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Articles by M.S. Shathele
Total Records ( 10 ) for M.S. Shathele
  M.S. Shathele and A. Fadlelmula
  Three types of common and one commercial antifungal drugs were tested in vitro for assessing their effectiveness against dermatophytic fungi Trichophyton verrucosum using a microdilution assay of the NCCLS (M38-P) standard for filamentous fungi with slight modifications. Four agents of antifungal drugs in different concentrations defined as local mixture [consisting of cupric sulfate and calcium oxide (quicklime) by a mixture proportion of 1:1 in concentration of 80.0 mg mL-1], Hydrogen Peroxide mixture in concentration of 180.0 mg mL-1, 10% Formaldehyde mixture in concentration of 39.0 mg mL-1 and Amphotericin B (AMB) in concentration of 2.0 mg mL-1. The results showed that there is a discrepancy among the antifungal drugs on the impact of dermatophytic fungi Trichophyton verrucosum. The order of effectiveness of four antifungal drugs against dermatophytic fungi was AMB with a Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) (MFC90% = 2.0 μg mL-1)> 10% Formaldehyde mixture with a concentration of (MFC90% = 3.9 μg mL-1)> Hydrogen Peroxide mixture with a concentration of (MFC90% = 18.0 μg mL-1)> the local mixture with a concentration of (MFC90% = 80.0 μg mL-1). In conclusion, AMB with a Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) (MFC90% = 2.0 μg mL-1) is the most effective drug against dermatophytic fungi under the climatic condition of AL-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia.
  M.S. Shathele
  The main aim of this study was to determine fungal mycotoxin (Gliotoxin) immunomodulating effects on one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Intravenous administration of 0.05 μg kg-1 gliotoxin for 3 days in camels has significantly resulted in decreased serum total protein, albumin and globulin on day 7 after gliotoxin injection. The toxin also caused reduction of leukocyte, lymphocyte and neutrophil count and lysosomal activity compared to saline treated controls. It is suggested that gliotoxin at a dose of 0.05 μg kg-1 could produce an immunosuppressive effect in the camel.
  M.S. Shathele
  The study was carried out to determine the effect of seasons on bacterial mastitis in dairy cows. Three years health data from A and M Dairy Farm was analyzed to provide baseline information on the incidence and seasonal pattern of mastitis. Mean annual incidence of clinical mastitis at A and M dairy Farm was 16.5%. A clear pattern of higher incidence of mastitis was observed when the ambient temperature was less than 21°C in cold months during the whole study period (3 years) at A and M dairy Farm. In another study, milk samples of new case of mastitis from A and M dairy were examined for the presence of bacteria. The annual incidence of mastitis at the J. B. Dairy Farm was 14.4%. The annual pattern of incidence of mastitis in relation to ambient temperature was similar to that observed at A and M dairy Farm. Environmental and contagious mastitis pathogens were identified in 43.3% of the clinical mastitis cases and the coliform mastitis accounted for 21.1% of the clinical cases at J.B. Dairy Farm. However, out of 90 new cases of mastitis considered at the J.B. Dairy, 21.1% were infected with coliform bacteria, 12.2% with S. haemolyticus, 11.1% due to C. bovis, 10.0% with S. aqalactiae and 45.5% with other isolates. In conclusion, the coliform bacteria were the main cause of bacterial mastitis with higher incidence during the cold months.
  M.S. Shathele
  The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of administration of fungal mycotoxin (Gliotoxin) on clinical and serobiochemical parameters in camels. A bolus of 0.1 μg kg-1 b.wt. of gliotoxin was administered intravenously to camels. The treated camels were lethargic and decreased their appetite from day 3 onwards. The toxin administration decreased the protein and glucose concentration of serum. The increased activity of aspartate amino transferase, gamma glutamyl-transferase, sorbitol dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase due to mycotoxin administration was indicative of liver damage. High concentration of urea nitrogen and creatinine in treated animals was a characteristic of renal injury. In conclusion, the gliotoxin is acutely toxic to camels affecting liver and kidney function.
  M.S. Shathele , A. Fadlelmula , F.A. Al-Hizab and M.M. Zaki
  A laboratory study was carried out to investigate fatal aspergillosis in an ostrich (Struthio camelus) predisposed by pulmonary haemangioma in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The examination of Post Mortem (PM) revealed numerous ulcerated (1x0.5 cm) subcutaneous opaque thick masses with turbid materials (exudates) in the cut section together with fibrosis in between air sacs and the thoracic wall. The microscopic appearance indicated the presence of capillary type haemangioma in ostrich. The proliferating cells were highly differentiated, uniform with spindle-shaped nuclei resembling normal vascular endothelia and were arranged in the form of numerous capillaries distended with large amounts of blood erythrocytes and separated by fibrous stroma. However, large vascular spaces lined by a single layer of endothelium were also observed. The superficial parts of the tumour showed hyperkeratosis of the epidermis and diffuse infiltration of lymphocytes in the interstitial areas. In addition, the fibrous stroma was more abundant and dense with more prominent collagen in the peripheral parts of the tumour. On PM, the tiny yellowish white foci were detected on the lung’s specimens and yielded A. fumigatus in pure culture. The histopathologic examination of the lesions showed fungal hyphae, inflammatory and multinucleate giant cells.
