Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Review Article
 

A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul



Nakuleshwar Dut Jasuja, Jyoti Choudhary, Preeti Sharama, Nidhi Sharma and Suresh C. Joshi
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

Commiphora mukul possesses a vast ethnomedical history and represents a phytochemical reservoir of heuristic medical value. It plays a very important role in all these processes as a key ingredient of the treatment procedures. C. mukul contains wide numbers of phytochemical constituents i.e., flavonoid, terpenes, phytosterols etc. which have different biological activities like antimicrobial, anti inflammatory, anti carcinogenic activity and various other important medicinal properties. There is a need to review this plant in order to provide scientific proof for its application in traditional medicine system. Guggulsterone is a main active substance in gugulipid, an extract of the C. mukul, used to treat a variety of disorders in humans, including dyslipidemia, obesity and inflammation. In this review an effort was made to update the information on its phytochemicals and pharmacological properties.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Nakuleshwar Dut Jasuja, Jyoti Choudhary, Preeti Sharama, Nidhi Sharma and Suresh C. Joshi, 2012. A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul. Journal of Plant Sciences, 7: 113-137.

DOI: 10.3923/jps.2012.113.137

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jps.2012.113.137
 
Received: June 05, 2012; Accepted: July 09, 2012; Published: September 01, 2012



INTRODUCTION

The biological and pharmacological properties of many plants are still unknown. Importance of medicinal plants and traditional health systems are always a concerning issue to resolve the health care problems of the world (Sarwar et al., 2011). The major source for drug discovery still comes from herbs and plants in spite of the great development of synthetic molecules (Joshi and Joshi, 2007). The inherent properties of herbal medicine have increased to fill the lacunae created by synthetic medicines (Paarakh, 2010; Joshi et al., 2012a). World-over, the scientists are exploring the possibilities of utilizing or finding out pharmacologically active compounds from medicinal plants (Joshi et al., 2012b; Karmegam et al., 2012; Bairwa et al., 2011). Commiphora mukul is a small thorny plant (Fig. 1) indigenous to the India subcontinent and parts of the Near East (Mesrob et al., 1998). The flowers are red and the fruit is oval in shape and pulpy in nature. It is also known as guggul gum, guggal, guggulsterone, guggulu and gum guggul.

The ole-gum-resin of C. mukul is called gugulipid (Satyavati, 1991). The yellowish resin produced by the stem of the plant has been widely used in Ayurvedic medicine for more than 2000 years, mainly to treat arthritis Inflammation and to improve hepatic antioxidant defense system (Urizar and Moore, 2003; Kimmatkar et al., 2003; Al-Rejaie, 2012).

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 1: Plant of C. mukul

The active ingredients in gugulipid are the ketosteroids cis- and trans-4,17 (20)-pregnadiene-3,16-dione, also known as E- and Z guggulsterone (Ding and Staudinger, 2005), are extracted from the resin, that is safer and more effective than many cholesterol lowering drugs (Szapary et al., 2003). C. mukul was found relatively safe effective supplement for osteoarthritis of the knee (Singh et al., 1995). This medicinal plant has a wide range of usefulness in indigenous medicine (Joshi et al., 2012a). Like all oleo-resins, it causes an increase of leucocytes in the blood and stimulates phagocytosis (Speh and Vogan, 1980). Guggulu is a complex mixture of steroids, diterpenoids, aliphatic esters, carbohydrates, amino acids and triglycerides used into the preparation of several compound medicines (Rout et al., 2012). C. mukul has been used as an anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, anti-suppurative, thyroid-stimulant, nervous diseases, cardiovascular diseases, anthelmintic, depurative, skin disorders, leprosy, pyorrhea, muscle spasms, hypertension, urinary disorders, vulnerary, antiseptic, demulcent, aphrodisiac stimulant, liver tonic etc. (Singh et al., 1990; Gupta, 1990; Singh et al., 1997; Ghorai et al., 2000; Chander et al., 2002; Singh et al., 2003; Deng, 2007; Saxena et al., 2007; Siddiqui, 2011). C. mukul has antiarthritic, anti- inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal activity (Chaturvedi and Singh, 1965; Kakrani, 1981; Pardhasaradhi et al., 2001; Manjula et al., 2006).

Dixit et al. (1980) reported the hypolipidemic effects of Commiphora mukul (guggulu) in dog and Presbytis monkeys. The active plant extract showed significant antibacterial activities against human pathogenic strains, adding credence to the ethnomedicinal uses of the plant (Dey et al., 2011; Omer et al., 2011). Antibacterial and antifungal activity of oils and active components of guggulu were also assayed against a variety of human pathogenic bacteria (Kazemi et al., 2012). Bag et al. (2009) used plant generated bioactive compounds as an alternative antimicrobial agent against multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens. Zongo et al. (2009) also worked on antimicrobial activity of alkaloids and conformed the importance of plant in traditional medicine against some infectious diseases. The hydroalcoholic extract of C. mukul significantly improved the cardiac function and prevented myocardial ischemic impairment manifested in the form of increased heart rate, decreased arterial pressure, increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure and altered myocardial contractility indices (Ojha et al., 2008). Modern therapeutic uses of C. mukul are cover nervous diseases, leprosy, muscle spasms, pyorrhoea, scrofula, skin disorders, spongy gums, hypertension, ulcerative pharyngitis, urinary disorders and cardiovascular diseases. It is also an anti-oxidant agent and reduces the stickiness of platelets. The Ayurvedic herb Inula racemosa, in combination with Commiphora mukul, is used to reduce chest pain and dyspnea of angina (Gupta, 1990; Chander et al., 2002; Deng, 2007). The gum resin contains Z and E isomers of guggulsterone and its related gugggulsterols: guggulsterol-I, guggulsterol-II, guggulsterol- III, guggulsterol-IV, guggulsterol-V and guggulsterol-VI. Major components of essential oil from gum resin are myrcene and dimyrcene (Patil et al., 1972; Purushothaman and Chandrasekharan, 1976). That plant is associated with lower levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. It might be beneficial for people with atherosclerosis (Lata et al., 1991). Gugulipid, a fraction of Commiphora mukul has been developed at CDRI, Lucknow as a hyperlipidaemic agent (Metha et al., 1968; Satyavati et al., 1969).

BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS

Plants have been the basis of many traditional medicines because they are one of the richest sources of bioactive compounds and have continued to provide new remedies to mankind (Ingale and Hivrale, 2010). Some bioactive compounds has been reported in the extract of C. mukul such as dimyrcene (Delay and Ohloff, 1979), α-camphorene (Raldugin et al., 1976), linoleic, oleic, stearic, palmitic acids, sitosterol (Kakrani, 1982), Z- and E-guggulsterones (Mesrob et al., 1998), (8R)-3α,8-dihydroxy-polypoda-13E,17E,21-triene (myrrhanolC,4-pregnene-3,16-dione, 20S-acetyloxy-4-pregnene-3,16-dione, 4,17(20)-(cis)-pregnadiene-3,16-dione, 4,17(20)-(trans)-pregnadiene-3,16-dione, 16 β-acetyloxy-pregn-4,17(20)-trans-dien-3-one, 3 α-acetyloxy-5α-pregnan-16-one, 20R,22R-dihydroxycholest-4-en-3-one (Matsuda et al., 2004).

Amino acids: The amino acids are reported in the extract of Commiphora mukul such as cystine, histidine, alanine, proline, tyrosine, tryptophan, valine, leucine and isoleucine (Arora et al., 1971).

EFFECT OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS AND THEIR ACTIVITY

Epiexcelsin and 5'-demethoxy-epiexcelsin: These two lignans (Fig. 2, 3) were isolate by phytochemical study of Commiphora mukul. These lignans showed the significant inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase with the IC50 59.8±3.63455 and 75.2±8.1616 μM, weak inhibitory potential against chymotrypsin with the IC50 of 110±0.025 and 649±0.013 μM, respectively (Abbasi et al., 2005).

Guggulsterone: Sharma et al. (2009) observed the effects of guggulsterone on diabetic rat and found that guggulsterone showed a differential effect with a significantly improved PPARgamma expression and activity in in vivo and in vitro conditions, respectively. However, it inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocytes differentiation in vitro.

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 2: Epiexcelsin

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 3: 5'-demethoxy-epiexcelsin

The results presented here suggest that the guggulsterone has both hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect which can help to cure type II diabetes (Sharma et al., 2009). Guggulsterone is a potent inhibitor NF-κB, COX-2 and MMp-9 (Shishodia and Aggarwal, 2004). As gugulipid, guggulsterone also inhibited platelets aggregation (Mester et al., 1979) and provide protection against myocardial ischemia induced by isoproterenol (Kaul and Kapoor, 1989). The protective action of guggulsterone is due to antioxidant property because it inhibits the generation of oxygen free radicals (Chander et al., 2002).

According to Shah et al. (2012) the Z- and E-guggulsterones, have been demonstrated to exhibit their biological activities by binding to nuclear receptors and modulating the expression of proteins involved in carcinogenic activities. Guggulsterones have also been reported to regulate gene expression by exhibiting control over other molecular targets including transcription factors such as nuclear factor (NF)-κB, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) and steroid receptors (Shah et al., 2012). Yu et al. (2009) studied the effect of guggulsterone and observed that guggulsterone antagonized the chenodeoxycholic acid activated by nuclear Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR), which regulates cholesterol metabolism in the liver.

The Z-Guggulsterone and E-Guggulsterone are the active components and Non-Ketonic part of guggul which appear to be responsible for lowering blood lipids and hypolipidemic activity. Macha et al. (2010) were studied on guggulsterone targets smokeless tobacco induced PI3K/Akt pathway in head and neck cancer cells. According to them guggulsterone may be able to suppress carcinogenic growth in head and neck cells from smokeless (chewing) tobacco. Because in their research they observed that Guggulsterone (GS) is a biosafe nutraceutical, inhibits the PI3K/Akt pathway that plays a critical role in HNSCC development. However, the potential of GS to suppress Smokeless Tobacco (ST) and nicotine (major component of ST) induced HNSCC remains unexplored. They hypothesized GS can abrogate the effects of ST and nicotine on apoptosis in HNSCC cells, in part by activation of PI3K/Akt pathway and its downstream targets, Bax and Bad. So, they conclude that GS treatment not only inhibited proliferation, but also induced apoptosis by abrogating the effects of ST/nicotine on PI3K/Akt pathway in head and neck cancer cells (Macha et al., 2011). Guggulsterones seem to have special mechanisms for head and neck anti-carcinogenesis (Leeman-Neill et al., 2009; Macha et al., 2010). Guggulsterones also appear to reduce circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and markers such as IL-1b, IL-2 and TNF-α (Manjula et al., 2006). Guggulsterones are also able to reduce Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) mRNA levels and suppress its TNFa mediated induction (activation) (Shishodia and Aggarwal, 2004).

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 4: 4, 17(20)-(trans)-pregnadiene-3

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 5: 4,17(20)-(cis)-pregnadiene-16-dione(guggulsterone, Z-isomer), 16-dione (guggulsterone, E-isomer) (Patil et al., 1973)

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 6: Guggulsterol-I (Meselhy, 2003)

Urizar et al. (2002) studied on a natural product that lowers cholesterol as an antagonist ligand for FXR and observed that sterol guggulsterone [4,17(20)-pregnadiene-3,16-dione] (Fig. 5) is the active agent, highly efficacious antagonist of the Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) and a nuclear hormone receptor that is activated by bile acids (Urizar et al., 2002).

Some researchers also studied guggulsterone and isolated the Z- and E- isomer of guggulsterone (Fig. 4 and 5) and its related guggulsterols like guggulsterol-I (Fig. 6), guggulsterol-II (Fig. 7), guggulsterol-III (Fig. 8), guggulsterol IV (Fig. 9), guggulsterol V (Fig. 10), Guggulsterol VI (Fig. 11) from the extract of resin. These compounds have hypolipidemic properties (Singh et al., 2005; Mishra and Kaur, 2012).

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 7: Guggulsterol-II (Jain and Gupta, 2005)

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 8: Guggulsterol-III (Patil et al., 1972)

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 9: Guggulsterol-IV (Purushothaman and Chandrasekharan, 1976)

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 10: Guggulsterol-V (Purushothaman and Chandrasekharan, 1976)

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 11: Guggulsterol-VI{16-α- hydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one}(Bajaj and Sukh, 1982)

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 12: Guggultetrol-18(D-xylo-octadecane-1,2,3,4-tetrol) n = 2 (Kumar and Dev, 1987)

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 13: Guggultetrol-20 (eicon-1 , 2, 3,4-tetrol) (Kumar and Dev, 1987)

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 14: Naringenin (Fatope et al., 2003)

A search was done on these two tetrols (Fig. 12, 13), but no references describing biological activity were found (Dev, 1983).

Naringenin: Naringenin (Fig. 14) can efficiently prevent the accumulation of plasma lipids and lipoproteins. Naringenin has hepatoprotective efficacy. It is flavonoids which display anti-inflammatory, antihistaminic, antibacterial and antiviral properties (Kay, 1996).

Cembranoids: Yu et al. (2009) studied the Effect cembranoids (Fig. 15) of Commiphora mukul and observed that the cembranoids did not show a noticeable effect on FXR, but lowered the cholate (1)-activated rate of human pancreatic IB phospholipase A2 (hPLA2), which controls gastrointestinal absorption of fat and cholesterol (Yu et al., 2009).

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 15: Cembranoids

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 16: Myrrhanol A (Kimura et al., 2001; Matsuda et al., 2004)

Myrrhanol A: Myrrhanol A (Fig. 16), a triterpene of Commiphora mukul gum resin displayed a potent anti-inflammatory effect on exudative pouch fluid, angiogenesis and granuloma weights in adjuvant-induced air-pouch granuloma of mice. Researchers noted that the effects were more marked than those of hydrocortisone (Kimura et al., 2001). A petroleum ether extract of the oleo-gum resin of Commiphora molmol, dosed at 500 mg kg-1 produced a significant inhibition of carrageenan -induced inflammation and cotton pellet granuloma, as well as significant antipyretic activity in mice (Tariq et al., 1986). Myrrhanol A, is significantly reduces pain and stiffness in patients with osteoarthritis.

