Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Improving the Nutrient Quality of Durian (Durio zibethinus) Fruit Waste Through Fermentation by Using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Neurospora crassa for Poultry Diet



Nuraini , Ade Djulardi and Maria Endo Mahata
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

Durian fruit waste (peel and seed) can be used as an alternative feed based on the potential availability and nutrient content. Three experiments were conducted to improve the nutrient quality of durian fruit waste (DW) and tofu waste (TW) mixture through fermentation by using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Neurospora crassa. The substrates consists of 70% DW (peel and seed in the same proportion) and 30% TW. Experiment 1 was performed in a 3 x 3 factorial experiment of completely randomized design with 3 replicates. First factor was inoculum composition of P. chrysosporium and N. crassa (1: 1, 2: 1 and 1: 2) and second factor was inoculums doses (6, 8 and 10%). Measured variables were Crude Fiber (CF) and Crude Protein (CP). Experiment 2 was to study incubation period (7, 9, 11 and 13 days). Measured variables were DTW’s CF, CP, cellulose, hemi-cellulose and lignin. Experiment 3 was to compare nutrient content between fermented (the best treatment at experiment 2) vs. unfermented one. Measured variables were DTW’s nitrogen retention, amino acid profile, B carotene, tannin and Metabolizable Energy (ME). Result of the experiment 1, there was a very significant (p<0.01) interaction between inoculum compositions and inoculum doses in which P. chrysosporium and N. crassa inoculum composition (1:1) and 8% inoculum dose reduced CF and increased CP content. Experiment 2, incubation period of 9 days reduced CF, NDF, ADF, lignin and cellulose from 22.33, 32.49, 27.50, 15.81 and 17.62 to 8.30, 30.58, 20.26, 6.20 and 11.58%, respectively. Meanwhile increased CP and hemicellulose from 11.73 and 4.99 to 19.37 and 9.52%, respectively. Experiment 3, Nitrogen retention, B-carotene, tannin and ME content of fermented was better than unfermented DTW (42.50 vs 68.54%, 0 vs. 119.07 mg/kg, 3,76 vs 0.43% and 2586.84. vs. 2728.27 kkal/kg, respectively). Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Neurospora crassa treatment improved DTW’s amino acids profile. In conclusion, fermentation by using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Neurospora crassa (1:1), 8% inoculum dose and 9 day incubation period was the best treatment for improving DTW’s nutrient quality.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Nuraini , Ade Djulardi and Maria Endo Mahata, 2015. Improving the Nutrient Quality of Durian (Durio zibethinus) Fruit Waste Through Fermentation by Using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Neurospora crassa for Poultry Diet. International Journal of Poultry Science, 14: 354-358.

DOI: 10.3923/ijps.2015.354.358

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ijps.2015.354.358

REFERENCES
AOAC., 2000. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 17th Edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC., USA., Pages: 234.

Carlile, M.J. and S.C. Watkinson, 1995. Physiology of the Fungi. Academic Press, Inc., London.

Crueger, W. and A. Crueger, 1989. Biotechnology: A Textbook of Industrial Microbiology. Sinauer Assosciates, Inc., Sunderland, MA.

Dan Suparjo, N., 2011. Determination length of fermentation of cocoa pod husk with Phanerochaete chrysosporium: Chemically evaluation of nutrition quality. Agrinak, 1: 1-10, (In Indonesian).
Direct Link  |  

Dhawale, S.S. and K. Kessler, 1993. Alternative methods for production and staining of Phanerochaete chrysosporium basidiospores. J. Aplied Environ. Microbiol., 59: 1675-1677.
PubMed  |  

Fadillah, S. Distanitina, E.K. Artati and A. Jumari, 2008. Biodelignification of corn stalk with Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Ekuilibrum, 7: 7-11.

Goering, H.K. and P.J. van Soest, 1970. Forage fiber analyses. Agriculture Handbook No. 379, Agriculture Research Service, USDA, USA.

Hossain, S.M., M. Das and S.H. Ibrahim, 2002. Scale-up and optimization studies on lignin biodegradation of rice straw using Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Indian J. Chem. Technol., 9: 227-234.

Howard, R.L., E. Abotsi, R.E.L. Jansen and S. Howard, 2003. Lignocellulose biotechnology: Issue of bioconversion and enzyme production. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 2: 602-619.
Direct Link  |  

Islamiyati, R., S. Rasjid, A. Natsir and Ismartoyo, 2013. Crude protein and fiber fraction of corn stover inoculated by fungi Trichoderma sp. and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Int. J. Scient. Technol. Res., 2: 149-152.
Direct Link  |  

Nuraini, 2006. Potention of carotenogenic fungi to produce high beta-caroten feed and its application on broiler and laying poultry. Ph.D. Thesis, Pasca Sarjana Universitas of Andalas, Padang.

Nuraini, M.E.M. and Nirwansyah, 2013. Response of broiler fed cacao pod fermented by Phanerochate chrysosporium and Monascus purpureus in the diet. Pak. J. Nutr., 12: 886-888.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Nuraini, S. and S.A. Latif, 2012. Fermented product by Monascus purpureus in poultry diet: Effects on laying performance and egg quality. Pak. J. Nutr., 11: 605-608.
Direct Link  |  

Nuraini, Sabrina and S.A. Latif, 2008. [Performances and egg quality of layer fed tapioca by-products fermented with Neurospora crassa]. Media Peternakan, 31: 195-202, (In Indonesian).
Direct Link  |  

Nuraini, Sabrina and S.A. Latif, 2009. Improving the quality of tapioca by product through fermentation by Neurospora crassa to produce β carotene rich feed. Pak. J. Nutr., 8: 487-490.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Sibbald, I.R., 1986. The TME system of feed evaluation: Methodology feed composition data and bibliography. Animal Research Centre, Research Branch Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Technical Bulletin 1986-4E, Pages: 114.

Steel, R.G.D. and J.H. Torrie, 1980. Principles and Procedures Statistics a Biometric Approach. McGraw Hill, New York, USA.

Zeng, G., M Yu, Y. Chen, D. Huang and J. Zhang et al., 2010. Effects of inoculation with Phanerochaete chrysosporium at various time points on enzyme activities during agricultural waste composting. Bioresour. Technol., 101: 222-227.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

©  2020 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved