Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Abstract
Fulltext PDF
References
Research Article
 

Anti-nutritional Factors, Essential and Non-essential Fatty Acids Composition of Ugba (Pentaclethra macrophylla) Seeds at Different Stages of Processing and Fermentation



V.A. Onwuliri , I. Attah and J.O. Nwankwo
 
ABSTRACT

The concentrations of the Anti-nutritional Factors (ANF) and fatty acids of ugba (Pentaclethra macrophylla) eaten as a delicacy in different parts of Nigeria and some other African countries, were studied at eight different stages of processing and fermentation. The ANF assayed included cyanide, phytate, tannin and oxalate, while the fatty acids identified included five saturated fatty acids and four unsaturated fatty acids at each of the eight stages. The unsaturated fatty acids however occurred in higher amounts. The raw seeds of ugba were found to contain the highest concentrations of all the ANF determined, (p<0.01), except oxalate with the highest concentration of 937.5 ± 0.113 mg/100 g (p<0.05) in the boiled seed. Progressive reductions were observed at the different stages of processing and fermentation for all the ANF. For example, cyanide concentrations reduced from 8.3 ± 0.03 mg/100 g, through 7.5 ± 0.03, 7.5 ± 0.03, 4.1 ± 0.00, 3.9 ± 0.02, 3.3 ± 0.01, 2.3 ± 0.03 to 2.2 ± 0.01 mg/100 g, while phytate reduced from 63.5 ± 0.05 to 34.4 ± 0.03 mg/100 g, tannin from 6.80 ± 0.02 to 1.40 ± 0.00 mg/100 g and oxalate from 812.50 ± 1.13 to 187.50 ± 0.197 mg/100 g. The overall percentage reductions obtained in the concentrations between the raw and fully processed and fermented stages were 73.49% for cyanide, 45.98% for phytate, 79.41% for tannin and 76.92% for oxalate. The most dominant fatty acid identified was the unsaturated and essential fatty acid Cis-9, Cis-12, Octadecadienoic acid (linoleic acid). Its concentrations in the samples ranged from 44.7 to 46.3%. The non-essential fatty acid Tetracosanoic acid (lignoceric acid) usually found in trace amounts in most seed oils was found to be the highest occurring saturated fatty acid in the samples being 10% of the total fatty acids concentration. The fatty acid concentrations did not change appreciably with processing and fermentation.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

V.A. Onwuliri , I. Attah and J.O. Nwankwo , 2004. Anti-nutritional Factors, Essential and Non-essential Fatty Acids Composition of Ugba (Pentaclethra macrophylla) Seeds at Different Stages of Processing and Fermentation. Journal of Biological Sciences, 4: 671-675.

DOI: 10.3923/jbs.2004.671.675

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jbs.2004.671.675

REFERENCES
AOAC., 1985. Official Methods of Analysis. 16th Edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC..

Achinewhu, S.C. and J. Riley, 1986. Effect of fermentation on the thiamin, riboflavin and niacin contents of melon seed (Citrullus vularis) and the African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla). Food Chem., 20: 243-252.

Achinewhu, S.C. and M.O. Isichei, 1990. The nutritional evaluation of fermented fluted pumpkin seeds (Telferia occidentalis). Discovery Innovat., 2: 62-65.

Achinewhu, S.C., 1983. Chemical and nutrient composition of fermented products from plant food. Nig. Food Sci. J., 1: 115-117.

Achinewhu, S.C., 1998. Nuts and Seeds. In: Nutritional Quality of Plants Food. Osagie, A.U. and O.U. Eka (Eds.). Ambik Press, Post Harvest Research United University Benin, Nigeria, pp: 134-159.

Akingbala, J.O., L.W. Rooney and J.M. Faubion, 1981. A laboratory procedure for the preparation of ogi, a Nigerian fermented food. J. Food Sci., 46: 1523-1526.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Akinrele, J.A., 1984. Fermentation of cassava. J. Sci., Food Agric., 15: 589-594.

Anekwe, G.E., 2002. Techniques in Lipid Biochemistry. Heinenian Educational Books (Nigeria) PLC, Ibadan.

Barbara, H. and L.B. Jorde, 2004. Biochemistry, USMLE Step 1 Lecture Notes. Kaplan Inc., USA., pp: 207.

Chang, S.E. and H.L. Fuller, 1960. Effects of tannic acid content of grain sorghum on their feeding value for growing chicks. Poult. Sci., 43: 30-36.

Davies, N.T. and W. Reid, 1979. An evaluation of the phytate, zinc, copper, iron and manganese content of and availability from, Soya based textured-vegetable-proteins, meat substitutes or meat extenders. Br. J. Nutr., 41: 579-579.

Edward, C.C., 1985. Trends in changing food habits in Nigeria. Nig. Food J., 3: 199-203.

Egbe, I.A. and I.O. Akinyele, 1990. Effects of cooking on the anti-nutritional factors of lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus). Food Chem., 35: 81-81.

Eka, O.U., 1977. Studies on levels of oxalic acid and phytic acid in traditional foods of northern Nigeria. West Afr. J. Biol. Applied Chem., 20: 26-30.

Eka, O.U., 1980. Effect of fermentation on the nutrient status of locust beans. Food Chem., 5: 303-308.

Eka, O.U., 1984. A review of studies on changes in nutrient composition during fermentation. Nig. J. Nutr. Sci., 5: 9-21.

Ene-Obong, H.N., 1995. Content of antinutrients and cowpea. Plant Food Human Nutr., 45: 165-170.

Hutchinson, J. and J.M. Dalziel, 1954. Flora of West and Tropical Africa. Crown Agents for Oversea Development Publishers, London, pp: 302.

Ihekoronye, A.I. and P.O. Ngoddy, 1985. Integrated Food Science and Technology for the Tropics. 1st Edn., Macmillan Publishers, London, UK., ISBN: 9780333388839, Pages: 386.

Ikediobi, C.O., G.O.C. Onyia and C.C. Eluwa, 1980. A rapid and inexpensive enzymatic assay for total cyanide in cassava and cassava products. Agric. Biol. Chem., 44: 2803-2809.

Iskander, F.Y., 1987. Maturation stage and mineral content in soyabeans. Food Chem., 24: 29-33.

Liener, I.E., 1989. Anti-nutritional Factors in Legume Seeds: State of the Art. In: Recent Advances of Research in Anti-nutritional Factors in Legume Seeds, Van Poel, A., J. Huisman and H. Saini (Eds.). Wageningen Perss, The Netherlands, pp: 6-13.

Munro, A. and O. Bassir, 1973. Oxalate in Nigerian vegetables. West Afr. J. Biol. Applied Chem., 12: 14-18.

Obizoba, I.C. and H.I. Egbuna, 1992. Effect of germination and fermentation on the nutritional quality of bambara nut (Voandzeia subterranea L. Thouars) and its product (milk). Plants Food Hum. Nutr., 42: 13-23.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Obizoba, I.C., 1998. Fermented Foods. In: Nutritional Quality of Plant Foods, Osagie, A.U. and O.U. Eka (Eds.). University of Benin, Nigeria, pp: 160-198.

Ogun, P.O., P. Markakis and W. Chenoweth, 1989. Effect of processing on certain antinutrients in cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata). J. Food Sci., 54: 1084-1085.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Oke, O.L., 1969. The role of hydrocyanic acid in nutrition. World Rev. Nutr. Dietetics, 11: 170-198.
Direct Link  |  

Okolie, N.P. and E.N. Ugochukwu, 1989. Cyanide contents of some nigerian legumes and the effect of simple processing. Food Chem., 32: 209-216.

Ononogbu, I.C., 1988. Lipids and Lipoproteins. New Africa Publishing Co. Ltd., Owerri, Nigeria.

Onwuliri, V.A. and G.E. Anekwe, 1993. Total lipid composition of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lim). Med. Sci. Res., 2: 27-28.

Onwuliri, V.A. and G.E. Anekwe, 2001. Amino acids and other biochemical components of Ricinus communis (Variety Minor), an anti-conceptive seed. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 4: 866-868.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Onwuliri, V.A. and J.A. Obu, 2002. Lipids and other constituents of Vigna unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris grown in northern Nigeria. Food Chem., 78: 1-7.

Onwuliri, V.A. and K.I. Ekpenyong, 1994. Amino acid profiles of pito and burukutu brewed in Plateau State, Nigeria. J. Innovat. Life Sci., 1: 95-96.

Onwuliri, V.A., B. Yakubu and A.L. Samuel, 2002. Proximate, minerals and antinutrients composition of Rumex acetosa and Hibiscus cannabinus seeds. Nig. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol., 14: 97-99.

Onwuliri, V.A., K.I. Ekpenyong, Z.S.C. Okoye and M.M. Ekwenchi, 1986. Comparative study on two Nigerian local brands of beer. Nig. J. Biotechnol., 2: 13-18.

Osagie, A.U., 1998. Anti-nutritional Factors. In: Nutritional Quality of Plant Foods, Osagie, A.U. and O.U. Eka (Eds.). Post Harvest Research Unit, Benin City, Nigeria, pp: 221-244.

Osagie, A.U., M. Muzquiz, C. Borbano, C. Cuadrado, G. Ayet and A. Castono, 1996. Anti-nutritional constituents of ten staple foods grown in Nigeria. Tropical Sci., 36: 109-115.

Oyenuga, V.A., 1968. Nigeria's Foods and Feeding Stuffs: Their Chemistry and Nutritive Values. 3rd Edn., Ibadan University Press, Ibadan, Nigeria, pp: 167-190.

Siggel, A. and B. Faucett, 1976. Food Legumes Processing and Utilization. IDRC, Ottawa, Canada.

Tabekhia, M.M. and B.S. Luh, 1980. Effect of germination, cooking and canning on phosphorous and phytate retention on dry beans. J. Food Sci., 45: 406-408.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Trease, G.E. and W.C. Evans, 1989. Trease and Evans' Pharmacognosy. 13th Edn., Bailliere Tindall, London, UK., ISBN-13: 9780702013577, Pages: 832.

Udosen, E.O. and E.T. Ifon, 1990. Fatty acid and amino acid composition of African oil beans (Pentaclethra macrophylla). Food Chem., 36: 155-160.

©  2019 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved
Fulltext PDF References Abstract