α-pinene: The bicyclic monoterpenes α-pinene (Fig. 17) showed considerable antifungal activity (Lis-Balcnin et al., 1999; Aligiannis et al., 2001; Mourey and Canillac, 2002; Delaquis et al., 2002; Kim et al., 2003; Martins et al., 2003; Staniszewska et al., 2005). However, there is no clear consensus yet as to which pinene isomer is more antimicrobially active (Griffin et al., 1999; Hammer et al., 2003).

Eugenol (Fig. 18) is known to inhibit lipid peroxidation by acting as a chain-breaking antioxidant (Nagababu and Lakshmaiah, 1992; Fugisawa et al., 2002). The lipid peroxidation may play a very important role in cell proliferation especially in tumours (Udilova et al., 2003) thus; lipid peroxidation control could be a mechanism of action of eugenol as an anti microbial agent. Eugenol is involved in cytotoxic process and can cause apoptotic cell death (Yoo et al., 2005). Eugenol inhibited the mutagenicity of aflatoxin B1 and N-methyl-N’-nitrosoguanidine (Francis et al., 2004).

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 17: α-pinene (Saxena and Sharma, 1998)

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 18: Eugenol (Saxena and Sharma, 1998)

Ellagic acid: Ellagic acid (Fig. 19) has antioxidant, anti-mutagen and anti-cancer properties. Studies have shown the anti-cancer activity on cancer cells of the breast, oesophagus, skin, colon, prostate and pancreas. More specifically, ellagic acid prevents the destruction of P53 gene by cancer cells. Ellagic acid can bind with cancer causing molecules, thereby making them inactive.

Ahn et al. (1996) studied on the effects of dietary ellagic acid on rat hepatic and esophageal mucosal cytochromes P450 and phase II enzymes. They showed that ellagic acid causes a decrease in total hepatic mucosal cytochromes and an increase in some hepatic phase II enzyme activities, thereby enhancing the ability of the target tissues to detoxify the reactive intermediates. Ellagic acid showed also a chemo-protective effect against various chemically induced cancers (Ahn et al., 1996). A study by Thresiamma et al. (1996) indicate that oral administration of ellagic acid by rats can circumvent the carbon tetrachloride toxicity and subsequent fibrosis of the liver. Ellagic acid has also antiviral and antibacterial activities (Thresiamma et al., 1996). In plants, ellagic acid is bound to a sugar molecule to form ellagitannin, a potent antimicrobial agent. This molecule may have evolved to protect plants from infections and parasites, but there is some evidence that ellagic acid might serve antiviral and antibacterial functions.

L-arabinose: L-Arabinose (Fig. 20) found in plant, has no reported biological activity, but makes the bean pods a good source of sugar (Kay, 1996).

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 19: Ellagic acid (Kakrani, 1981)

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 20: L-arabinose (Bose and Gupta, 1964)

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 21: Myrrhanols B

Myrrhanols B, myrrhanones A, myrrhanones B: Matsuda et al. (2004) studied on absolute stereo structures of polypodane- and octanordammarane-type triterpenes with nitric oxide production inhibitory activity from guggul-gum resins. They observed that the several triterpenes (Fig. 21-23) constituents showed inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production and induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

Muscanone: Fatope et al. (2003) were isolated a new antifungal flavanone, muscanone (Fig. 24) along with known naringenin from Commiphora wightii which show the antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Muscanone inhibited the growth of Candida albicans at 250 μg mL-1 (Fatope et al., 2003).

Diayangambin: De Leon et al. (2002) studied on diayangambin (Fig. 25) have immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory efficacy in vitro and in vivo condition. They observed that Human mononuclear cell proliferation was inhibited by diayangambin with an IC50 value of 1.5 (0.5-2.8) micro M.

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 22: Myrrhanones A

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 23: Myrrhanones B (Kimura et al., 2001; Matsuda et al., 2004)

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 24: Muscanone (Fatope et al., 2003)

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 25: Diayangambin ((Matsuda et al., 2004)

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 26: Quercetin

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 27: Quercetin-3-O-α-L-arabinoside

In addition, the compound reduced for 40.8% prostaglandin E 2 generation in stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line at 10 micro M and In vivo, a clear reduction of ear swelling was observed when diayangambin (40 mg kg-1) was administered orally to 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-treated mice. The inhibition of swelling was associated with a reduction of leukocyte infiltration determined as myeloperoxidase activity. In the carrageenan mouse paw edema model, diayangambin significantly suppressed inflamed paw volume and prostaglandin E 2 levels. So, they conclude that the potential interest of diayangambin in the treatment of immune and inflammatory responses (De Leon et al., 2002).

Quercetin: The major flavonoid components of the flowers of Commiphora mukul were identified as quercetin (Fig. 26), quercetin-3-O-α-L-arabinoside (Fig. 27), quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactoside (Fig. 28), quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (Fig. 29), quercetin-3- O-β-D glucuronide (Fig. 30) (Kakrani, 1981). The flavonoid pelargonidin-3, 5-di-O-glucoside (Fig. 31) is an anthocyanidin also isolated from C. mukul flowers. Some studies have also reported that, in vitro, quercetin (Fig. 26) can inhibit various cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor β (TNFβ) (Manjeet and Ghosh, 1999; Nair et al., 2006). Quercetin aglycone was the most effective inducer of the anticarcinogenic phase II marker enzyme, Quinone Reductase (QR), in mouse Hepalclc7 cells. Of the glycosides, only quercetin-4'-glucoside was able to induce QR activity in this assay (Williamson et al., 1996).

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 28: Quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactoside

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 29: Quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 30: Quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 31: Pelargonidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside (Kakrani, 1981)

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 32: Methyl chavicol (Saxena and Sharma, 1998)

Quercetin has a range of activities. It has been shown in vitro to act as an antioxidant (Filipe et al., 2004), inhibit LDL oxidation (Formica and Regelson, 1995; Yamamoto et al., 1999; Janisch et al., 2004), inhibit the nitric oxide pathway (Chan et al., 2000; Mu et al., 2001), have anti-inflammatory activity, possibly due to an influence on the production of eicosanoids, including leukotrienes and prostaglandins (Formica and Regelson, 1995) and also cytokines (Wadsworth and Koop, 1999), have potential as an anti-cancer agent through interaction with type II oestrogen binding sites (Shenouda et al., 2004), inhibition of tyrosine kinase (Huang et al., 1999), up-regulation of tumour suppressor genes (Nair et al., 2004; Van Erk et al., 2005) induction of apoptosis (Mertens-Talcott and Percival, 2005; Mertens-Talcott et al., 2003) and inhibition of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (Wadsworth et al., 2001), have antihistamine activity (Marozzi et al., 1970).

Methyl chavicol: Methyl chavicol (Fig. 32), also known as estragole (Lewinsohn et al., 2000).

1, 8-cineole: Santos and Rao (2000) were studied on anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole (Fig. 33) a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils. They observed that 1,8-Cineole (cineole), a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils displays an inhibitory effect on some types of experimental inflammation in rats, i.e., paw edema induced by carrageenan and cotton pellet-induced granuloma. Cineole also inhibits in mice, the acetic acid-induced increase in peritoneal capillary permeability and the chemical nociception induced by intraplantar formalin and intraperitoneal acetic acid (Santos and Rao, 2000).

β-sitosterol: The structures of β-sitosterol (Fig. 34) and cholesterol are quite similar. It is reasonable that β-sitosterol can inhibit the absorbing of cholesterol in the body (Miettinen and Gylling, 2002) and thus reduce the cholesterol levels in the plasma (MacLatchy and Van Der Kraak, 1995). The liver function activity (GDP, GOP) can improve with β-sitosterol (Zak et al., 2005).

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 33: 1,8-cineole (Saxena and Sharma, 1998)

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 34: β-sitosterol (Amjad and Mashooda, 1967)

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 35: Campesterol (Kakrani, 1982)

β-sitosterol can reduce prostate cancer and colon-cancer cell growth (Awad and Fink, 2000). β-sitosterol has been reported that it has in vivo topical anti-inflammatory properties in acute TPA-induced ear oedema in mice but not in the chronic one (Gomez et al., 1999).

Stigmasterol and campesterol: The most commonly found phytosterols are campesterol (C28) (Fig. 35) and stigmasterol (C29) (Fig. 36) (Pegel, 1980; Ostlund, 2002). Phytosterols are incorporated in a variety of food products (functional foods (Vorster et al., 2003) due to their cholesterol-lowering effect, hence providing protection against cardiovascular disease (Tapiero et al., 2003).

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 36: Stigmasterol (Kakrani, 1982)

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 37: (±)-linalool

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 38: α-terpineol (Saxena and Sharma, 1998)

Stigmasterol was found to markedly inhibit tumor promotion in two-stage carcinogenesis in mice (Yasukawa et al., 1991; Kasahara et al., 1994) and to exhibit significant inhibitory effect on HIV reverse transcriptase (Akihisa et al., 2001). A mixture of stigmasterol and sitosterol were shown to possess anti-inflammatory activity after topical application (Gomez et al., 1999).

(±)-linalool and α-terpineol: Linalool (Fig. 37) and α-terpineol (Fig. 38) exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria and their concentration should be kept below 0.4 mg mL-1 (Park et al., 2012).

Mansumbinoic acid and mansumbinone: Research on anti-inflammatory activity of C. mukul. They observed that two octanodammarane triterpenes and mansumbinoic acid (Fig. 39) mansumbinone (Fig. 40) exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity. The effect of mansumbinoic acid to reduced the joint swelling (Duwiejua et al., 1993; Sosa et al., 1993). Rahman et al. (2008) studied on antibacterial terpenes from the oleo-resin of Commiphora molmol (Engl.).

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 39: Mansumbinoic acid

Image for - A Review on Bioactive Compounds and Medicinal Uses of Commiphora mukul
Fig. 40: Mansumbinone (Duwiejua et al., 1993)

They observed that two octane-dammaranes; mansumbinone and 3,4-seco-mansumbinoic acid and two sesquiterpenes; beta-elemene and T-cadinol were show the antimicrobial activity against a number of Staphylococcus aureus strains: SA1199B, ATCC25923, XU212, RN4220 and EMRSA15. The 3,4-seco -mansumbinoic acid were show the highest Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) against Staphylococcus aureus SA1199B (4 mL-1) (Rahman et al., 2008).

CONCLUSION

Pharmacological effects of Commiphora mukul have been studied in various laboratories. C. mukul is a most food and feed plant, produced a broad range of bioactive chemical constituent via their so called secondary metabolism. Bioactive compounds are often characterized as both poisonous and medicinal and a beneficial or an adverse result may depend on the amount eaten and context of intake.

Pharmacological studies on C. mukul have been studied in various laboratories. C. mukul can be regarded as plant of high medicinal value as it is an active source of number of bioactive compounds such as guggulsterone, eugenol, ellagic acid, quercitin, stigmasterol and campesterol. Studies showed that these bioactive compounds possess immense utility. Guggulsterones may be able to suppress carcinogenic growth in head and neck cells from smokeless (chewing) tobacco. Eugenol also known as lipid peroxidation may play a very important role in cell proliferation especially in tumours. Ellagic acid possesses antioxidant, anti-mutagen and anti-cancer properties. Studies have shown the anti-cancer activity on cancer cells of the breast, oesophagus, skin, colon, prostate and pancreas. Quercitin has been shown in vitro to act as an antioxidant inhibit LDL oxidation, inhibit the nitric oxide pathway have anti-inflammatory activity. In today’s era deadly disease as cancer, tumor has become epidemic. Plants, gift of nature still possess unexplored potential. Studies on C. mukul have shown a light in treating such diseases through natural means.

REFERENCES

  1. Abbasi, M.A., V.U. Ahmad, M.Z.S.N. M.Khan, M.A. Lodhi and M.I. Choudhary, 2005. A-glucosidase and chymotrypsin inhibiting lignans from Commiphora mukul. Proc. Pak. Acad. Sci., 42: 23-26.


  2. Ahn, D., D. Putt, L. Kresty, G.D. Stoner, D. Fromm and P.F. Hollenberg, 1996. The effects of dietary ellagic acid on rat hepatic and esophageal mucosal cytochromes P450 and phase II enzymes. Carcinogenesis, 17: 821-828.
    CrossRef  |  


  3. Akihisa, T., J. Ogihara, J. Kato, K. Yasukawa, M. Ukiya, S. Ya-Manouchi and K. Oishi, 2001. Inhibitory effects of triterpenoids and sterols on human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase. Lipids, 36: 507-512.


  4. Al-Rejaie, S.S., 2012. Effect of oleo-gum-resin on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. J. Med. Sci., 12: 1-9.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  5. Amjad, A.M. and H. Mashooda, 1967. Chemical investigation of Commiphora mukul. Pak. J. Sci. Ind. Res., 10: 21-23.


  6. Awad, A.B. and C.S. Fink, 2000. Phytosterols as anticancer dietary components: Evidence and mechanism of action. J. Nutr., 130: 2127-2130.
    PubMed  |  


  7. Bag, A., S.K. Bhattacharyya, P. Bharati, N.K. Pal and R.R. Chattopadhyay, 2009. Evaluation of antibacterial properties of Chebulic myrobalan (fruit of Terminalia chebula Retz.) extracts against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Afr. J. Plant Sci., 3: 25-29.
    Direct Link  |  


  8. Bajaj, A.G. and D.S. Sukh, 1982. Chemistry of ayurvedic crude drugs-V: Guggulu (resin from) -5 some new steroidal components and stereochemistry of guggulsterol-I at C-20 and C-22. Tetrahedron, 38: 2949-2954.


  9. Bose, S. and C. Gupta, 1964. Structure of Commiphora mukul Gum: Part I-nature of sugars present and the structure of the Aldobiouronic acid. Indian J. Chem., 2: 57-60.


  10. Chan, M.M., J.A. Mattiacci, H.S. Hwang, A. Shah and D. Fong, 2000. Synergy between ethanol and grape polyphenols, quercetin and resveratrol, in the inhibition of the inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway. Biochem. Pharmacol., 60: 1539-1548.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  


  11. Chander, R., A.K. Khanna and R. Pratap, 2002. Antioxidant activity of guggulsterone, the active principal of gugulipid from Commiphora mukul. J. Med. Arom. Plant Sci., 24: 370-374.


  12. Chaturvedi, G.N. and R.H. Singh, 1965. Experimental studies on the antiarthritic effect of certain indigenous drugs. Indian J. Med. Res., 53: 71-80.
    PubMed  |  


  13. De Leon, E.J., D.A. Olmedo, P.N. Solis, M.P. Gupta and M.C. Terencio, 2002. Diayangambin exerts immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. Plant Med., 68: 1128-1131.
    PubMed  |  


  14. Delaquis, P.J., K. Stanich, B. Girard and G. Mazza, 2002. Antimicrobial activity of individual and mixed fractions of dill, cilantro, coriander and eucalyptus essential oils. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 74: 101-109.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  


  15. Delay, F. and G. Ohloff, 1979. Syntheses and absolute configuration of (E) - and (Z)- α-bisabolenes. Helv. Chim. Acta, 62: 369-377.


  16. Deng, R., 2007. Therapeutic effects of guggul and its constituent guggulsterone: Cardiovascular benefits. Cardiovasc. Drug Rev., 25: 375-390.
    Direct Link  |  


  17. Dev, S., 1983. Chemistry of resinous exudates of some Indian trees. Proc. Indian. Natl. Sci. Acad., 49: 359-385.


  18. Dey, A., T. Das and S. Mukherjee, 2011. In vitro Antibacterial activity of n-hexane fraction of methanolic extract of Plumeria rubra L. (Apocynaceae) Stem Bark. J. Plant Sci., 6: 135-142.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  19. Ding. X. and J.L. Staudinger, 2005. The ratio of constitutive Androstane receptor to pregnane X receptor determines the activity of guggulsterone against the Cyp2b10 Promoter. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 314: 120-127.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  


  20. Dixit, V.P., S.C. Joshi, R. Sinha, S.K. Bhargava and M. Verma, 1980. Hypolipidemic activity of guggal resin (Commiphora mukul) and garlic (Alium sativum Linn.) in dogs (Canis familiaris) and monkeys (Presbytis entellus entellus Dufresne). Biochem. Exp. Biol., 16: 421-424.
    PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  


  21. Duwiejua, M., I.J. Zeitlin, P.G. Waterman, J. Chapman, G.J. Mhango and G.J. Provan, 1993. Anti-inflammatory activity of resins from some species of the plant family Burseraceae. Planta Med., 59: 12-16.
    PubMed  |  


  22. Fatope, M.O., S.K.S. Al-Burtomania, J.O. Ocheib, A.O. Abdulnoura, S.M.Z. Al-Kindya and Y. Takedac, 2003. Muscanone: A 3-O-(1", 8", 14" trimethylhexadecanyl) naringenin from Commiphora wightii. Phytochemistry, 62: 1251-1255.
    CrossRef  |  


  23. Filipe, P., J. Haigle, J.N. Silva, J. Freitas and A. Fernandes et al., 2004. Anti- and pro-oxidant effects of quercetin in copper-induced low density lipoprotein oxidation. Quercetin as an effective antioxidant against pro-oxidant effects of urate. Eur. J. Biochem., 271: 1991-1999.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  


  24. Formica, J.V. and W. Regelson, 1995. Review of the biology of quercetin and related bioflavonoids. Food Chem. Toxicol., 33: 1061-1080.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  


  25. Francis, J.A., S.N. Raja and M.G. Nair, 2004. Bioactive terpenoids and guggulusteroids from Commiphora mukul gum resin of potential anti-inflammatory interest. Chem. Biodivers., 1: 1842-1853.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  


  26. Ghorai, M., S.C. Mandal, M. Pal, S.P. Pal and B.P. Saha, 2000. A comparative study on hypocholesterolaemic effect of allicin, whole germinated seeds of Bengal gram and gugulipid of gum guggul. Phytother. Res., 14: 200-202.


  27. Gomez, M.A., M.T. Scienz, M.D. Garcia and M.A. Farnandez, 1999. Study on topical anti-inflammatory activity of Achillea ageratum on chronic and acute inflammation. Z. Naturforsch. C, 54: 937-941.
    PubMed  |  


  28. Griffin, S.G., S.G. Wyllie, J.L. Markham and D.N. Leach, 1999. The role of structure and molecular properties of terpenoids in determining their antimicrobial activity. Flavour Fragrance J., 14: 322-332.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  29. Gupta, R.D., 1990. Gugulipid: Pro-lipaemic effect. J. Assoc. Physicians India, 38: 598-598.
    PubMed  |  


  30. Hammer, K.A., C.F. Carson and T.V. Riley, 2003. Antifungal activity of the components of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil. J. Applied Microbiol., 95: 853-860.
    CrossRef  |  


  31. Huang, Y.T., J.J. Hwang, P.P. Lee, F.C. Ke and J.H. Huang et al., 1999. Effects of luteolin and quercetin, inhibitors of tyrosine kinase, on cell growth and metastasis-associated properties in A431 cells over expressing epidermal growth factor receptor. Br. J. Pharmacol., 128: 999-1010.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  


  32. Ingale, A.G. and A.U. Hivrale, 2010. Pharmacological studies of Passiflora sp. and their bioactive compounds. Afr. J. Plant Sci., 4: 417-426.
    Direct Link  |  


  33. Jain, A. and V.B. Gupta, 2005. Chemistry and pharmacological profile of guggul: A review. Indian J. Traditional Knowledge, 5: 478-483.
    Direct Link  |  


  34. Janisch, K.M., G. Williamson, P. Needs and G.W. Plumb, 2004. Properties of quercetin conjugates: Modulation of LDL oxidation and binding to human serum albumin. Free Radic. Res., 38: 877-884.
    PubMed  |  


  35. Joshi, S.C. and V. Joshi, 2007. Effect of Amomum subulatum on oxidative stress and atherosclerosis in cholesterol fed rabbits. Pharmacologyonline, 1: 451-463.
    Direct Link  |  


  36. Joshi, S.C., G.L. Bairwa and N. Sharma, 2012. Effect of Amomum subulatum on oxidative stress and serum lipids in cholesterol fed rabbits. Int. J. Nat. Prod. Res., 1: 1-6.
    Direct Link  |  


  37. Joshi, S.C., N. Sharma and P. Sharma, 2012. Antioxidant and lipid lowering effects of Coriandrum sativum in cholesterol fed rabbits. Int. J. Pharmacy Pharm. Sci., 4: 231-234.
    Direct Link  |  


  38. Kakrani, H.K., 1981. Flavonoids from the flowers of Commiphora mukul. Fitoterapia, 52: 221-223.


  39. Kakrani, H.K., 1982. Physicochemical examination of seed oil from Commiphora mukul Hook ex Stocks. Indian Drugs, 19: 339-341.
    Direct Link  |  


  40. Karmegam, N., M. Jayakumar and S. Karuppusamy, 2012. Synergistic antibacterial activity of four medicinal plants collected from Dharapuram Taluk of Truppur District, South India. J. Plant Sci., 7: 32-38.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  41. Kaul, S. and N.K. Kapoor, 1989. Cardiac sarcolemma enzymes and liver microsomal cytochrome P450 in isoproterenol treated rats. Indian J. Med. Res., 90: 62-68.
    PubMed  |  


  42. Kay, M.A., 1996. Healing with Plants in the American and Mexican West. The University of Arizona Press, Tuscon, pp: 221-224


