian).

13:  Kim, H.K., Y. Matsuura, K. Tanaka and A. 1993. [Physical fitness and motor ability in obese boys 12 through 14 years of age]. Ann. Physiol. Anthropol., 12: 17-23, (In Japanese).
PubMed  |  

14:  Malina, R.M., G.P. Beunen, A.L. Claessens, J. Lefevre and B.V. Vanden Eynde et al., 1995. Fatness and physical fitness of girls 7 to 17 years. Obes. Res., 3: 221-231.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

15:  Must, A., P.F. Jacques, G.E. Dallal, C.J. Bajema and W.H. Dietz, 1992. Longterm morbidity and mortality of overweight adolescents: A follow-up of the harvard growth study of 1922 to 1935. N. Engl. J. Med., 327: 1350-1355.
Direct Link  |  

16:  Ohara, C.G., 2009. The cardio-respiratory system and exercise. http://www.musclementors.com/the-cardio-respiratory-system-and-exercise/.

17:  Oren, A., L.E. Vos, C.S.P.M. Uiterwaal, W.H.M. Gorissen, D.E. Grobbee and M.L. Bots, 2003. Change in body mass index from adolescence to young adulthood and increased carotid intima-media thickness at 28 years of age: The Atherosclerosis risk in young adults study. Int. J. Obesity, 27: 1383-1390.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

18:  Ortega, F.B., J.R. Ruiz, M.J. Castillo and M. Sjostrom, 2007. Physical fitness in childhood and adolescence: A powerful marker of health. Int. J. Obesity, 32: 1-11.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

19:  Rauch, F., D.A. Bailey, A. Baxter-Jones, R. Mirwald and R. Faulkner, 2004. The muscle-bone unit during the pubertal growth spurt. Bone, 34: 771-775.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

20:  Rauner, A., F. Mess and A. Woll, 2013. The relationship between physical activity, physical fitness and overweight in adolescents: A systematic review of studies published in or after 2000. BMC Pediatrics, Vol. 13. 10.1186/1471-2431-13-19

21:  Rimbawan and A. Siagian, 2004. [Food Glycemic Index: How to Easily Choosing Healthy Foods]. Penebar Swadaya, Jakarta, Indonesia, ISBN: 979-489-847-3, Pages: 124, (In Indonesian).

22:  Rowlands, A.V., R.G. Eston and D.K. Ingledew, 1999. Relationship between activity levels, aerobic fitness and body fat in 8- to 10-yr-old children. J. Applied Physiol., 86: 1428-1435.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

23:  Ruiz, J.R., F.B. Ortega, A. Gutierrez, D. Meusel, M. Sjostrom and M.J. Castillo, 2006. Health-related fitness assessment in childhood and adolescence: A European approach based on the AVENA, EYHS and HELENA studies. J. Public Health, 14: 269-277.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

24:  Schneider, M., G.F. Dunton, S. Bassin, D.J. Graham, A.F. Eliakim and D.M. Cooper, 2007. Impact of a school-based physical activity intervention on fitness and bone in adolescent females. J. Phys. Activity Health, 4: 17-29.

25:  Soenardi, T., 2011. [100 Healthy Recipes for Kids to be Avoid when Adult Degenerative Diseases]. PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta, Indonesia, ISBN: 9789792267174, Pages: 160, (In Indonesian).

26:  Suryanto, S.P., 2006. Assessment of physical fitness tests with ACSPFT and TKJI. Medikora, 2: 147-160.

27:  WHO, 2010. Global recommendation of physical activity for health. World Health Organization, Washington. http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/factsheet_recommendations/en/.

28:  Wright, C.M., L. Parker, D. Lamont and A.W. Craft, 2001. Implications of childhood obesity for adult health: findings from thousand families cohort study. Br. Med. J., 323: 1280-1288.
Direct Link  |  

29:  Yeung, J. and A.P. Hills, 2007. Childhood Obesity-An Introduction. In: Children, Obesity and Exercise: Prevention, Treatment and Management of Childhood and Adolescent Obesity, Hills, A.P., N.A. King and N.M. Byrne (Eds.). Routledge, London, ISBN: 9781134132270, pp: 1-10.

©  2020 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved