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International Journal of Pharmacology

Year: 2022  |  Volume: 18  |  Issue: 4  |  Page No.: 826 - 841

Levonorgestrel and Desogestrel Modulate Gut Microbiota and Blood Biochemistry of Female Wistar Rats

Moaz A. Al-Ghamdi, Othman A. Baothman, Muhammad Afzal, Sami I. Alzarea, Firoz Anwar, Muhammad Shahid Nadeem and Imran Kazmi


Background and Objective: Hormonal Contraceptive Pills (HCPs) are commonly prescribed to avoid unwanted pregnancies, endometrial cancers, migraines and to regulate the menstrual cycle. In the present study, female Wistar rats were orally administered with Levonorgestrel (LNG) and Desogestrel (DG) for 12 weeks. Twelve-hours fasting rats were dissected, blood biochemistry, gut microbiota and histology of breast tissue were analysed. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 12 female Albino Wistar rats of similar age and weight. Two groups were treated with hormonal contraceptive medicines and one group was labelled as the negative control. Post-treatment rats were dissected and subjected to blood biochemistry and gut microbiota analysis. ANOVA and Tukey’s test was applied for statistical analysis. The p-values up to 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Results have shown significant changes in cortisol, testosterone, lipid profile and heart/liver associated plasma enzyme markers. The study demonstrates an increase in the gut microbiota diversity in the treated samples. An increase in some pathogenic genera such as Desulfovibrio, Anaerovorax, Oscillibacter in the levonorgestrel was also found. The histological study of breast tissues has shown an increased fat deposit among the medicated rats. Conclusion: In conclusion, found a positive correlation between the use of contraceptive pills and both blood biomarkers and gut microbiota. The second generation medicine (LNG) has shown severe negative effects as compared to third-generation medicine (DG).

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