  M.S. Shathele , A. Fadlelmula , F.A. Al-Hizab and M.M. Zaki
  M.S. Shathele
  Newly formulated Saudi-1 and Saudi-2 media provided highly conspicuous growth and detection of Lagenidium giganteum zoospores on initial plating. The selectivity of Saudi-type media was based on a lecithin (soybean) and antibiotics, streptomycin and ampicillin. The Saudi-1 media supported the vegetative growth of Lagenidium giganteum (under continuous 60 W light source to get conspicuous growth). The Saudi-2 media was more defined and selective than Saudi-1. The liquid proflo PB/3 media was the best growth medium for inducing sporulation. The LC50 values obtained in this study were higher than those reported previously. One possible reason for the discrepancies in LC50 values of L. giganteum zoospores against mosquito larvae might be due to the difference in the handling techniques of treatment concentrations. On the other hand, perhaps a more important factor is the type of water (original medium) used in the previous experiments. The present study utilized sterile volvic water (double distilled), whereas the previous studies used distilled water. In conclusion, new isolate of L. giganteum is reported along with their pathogenicity towards mosquito larvae and their zoosporogenesis pattern. The study showed an excellent potential for future investigations on the use of newly developed isolate Saudi media for mosquito pathogeneic fungus for its maintenance and zoospores release.
  M.S. Shathele
  Microorganisms from chlorine treated sewage water samples from Al-Ahsa municipal sewage plant were irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 10.0, 15.0, 20.0 and 25.0 kGy. The microorganisms identified were the filamentous fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Absedia spp. and the yeast Candida silvicola (Hansenula holstii), Cryptococcus laurentii and Candida sake. Microbial counts were made immediately after irradiation. Although, the damage to microorganisms increased with an increase in irradiation dose but even the highest dose did not completely sterilize the water. The microbiological results revealed that irradiation above 25.0 kGy completely inhibited the growth of all the microorganisms. However, a high dose of irradiation of 25.0 kGy did not show the inhibitory effect on the growth of Candida sake. Whereas Cryptococcus laurentii, Aspergillus fumigates and Absedia sp. were killed by10.0 kGy. The results obtained highlighted the potential of this technology for wastewater treatment.
  M.S. Shathele and A. Fadlelmula
  The objectives of this study were to determine the suitability of transport medium (ice jells) and estimate the duration of viability of Pseudomonas in the transport medium. Bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas comprise a large group of the active biocontrol strains as a result of their general ability to produce a diverse array of potent antifungal metabolites. These include simple metabolites such as 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and pyrrolnitrin [3-chloro-4-(2-nitro-3-chlorophenyl)-pyrrole], as well as the complex macrocyclic lactone, 2, 3-de-epoxy-2, 3-didehydro-rhizoxin. Pyrrolnitrin is active against Rhizoctonia sp., Fusarium sp. and other pathogenic fungi and it has been used as a lead structure in the development of a new phenylpyrrole fungicide. The survival rates of four different pseudomonad strains after continuous incubation for 4 h in the cold temperature (4°C) were: 94.8% for P. putida strain CBD, 94.5% for P. aeruginosa No. BRCH and 62.1% for Pseudomomas species (fluorescent) with lowest survival rate of 33.5% for P. aeruginosa strain H. Since, there were no drastic reductions in the survival rates, the study findings suggest that the transport medium would be generally suitable for these cold-sensitive bacteria.
  M.S. Shathele and E.M. EL Hassan
  The study was carried to detect parasitic contaminants such as cysts of Giardia and entamoeba, Cryptosporidium oocysts and taenia eggs in sewage water from small lakes receiving sewage effluents from cabin toilets or directly from sewage treatment plants. There were no parasitic contaminants in the sewage water in the lake as determined by wet mount and floatation methods in Al-Ahsa. The absence of any parasite eggs in the sewage water could be attributed to the small volume of water samples taken for experimentation and to the chlorination treatment of the effluent by the sewage treatment plants. The study provided an excellent opportunity for further investigation to determine different types of water contaminants by applying other methods (specific polymerase chain reaction, PCR-RFLP methods, wound fiberglass cartridge filters and reverse transcription-PCR and commercial enzyme-Immunosorbent assay) in the sewage water in Al-Ahsa Oasis.
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