  43. Kazemi, M., H. Rostami and S. Shafiei, 2012. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of some medicinal plants from Iran. J. Plant Sci., 7: 55-66.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  44. Kim, K.J., Y.H. Kim, H.H. Yu, S.I. Jeong, J.D. Cha, B.S. Kil and Y.O. You, 2003. Antibacterial activity and chemical composition of essential oil of Chrysanthemum boreale. Planta Med., 69: 274-277.
    PubMed  |  


  45. Kimmatkar, N., V. Thawani, L. Hingorani and R. Khiyani, 2003. Efficacy and tolerability of Boswellia serrata extract in treatment of osteoarthritis of knee-A randomized double blind placebo controlled trial. Phytomedicine, 10: 3-7.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  


  46. Kimura, I., M. Yoshikawa, S. Kobayashi, Y. Sugihara and M. Suzuki et al., 2001. New triterpenes, myrrhanol A and myrrhanone A, from Guggulgum resins and their potent anti-inflammatory effect on adjuvant-induced air-pouch granuloma of mice. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 11: 985-989.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  


  47. Kumar, V. and S. Dev, 1987. Chemistry of ayurvedic crude drugs-VII: Guggulu (resin from Commiphora mukul). 6. Absolute stereochemistry of guggultetrols. Tetrahedron, 43: 5933-5948.
    CrossRef  |  


  48. Lata, S., K.K. Saxena, V. Bhasin, R.S. Saxena, A. Kumar and V.K. Srivastava, 1991. Beneficial effects of Allium sativum, Allium cepa and Commiphora mukul on experimental hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis-a comparative evaluation. J. Postgrad. Med., 37: 132-135.
    PubMed  |  


  49. Leeman-Neill, R.J., S.E. Wheeler, S.V. Singh, S.M. Thomas and R.R. Seethala et al., 2009. Guggulsterone enhances head and neck cancer therapies via inhibition of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3. Carcinogenesis, 30: 1848-1856.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  


  50. Lewinsohn, E., I. Ziv-Raz, N. Dudai, Y. Tadmor and E. Lastochkin et al., 2000. Biosynthesis of estragole and methyl-eugenol in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.). Developmental and chemotypic association of allylphenol O-methyltransferase activities. Plant Sci., 160: 27-35.
    CrossRef  |  


  51. Lis-Balcnin, M., R.J. Ochocka, S.G. Deans, M. Asztemborska and S. Hart, 1999. Differences in bioactivity between the Enantiomers of α-Pinene. J. Essent. Oil, Res., 11: 393-397.
    CrossRef  |  


  52. Macha, M.A., A. Matta, S. Chauhan, K.M. Siu and R. Ralhan, 2010. 14-3-3 zeta is a molecular target in guggulsterone induced apoptosis in head and neck cancer cells. BMC Cancer, Vol. 30.
    CrossRef  |  


  53. Macha, M.A., A. Matta, S.S. Chauhan, K.W.M. Siu and R. Ralhan, 2011. Guggulsterone targets smokeless tobacco induced PI3K/Akt pathway in head and neck cancer cells. PLoS One, Vol. 6
    Direct Link  |  


  54. MacLatchy, D.L. and G.L. Van Der Kraak, 1995. The phytoestrogen beta-sitosterol alters the reproductive endocrine status of goldfish. Toxicol. Applied Pharmacol., 134: 305-312.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  


  55. Manjeet, K.R. and B. Ghosh, 1999. Quercetin inhibits LPS-induced nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in murine macrophages. Int. J. Immunopharmacol., 21: 435-443.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  


  56. Manjula, N., B. Gayathri, K.S. Vinaykumar, N.P. Shankernarayanan, R.A. Vishwakarma and A. Balakrishnan, 2006. Inhibition of MAP kinases by crude extract and pure compound isolated from Commiphora mukul leads to down regulation of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-2. Int. Immunopharm., 6: 122-132.
    PubMed  |  


  57. Marozzi, F.J., A.B. Kocialski and M.H. Malone, 1970. Studies on the antihistaminic effects of thymoquinone, thymohydroquinone and quercetin. Arzneimittelforschung, 20: 1574-1577.
    PubMed  |  


  58. Martins, A.P., L.R. Salgueiro, M.J. Goncalves, A.P. Da Cunha, R. Vila and S.C. Caniguerl, 2003. Univ Coimbra, Fac Farm, Lab Farmacognosia, CEF, PT-3000 Coimbra, Portugal. Essential oil composition and antimicrobial activ-ity of Santiria trimera bark. Planta Med., 69: 77-79.


  59. Matsuda, H., T. Morikawa, S. Ando, H. Oominami, T. Murakami, I. Kimura and M. Yoshikawa, 2004. Absolute stereostructures of polypodane-type triterpenes, myrrhanol A and myrrhanone A, from guggul-gum resin (the resin of Balsamodendron mukul). Chem. Pharm. Bull., 52: 1200-1203.
    PubMed  |  


  60. Mertens-Talcott, S.U. and S.S. Percival, 2005. Ellagic acid and quercetin interact synergistically with resveratrol in the induction of apoptosis and cause transient cell cycle arrest in human leukemia cells. Cancer Lett., 218: 141-151.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  


  61. Mertens-Talcott, S.U., S.T. Talcott and S.S. Percival, 2003. Low concentrations of quercetin and ellagic acid synergistically influence proliferation, cytotoxicity and apoptosis in MOLT-4 human leukemia cells. J. Nutr., 133: 2669-2674.
    PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  


  62. Meselhy, M.R., 2003. Inhibition of LPS- induced NO production by the oleogum resin of Commiphora wightii and its constituents. Phytochem, 62: 213-218.
    CrossRef  |  


  63. Mesrob, B., C. Nesbitt, R. Misra and R.C. Pandey, 1998. High-performance liquid chromatographic method for fingerprinting and quantitative determination of E- and Z- guggulsterones in Commiphora mukul resin and its products. J. Chromatogr. B, 720: 189-196.
    PubMed  |  


  64. Mester, M., L. Mester and S. Nityanand, 1979. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by Guggulu steroids. Planta Med., 37: 367-369.
    PubMed  |  


  65. Metha, V.L., C.L. Malhotra and N.S. Kalrah, 1968. The effects of various fractions of gum guggul on experimentally produced hypercholestraemia in chicks. Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 12: 91-95.
    PubMed  |  


  66. Mishra, V. and R. Kaur, 2012. Assessment of different quality control parameters of market variants of punarnavadi guggulu. Int. J. Pharm. Pharm., 4: 703-710.


  67. Mourey, A. and N. Canillac, 2002. Anti-Listeria monocytogenes activity of essential oils components of conifers. Food Control, 13: 289-292.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  68. Mu, M.M., D. Chakravortty, T. Sugiyama, N. Koide and K. Takahashi et al., 2001. The inhibitory action of quercetin on lipopolysaccharide induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. J. Endotoxin. Res., 7: 431-438.
    PubMed  |  


  69. Nagababu, E. and N. Lakshmaiah, 1992. Inhibitory effect of eugenol on non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation in rat liver mitochondria. Bichem. Pharmacol., 43: 2393-2400.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  


  70. Nair, H.K., K.V. Rao, R. Aalinkeel, S. Mahajan1, R. Chawda1 and S.A. Schwartz, 2004. Inhibition of prostate cancer cell colony formation by the flavonoid quercetin correlates with modulation of specific regulatory genes. Clin. Diagn Lab Immunol., 11: 63-69.
    CrossRef  |  


  71. Nair, M.P., S. Mahajan, J.L. Reynolds, R. Aalinkeel, H. Nair, S.A. Schwartz and C. Kandaswami, 2006. The flavonoid quercetin inhibits proinflammatory cytokine (Tumor necrosis factor alpha) gene expression in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells via modulation of the NF-kβ system. Clin. Vaccin. Immunol., 13: 319-328.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  72. Ojha, S.K., M. Nandave, S. Arora, R.D. Mehra, S. Joshi, R. Naran and D.S. Arya, 2008. Effect of Commiphora mukul extract on cardiac dysfunction and ventricular function in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 46: 646-652.
    PubMed  |  


  73. Omer, S.A., S.E.I. Adam and O.B. Mohammed, 2011. Antimicrobial activity of Commiphora myrrha against some bacteria and Candida albicans isolated from gazelles at king Khalid Wildlife Research Centre. Res. J. Med. Plant, 5: 65-71.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  74. Ostlund, Jr. R.E., 2002. Phytosterols in human nutrition. Annu. Rev. Nutr., 22: 533-549.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  


  75. Paarakh, P.M., 2010. Terminalia arjuna (Roxb) wt. and arn.: A review. Int. J. Pharmacol., 6: 515-534.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  76. Pardhasaradhi, S.V., A. Sheshasayana, B.S. Rao and K.V.R. Murthy, 2001. Synthesis and antimicrobial screening of a new guggul preparation. Indian J. Pharm. Sci., 63: 154-155.
    Direct Link  |  


  77. Park. S.N., Y.K. Lim, M.O. Freire, E. Cho, D. Jin and J.K. Kook, 2012. Antimicrobial effect of linalool and α-terpineol against periodontopathic and cariogenic bacteria. Anaerobe, 18: 369-372.
    CrossRef  |  


  78. Patil, V.D., U.R. Nayak and S. Dev, 1972. Chemistry of Ayurvedic crude drugs-I: Guggulu (resin from Commiphora mukul)-1: Steroidal constituents. Tetrahedron, 28: 2341-2352.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  79. Patil, V.D., U.R. Nayak, and S. Dev, 1973. Chemistry of ayurvedic crude drugs-III: Guggulu (resin from Commiphora mukul)-3 long-chain aliphatic tetrols, a new class of naturally occurring lipids. Tetrahedron, 29: 1595-1598.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  80. Pegel, K.H., 1980. Sterolins and their use. US. Patent, 4188379.


  81. Purushothaman, K.K. and S. Chandrasekharan, 1976. Gugulsterols from Commiphora mukul (Burseraceae). Ind. J. Chem. B, 14: 802-804.


  82. Rahman, M.M., M. Garvey, L.J Piddock and S. Gibbons, 2008. Antibacterial terpenes from the oleo-resin of Commiphora molmol (Engl.). Phytotherapy Res., 22: 1356-1360.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  


  83. Raldugin, V.A., O.B. Shelepina, I.P. Sekatsis, A.I. Rezvukhin and V.A. Pentegova, 1976. Configuration of C3 double bond and partial synthesis of allylcembrol. Khim. Prir. Soedin., 1: 108-109.


  84. Rout, O.P., R. Acharya and S.K. Mishra, 2012. Oleogum resin guggulu: A Review of the medicinal evidence for its therapeutic propertites. Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm., 3: 15-21.
    Direct Link  |  


  85. Sarwar, M., I.H. Attitalla and M. Abdollahi, 2011. A review on the recent advances in pharmacological studies on medicinal plants: Animal studies are done but clinical studies needs completing. Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 6: 867-883.
    CrossRef  |  


  86. Satyavati, G.V., 1991. Guggulipid: A promising hypolipidaemic agent from gum guggul (Commiphora wightii). Econ. Med. Plant Res., 5: 47-82.


  87. Satyavati, G.V., C. Dwarkanath and S.N. Tripathi, 1969. Experimental Studies of the Hypocholesterolemic effect of Commiphora mukul. Indian J. Med. Res., 57: 1950-1962.
    PubMed  |  


  88. Saxena, G., S.P. Singh, S. Pal, R. Pratap and C. Nath, 2007. Gugulipid, an extract of Commiphora wightii with lipidlowering properties, has protective effects against streptozotocininduced memory deficits in mice. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 86: 797-805.


  89. Saxena, V.K. and R.N. Sharma, 1998. Constituents of the essential oil from Commiphora mukul gum resin. J. Med. Arom. Plant Sci., 20: 55-56.


  90. Shah, R., V. Gulati and E.A. Palombo, 2012. Pharmacological properties of guggulsterones, the major active components of gum guggul. Phytother. Res.
    CrossRef  |  


  91. Sharma, B., R. Salunke, S. Srivastava, C. Majumder and P. Roy, 2009. Effects of guggulsterone isolated from Commiphora mukul in high fat diet induced diabetic rats. Food Chem. Toxicol., 47: 2631-2639.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  


  92. Shenouda, N.S., C. Zhou, J.D. Browning, P.J. Ansell, M.S. Sakla, D.B. Lubahn and R.S. Macdonald, 2004. Phytoestrogens in common herbs regulate prostate cancer cell growth in vitro. Nutr. Cancer, 49: 200-208.
    CrossRef  |  


  93. Shishodia, S. and B.B. Aggarwal, 2004. Guggulsterone Inhibits nf-kappaB and kb kinase activation, suppresses expression of Anti-apoptotic gene products and enhances apoptosis. J. Biol. Chem., 279: 47148-47158.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  94. Siddiqui, M.Z., 2011. Guggul: An excellent herbal panacea. Asian J. Pharm. Health Sci., 1: 35-39.


  95. Singh, B.B., L.C. Mishra, S.P. Vinjamury, N. Aquilina, V.J. Singh and N. Shepard, 2003. The effectiveness of Commiphora mukul for osteoarthritis of the knee: an outcomes study. Altern. Therapies Health Med., 9: 74-79.
    PubMed  |  


  96. Singh, K., R. Chander and N.K. Kappor, 1997. Guggulsterone, a potent hypolipidemic, prevents oxidation of low density lipoprotein. Phytother. Res., 11: 291-294.


  97. Singh, S.K., N. Verma and R.C. Gupta, 1995. Sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic assy method for the determination of guggulsterone in serum. J. Chromatogr. B. Biomed. Applied, 670: 173-176.
    PubMed  |  


  98. Singh, S.V., Y. Zeng, D. Xiao, V.G. Vogel, J.B. Nelson, R. Dhir and Y.B. Tripathi, 2005. Caspase-dependent apoptosis induction by guggulsterone, a constituent of Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, in PC-3 human prostate cancer cells is mediated by Bax and Bak. Mol. Cancer Ther., 4: 1747-1754.
    PubMed  |  


  99. Singh, V., S. Kaul, R. Chander and N.K. Kapoor, 1990. Stimulation of low density lipoprotein receptor activity in liver membrane of guggulsterone treated rats. Pharmacol. Res., 22: 37-44.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  


  100. Sosa, S., T.A. Della, R. Loggia and E. Bombardelli, 1993. Anti-inflammatory activity of Commiphora mukul extracts. Pharmacol. Res., 27: 89-90.


