Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article

Nutritional Evaluation of Some Top Fodder Tree Leaves and Shrubs of District Chakwal, Pakistan in Relation to Ruminants Requirements

Atiya Azim, Shakira Ghazanfar, Asma Latif and Mukhtar Ahmad Nadeem
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail

The aim of present research was to record out the nutritional evaluation of different fodder tree leaves and shrubs of district Chakwal, Pakistan. The climate of this range is characterized by a relatively low annual rainfall (350-500 mm). Temperature during winter is 4-25oC and during summer is 15-40oC. Top 15 tree leaves and shrubs, i.e Acacia nilotica, Acacia modesta, Albizzia lebbeck, Capparis decidua, Elaeagnus angustifolia, Grawia optiva, Grewia populifolia, Melia azedarach, Gymnosporia royleana, Indigofera gerardiana, Morus alba, Prosopis cineraria, Panicum antidotale, Ziziphus mauritiana and Zizyphus mummularia were identified and analyzed for proximate analysis, i.e; DM (Dry Matter), CP (Crude Protein), CF (Crude Fiber), Ash, EE (Ether Extract) and gross energy. The gross energy of the foliages is almost lies between 16.09 to 17.96 Mcal/kg. The DM, CP, CF, ash EE contents of the foliages varied from 66.17-40.38, 11.12-19.05, 13.91-30.50, 7.19-13.91, 1.44-6.45% of DM, respectively.

Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

Atiya Azim, Shakira Ghazanfar, Asma Latif and Mukhtar Ahmad Nadeem, 2011. Nutritional Evaluation of Some Top Fodder Tree Leaves and Shrubs of District Chakwal, Pakistan in Relation to Ruminants Requirements. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 10: 54-59.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2011.54.59


1:  Abdulrazak, S.A., T. Fujihara, J.K. Ondiek and E. Orskov, 2000. Nutritive evaluation of some Acacia tree leaves from Kenya. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 85: 89-98.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

2:  Abdulrazak, S.A., J.N. Nyangaga and T. Fujihara, 2001. Relative palatability, in-sacco degradation and in vitro gas production of some multipurpose fodder trees. J. Anim. Sci., 14: 1580-1586.

3:  Abdulrazak, S.A., R.W. Muinga, W. Thorpe and E.R. Orskov, 1997. Supplementation with Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala on voluntary food intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and live weight of crossbred steers offered Zea mays stover. Livest. Prod. Sci., 49: 53-62.
CrossRef  |  

4:  Adjorlolo, L.K., K. Amaning-Kwarteng and F.K. Fianu, 2001. In vivo digestibility and effect of supplemental mucuna forage on treated rice straw degradation. Small Rumin. Res., 41: 239-245.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

5:  Anonymous, 1987. National Commission on Agriculture: Commission on Livestock and Fodder Crops. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan..

6:  AOAC, 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edn., Association of the Official Analytical Chemist. Arlington, Virginia, USA., ISBN-13: 9780095584425.

7:  Ba, N.X., V.D. Giang and L.D. Ngoan, 2005. Ensiling of mulberry foliage (Morus alba) and the nutritive value of mulberry foliage silage for goats in central Vietnam. Livest. Res. Rural Dev., Vol. 17, No. 2.

8:  Bakshi, M.P.S. and M. Wadhwa, 2004. Evaluation of forest tree leaves of semi-hilly arid region as livestock feed. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 17: 777-783.
Direct Link  |  

9:  Ben Salem, H.A., L. Nefzaoui, L. Ben Salem and J.L. Tisserand, 1997. Effect of Acacia cyanophylla Linndl. Forage supply on intake and digestion by sheep fed Lucerne hay based diets. Feed Sci. Tech., 68: 101-113.

10:  Benavides, J., 2000. Utilisation of Mulberry in Animal Production Systems. Mulberry for Animal Production. CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica..

11:  Bittante, G. and I. Andrightto, 1982. Preservation of lolium multrlorum Lam. 1. Quantitative and qualitative changes during hay making and ensiling. Inst. Zootocnica, Univdegli Stud. Via, Gradentigo Italy, 8: 44-45.

12:  Distel, R.A., N.G. Didone and A.S. Moretto, 2005. Variations in chemical composition associated with tissue aging in palatable and unpalatable grasses native to central Argentina. J. Arid Environ., 62: 351-357.
CrossRef  |  

13:  Daccord, R., Y. Arrigo, B. Jeangros, J. Scehovic and F.X. Schubiger, 2002. Nutritive value of grassland plants: Energy and protein values. Agrarforeschung, 9: 22-27.

14:  Lefroy, E.C., P.R. Dann, J.H. Wildin, R.N. Wesley-Smith and A.A. McGowan, 1992. Trees and shrubs as source of fodder in Australia. Agroforestry Syst., 20: 117-139.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

15:  McDowell, L.R., 1977. Geographical Distribution of Nutritional Diseases in Animals. Animal Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville..

16:  Nantoume, H., T.D. Forbes, C.M. Hensarling and S.S. Sieckenius, 2001. Nutritive value and palatability of guajillo (Acacia berlandieri) as a component of goat diets. Small Rumin. Res., 40: 139-148.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

17:  Ondiek, J.O., S.A. Abdulrazak, J.K. Tuitoek and F.B. Bareeba, 1999. The effects of Gliricidia sepium and maize bran as supplementary feed to Rhodes grass hay on intake, digestion and liveweight of dairy goats. Livest. Prod. Sci., 61: 65-70.
CrossRef  |  

18:  Ondiek, J.O., J.K. Tuitoek, S.A. Abdulrazak, F.B. Bareeba and T. Fujihara, 2000. Use of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium as nitrogen sources in supplementary concentrates for dairy goats offered Rhodes grass hay. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 13: 1249-1254.
Direct Link  |  

19:  Paterson, R.T., G.M. Karanja, R.L. Rootheart, O.Z. Nyaata and I.W. Kariuk, 1998. A review of tree fodder production and utilization within smallholder agroforestry systems in Kenya. Agrofor. Syst., 41: 181-199.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

20:  Srivastava, S., R. Kapoor, A. Thathola and R.P. Srivastava, 2006. Nutritional quality of leaves of some genotypes of mulberry (Morus alba). Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr., 57: 305-313.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

21:  Subba, D.B., 1999. Tree fodders and browse plants as potential nutrient suppliers for ruminants. Proceedings of the 3rd National Workshop on Livestock and Fisheries Research, Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Kathmandu, Nepal.

22:  Grace, N.D., 1989. The Mineral Requirements of Grazing Ruminants. 2nd Edn., Occasional Publication No. 9, New Zeland Society of Animal Production, New Zeland, pp: 150.

23:  Wilson, A.D., 1969. A review of browse in the nutrition of grazing animals. J. Range Manage., 22: 23-28.
Direct Link  |  

©  2020 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved