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Articles by Muhammad Afzal
Total Records ( 13 ) for Muhammad Afzal
  Muhammad Afzal , M. Arshad , M. Idrees and Noor Illahi
  Studies were conducted at Central Cotton Research Institute, Multan, to exploit the yield response of five newly evolved cotton genotypes. The highest seed cotton yield was noted in CIM-435 followed by BH-118. The longest staple length was found by genotype CIM-435. MNH-554 was at the top in respect of ginning out turn percentage, followed by CIM-435. The boll weight was highest in CIM-435.The highest numbers of bolls/plant were found in BH-118. DNH-49 had the shortest plant height followed by CIM-435, which is quite desirable. It is suggested that the newly evolved genotype CIM-435 is the best, among all the genotypes tested.
  Muhammad Amjad , Muhammad Afzal and Khalid Mehmood
  Experiment was laid out for evaluating some new synthetic and bio-insecticides viz., Imicon 25WP + Neem seed kernel extract (imidacloprid + Azadirachta indica A. Juss.), Agree 50WP (Bacillus thuringiensis), Pride 25WP (buprofezin), Taofos 25EC (quinalphos), and Digital 20EC (fenpropathrin) against maize borer Chilo partellus Swinhoe. All the test insecticides were found to have significant effect on borer infestation, but lower per cent infestation (15.55%) of maize borer with Taofos 25EC (quinalphos) @ 1000 ml/ac would suggest this insecticide to be more toxic to the pest compared with the others.
  Muhammad Afzal and Humayun Javed
  The replacement of plastic traps with wooden blocks soaked in lure mixed with insecticide was assessed. Blocks are cheaper, simple and less likely to be blown down or stolen compared with plastic traps. Square and oblong are more effective against round and hexagonal. Plywood is best for block construction. About 92 % flies caught were Bactrocera zonata Saunders and the remaining was B. dorsalis Hendel. Incase of mixture composition, 6:4:1 is more important than other ratios. Spacing of 20 m between blocks appeared to be optimal, so it could be recommended 10-blocks / acre.
  Rehana Asghar , Tayyaba Siddique and Muhammad Afzal
  Genetic variation in germplasm has an important role in identification of varieties. Electrophoretic patterns of the protein fractions are directly related to the genetic background of the proteins and can be used to certify the genetic makeup. SDS-PAGE is a valid technique increasingly being utilized as an approach for species identification. Each variety or a group of varieties exhibit characteristic protein banding patterns. On the basis of these patterns they can be identified accordingly. Twenty-nine accessions of Cicer arietinum(Chickpea) germplasm were analysed for total seed protein profile using sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to ascertain the extent of genetic variation and its geographical distribution. A considerable variation in protein banding pattern was observed which was localised to various geographical regions. Inter-specific variation was more as compared to intra-specific variation.
  Muhammad Afzal , Mian Mehmood Ahmed , Riaz Ali Shah and Basharat Mehmood Awan
  Highly significant results were obtained when a local dahlia variety was tested on four sowing dates at fortnightly interval, starting from 10th of September. Its performance was judged for seed germination time, plant height, days to flower, blooming period, flower size and seed yield/replication. Seed sowing of 25th of September took five days to germinate, which was a minimum time. All the other characters studied varied with sowing time. The best sowing time recommended is 25th of September. Availability of Dahlia flowers can be preplanned by adjusting the sowing time.
  Fatima S. Mehdi , Imran Ali Siddiqui , Assia Sajjad and Muhammad Afzal
  Rhizophora mucronata (mangrove) used alone or in combination with Paecilomyces lilacinus significantly suppressed root infection caused by Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani the root-infecting fungi and Meloidogyne javanica, the root-knot nematode in tomato. An R. mucronata-P. lilacinus treatment also improved plant growth. Organic amendments and P. lilacinus used together showed better results in the control of root-rot and root-knot disease complex as compared to their separate use.
  Muhammad Hussnain Babar , Muhammad Ashfaq , Muhammad Afzal , Muhammad Hamid Bashir and Muhammad Asif Ali
  Sciarid fly, Lycoriella auripila is the most destructive insect pest of mushroom causing serious threat to mushroom production and cultivation in Pakistan. Chemical control is the most effective easier and quicker method to control this inset pest which is commonly used by our farming community. So there was a dire need to evaluate some commercial insecticides against this pest. The present study was therefore, conducted to evaluate six commercial insecticides (deltamethrin, spinosad, spintoram, trichlorphon, malathion and permethrin) against sciarid fly for three consecutive years (2008 to 2010). During present study the insecticides evaluation was done on the bases of three parameters viz. percent reduction in adult emergence, mushroom damage rate by sciarid fly larvae and mushroom yield per unit area. All insecticides caused significant reductions in adult emergence and mushroom damage rates as compared to control. On overall bases for three years, the data revealed that maximum reduction of adult emergence (84.61, 86.32 and 83.42%) and minimum damage rate by sciarid flies (10.60, 9.53 and 13.73%) as well as maximum yield per plot (8.30, 8.02 and 8.12 kg/m2) was observed in spinosad treated plots, followed by trichlorphon and deltamethrin which were statistically at par. The results of present study showed that deltamethrin, spinosad and trichlorphon may be very effective insecticides to control mushroom sciarid fly in Pakistan.
  Muhammad Ramzan Ali , Muhammad Afzal , Muhammad Farhan Khan , S.M.H.M. Naqvi and Shamim Akhtar
  The giant river catfish (S. seenghala) is an imperative commercial species, contributing significantly to the total inland fish production in Pakistan. The aquaculture potential giant river catfish has not yet been explored. To ascertain the optimum dietary protein for the growth of giant river catfish fingerlings (9.0 g initial weight) a 6 week feeding trial with four dietary protein levels was conducted in 12 glass aquaria of about 42 L capacity. Diets containing 25, 30, 35 and 40% CP were prepared from locally available ingredients based requirements of catfish fingerlings. Growth performance of fingerlings of Giant River catfish increased significantly with increase in protein level from 25 to 40% in feed. The survival, final weight and of catfish fed the diet containing 40% protein were high and comparable to those of the other diets. Food conversion ratio decrease by increasing the protein levels in feed. Specific growth rate and feed efficiency of fish fed the 40% protein diet and 35% protein diet was higher than that of other diets. Protein efficiency ratio of fish decreased with increasing dietary protein level. Carcass crude protein was higher in fish fed with high protein diet, while value of lipid in carcass was lower in fish fed with diet having greater CP levels. Ash contents were significantly increased with increase of protein level. The results of this study indicate that an increase of dietary protein level can improve growth and protein utilization and the diet containing 35% protein would be suitable for optimum growth and effective protein utilization of giant river catfish fingerlings.
  Muhammad Afzal , Muhammad Hussnain Babar , Ibrar-ul-Haq and Zafar Iqbal
  Present research was carried out to evaluate the comparative efficacy of five new insecticides viz., diafenthiuron (polo 50%SC), thiamethoxam (actara 25%WG), acetamiprid (diamond 20%SP), imidacloprid (confidor 20%SL) and thiacloprid (calypso 24% OD) at field recommended doses against jassid, Amrasca devastans on cotton variety Bt- 121 grown at farmer field Chak No. 253/R.B, Faisalabad. Insecticides sprayed when population of jassid reached to economic threshold level (ETL) i.e., 1- 1.5/leaf. The data regarding mean number of jassid per leaf was taken and converted in to mean percentage mortality to find out differences among the treatments. The results of present study showed that Imidacloprid, diafenthiuron, acetamiprid and thiamethoxam were most effective insecticides against jassid up to seven days after application. While, Imidacloprid and diafenthiuron gave maximum mortality during first spray (92.42 and 88.56%) and second spray (90.87 and 85.67%) after 72 h of application.
  Muhammad Afzal , Muhammad Hussnain Babar , Ibrar-UL-Haq and Zafar Iqbal
  A study was carried out to determine the comparative efficacy of five new insecticides viz., diafenthiuron (polo 50%SC), thiamethoxam (actara 25%WG), acetamiprid (diamond 20%SP), imidacloprid (confidor 20%SL) and thiacloprid (calypso 24% OD) at field recommended doses against whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) on cotton variety Bt-121 grown at farmer field on 25th May, 2009 at Chak No. 253/R.B, Faisalabad. Insecticides sprayed when population of whitefly reached to economic threshold level (ETL) i.e., 4-5/leaf. The data regarding mean number of whitefly per leaf was taken and converted in to mean percentage mortality to find out differences among the treatments. The results of present study showed that Imidacloprid, diafenthiuron, acetamiprid and thiamethoxam were most effective insecticides against whitefly up to seven days after application. While, Imidacloprid and diafenthiuron gave maximum mortality during first spray (89.52 and 85.80%) and second spray (91.67 and 87.51%) after 72 h of application.
  Muhammad Afzal , Kamran Ahmad , Shakir Saleem , Imran Kazmi and Firoz Anwar
  This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. on n-diethylnitrosamine (DENA) induced hepatic injury in rats. The aerial part of B. pinnatum aqueous and ethanolic extract was prepared in the doses of 250 and 500 mg kg‾1. Hepatic injury was induced by DENA. Acute toxicity was also carried out. Treatment with different doses of ethanolic extract of B. pinnatum (250 mg kg‾1, p.o.) not significantly able to treat the liver injury induced by DENA, but 500 mg kg‾1 dose of ethanolic extract of B. pinnatum slightly protect the liver. Treatment with different doses of aqueous extract of B. pinnatum (250 and 500 mg kg‾1, p.o.) significantly (p<0.05; p<0.01 and p<0.001) treat the liver injury induced by DENA. It may be inferred from the present study that the hepatoprotective activities of the aqueous extract of B. pinnatum leaves in DENA-induced hepatotoxicity may involve its antioxidant or oxidative free radical scavenging activities by alleviating lipid peroxidation through scavenging of free radicals, or by enhancing the activity of antioxidants.
  Zubair Ahmed , Muhammad Afzal , Imran Kazmi , Gaurav Gupta , Iqbal Ahmad and Firoz Anwar
  Objective: Obesity is meticulously related with life-style-related disorders such as arteriosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, type-2 diabetes mellitus and certain type of cancers. The objective of present study was to evaluate the pharmacological and biochemical role of Potash Alum as an anti-obesity agent in Wistar rats fed on High Fat Diet (HFD). Animals were fed on HFD (58% fat) with or without Potash Alum for 24 weeks. Results: Results revealed that oral intake of Potash Alum exhibited significant reduction in body weight, food intake, serum Triglycerides (TGs), Total Cholesterol (TCs) and High Density Lipoproteins (HDL) whereas simultaneously increased the dry weight of feces, total lipids in feces, compared to HFD fed control. We suggest that the inhibitory effects of potash alum on obesity, might be attributable to the inhibition of lipid absorption through the inhibition of pancreatic lipase. The probable mechanism underline may be the inhibition of gastric lipase inhibition. The levels of blood hemoglobin and glucose were also assessed and there were no significant changes in these parameters.
  Abid MEHMOOD , Muhammad ANWAR , Sayed Murtaza Hassan ANDRABI , Muhammad AFZAL and Syed Muhammad Saqlan NAQVI
  Conditions for in vitro maturation (IVM) of primary oocytes without conventionally used fetal calf serum and hormones were optimized in order to reduce the cost of laboratory produced buffalo embryos. Comparisons were made between oocyte recovery methods (aspiration vs. slicing) and IVM in medium 199 (static culture method vs. flux culture method) supplemented with 4-5 x 106 granulosa cells mL-1 that contained either estrus buffalo serum (EBS) or fetal calf serum (FCS). Recovery methods were compared according to yield, i.e. cumulus oocyte complexes per ovary (COCs/ovary), the expansion rate (% of COCs that expanded), and nuclear maturation rate (% of germinal vesicle breakdown [GVBD]), following IVM for 22-24 h. In vitro maturation methods (static culture with EBS or FCS and Flux culture with EBS or FCS) were compared on the basis of the expansion rate and in vitro fertilization rate (cleavage rate). COC recovery with the slicing method (2.2 COCs/ovary) was better (P < 0.05) than with aspiration (0.9 COCs/ovary). However, the IVM rate was better (P < 0.05) based on expansion (86% vs. 63%) and GVBD (85% vs. 62%) with aspiration than with the slicing method. The cleavage rate (37%) was significantly better with the static culture containing EBS than with the static culture with FCS or the flux culture with either EBS or FCS. It was concluded that aspiration of oocytes and subsequent IVM with static culture containing EBS would be a potential method to reduce the cost of laboratory produced buffalo embryos.
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