  101. Speh, B. and D.A. Vogan, 1980. Reducibility of generalized principal series representations. Acta Math., 145: 227-299.
    CrossRef  |  


  102. Staniszewska, M., J. Kula, M. Wieczorkiewicz and D. Kusewicz, 2005. Essential oils of wild and cultivated carrots-the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity. J. Essent. Oil Res., 17: 579-583.
    CrossRef  |  


  103. Szapary, P.O., M.L. Wolfe, L.A.T. Bloedon, A.J. Cucchiara, A.H. Dermarderosian, M.D. Cirigliano and D.J. Rader, 2003. Guggulipid for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia: A randomized controlled trial. J. Am. Med. Assoc., 290: 765-772.
    PubMed  |  


  104. Tapiero, H., D.M. Townsend and K.W. Tew, 2003. Phytosterols in the prevention of human pathologies. Biomed. Pharmacother., 57: 321-325.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  105. Tariq, M., A.M. Ageel, M.A. Al-Yahya, J.S. Mossa, M.S. Al-Said and N.S. Parmar, 1986. Anti-inflammatory activity of Commiphora molmol. Inflammat. Res., 17: 381-382.
    CrossRef  |  


  106. Thresiamma, K.C., J. George and R. Kuttan, 1996. Protective effect of curcumin, ellagic acid and bixin on radiation induced toxicity. Indian. J. Exp. Biol., 34: 845-847.


  107. Udilova, N., D. Jurek, B. Marian, L. Gille, R. Schulte-Hermann and H. Nohl, 2003. Induction of lipid peroxidation in biomembranes by dietary oil components. Food Chem. Toxicol., 41: 1481-1489.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  


  108. Urizar, N.L. and D.D. Moore, 2003. GUGULIPID: A natural Cholesterol-lowering agent. Annu. Rev. Nutr., 23: 303-313.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  


  109. Urizar, N.L., A.B. Liverman, D.T. Dodds, F.V. Silva and P. Ordenlich et al., 2002. A natural product that lowers cholesterol as antagonist ligand for FXR. Science, 296: 1703-1706.


  110. Van Erk, M.J., P. Roepman, T.R. van der Lende, R.H. Stierum, J.M. Aarts, P.J. van Bladeren and B. van Ommen, 2005. Integrated assessment by multiple gene expression analysis of quercetin bioactivity on anticancer related mechanisms in colon cancer cells in vitro. Eur. J. Nutr., 44: 143-156.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  


  111. Vorster, H.H., F.J. Raal, J.B. Ubbink, A.D. Marais, M.C. Rajput and F.Y. Ntanois, 2003. Functional foods with added plant sterols for treatment of hypercholesterolaemia and prevention of ischaemic heart disease. S. Afr. J. Clin. Nutr., 16: 49-58.


  112. Wadsworth, T.L. and D.R. Koop, 1999. Effects of the wine polyphenolics quercetin and resveratrol on proinflammatory cytokine expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Biochem. Pharmacol., 57: 941-949.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  


  113. Wadsworth, T.L., T.L. McDonald and D.R. Koop, 2001. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) and quercetin on lipopolysaccharide-induced signaling pathways involved in the release of tumor necrosis factoralpha. Biochem. Pharmacol., 62: 963-974.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  


  114. Williamson, G., G.W. Plumb, Y. Uda, K.R. Price and M.J.C. Rhodes, 1996. Dietary quercetin glycosides: Antioxidant activity and induction of the anticarcinogenic phase II marker enzyme quinone reductase in Hepalclc7 cells. Carcinogenesls, 17: 2385-2387.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  


  115. Yamamoto, N., J.H. Moon, T. Tsushida, A. Nagao and J. Terao, 1999. Inhibitory effect of quercetin metabolites and their related derivatives on copper ion-induced lipid peroxidation in human low-density lipoprotein. Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 372: 347-354.
    CrossRef  |  


  116. Yasukawa, K., M. Takido, T. Matsumoto, M. Takeuchi and S. Nakagawa, 1991. Sterol and triterpene derivetives from plants inhibit the effects of tumour promoter and sistosterol and betulinic acid inhibit tumour formation in mouse skin two-stage carcinogenesis. Oncology, 41: 72-76.
    PubMed  |  


  117. Yoo, C.B., H. Ki-Tae, C. Kyu-Seok, H. Joohun and P. Hee-Juhn et al., 2005. Eugenol isolated from the essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata induces a reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis in HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells. Cancer Lett., 225: 41-52.
    Direct Link  |  


  118. Yu, B.Z., R. Kaimal, S. Bai, K.A. El-Sayed and S.A. Tatulian et al., 2009. Effect of guggulsterone and cembranoids of Commiphora mukul on pancreatic phospholipase A(2): Role in hypocholesterolemia. J. Nat. Prod., 72: 24-28.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  


  119. Zak, A., M. Vecka, E. Tvrzicka, M. Hruby and F. Novak et al., 2005. Composition of plasma fatty acids and non- cholesterol sterols in anorexia nervosa. Physiol. Res., 54: 443-451.
    PubMed  |  


  120. Zongo, C., E.F.O. Akomo, A. Savadogo, L.C. Obame, J. Koudou and A.S. Traore, 2009. In vitro antibacterial properties of total alkaloids extract from Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O. Kuntze, a West African traditional medicinal plant. Asian J. Plant Sci., 8: 172-177.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  121. Bairwa, G.L., N.D. Jasuja and S.C. Joshi, 2011. Lipid lowering and antioxidant effects of Ammomum subulatum seeds (Family Zingiberaceae) in cholesterol fed rabbits. Arch. Phytopathol. Plant Prot., 44: 1425-1431.
    CrossRef  |  


  122. Arora, R.B., V. Kapoor, N. Basu and A.P. Jain, 1971. Anti-inflammatory studies on Curcuma longa (Turmeric). Indian J. Med. Res., 59: 1289-1295.
    PubMed  |  


  123. Kasahara, Y., K. Kumaki, S. Katagiri, K. Yasukawa and S. Ya-manouchi et al., 1994. Carthami flos extract and its component, stigmasterol, inhibit tumour promotion in mouse skin two-stage carcinogenesis. Phytother. Res., 68: 327-331.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  124. Fugisawa, S., T. Atsumi, Y. Kadoma and H. Sakagamid, 2002. Antioxidant and prooxidant action of eugenol-related compound and their cytotoxicity. Toxicology, 177: 39-54.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  


  125. Santos, F.A. and V.S. Rao, 2000. Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 1,8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils. Phytother. Res., 14: 240-244.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  


  126. Miettinen, T.A. and H. Gylling, 2002. Ineffective decrease of serum cholesterol by simvastatin in a subgroup of hypercholesterolemic coronary patients. Atherosclerosis, 164: 147-152.
    CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  


  127. Aligiannis, N., E. Kalpoutzakis, S. Mitaku and I.B. Chinou, 2001. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of two Origanum species. J. Agric. Food Chem., 40: 4168-4170.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


©  2022 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved