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International Journal of Pharmacology
  Year: 2011 | Volume: 7 | Issue: 2 | Page No.: 238-247
DOI: 10.3923/ijp.2011.238.247
Evaluation of the Antimalarial Potential of Vernonia ambigua Kotschy and Peyr (Asteraceae)
M.I. Builders, N.N. Wannang, G.A. Ajoku, P.F. Builders, A. Orisadipe and J.C. Aguiyi

Abstract:
Some traditional medicine practitioners in Nigeria have claimed the use of the decoction of the whole plant of Vernonia ambigua for the management of malaria. The aim of this study is to authenticate the antimalarial potential of this plant by evaluating its antiplasmodial activities. The freeze-dried decoctions of the whole plant of V. ambigua were used for the study. The phytochemical components and antioxidant activity using 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) were determined. The oral median lethal dose (LD50) and in vivo antiplasmodial activity were determined in Swiss albino mice. Different doses of the extract (50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 mg kg-1 PO) were administered to the mice infected with 1x107 Plasmodium berghei berghei. Four days suppressive and curative effects against established infections as well as prophylactic activities were evaluated. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity was carried out on Plasmodium falciparum using different concentrations of the decoction. The decoction showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, sterols, phenols and reducing sugars and a moderate antioxidant activity. The LD50 was estimated to be greater than 5000 mg kg-1. Effective dose dependent inhibitions of parasitaemia were observed in the suppressive, curative and prophylactic tests. The in vitro screening also showed a moderate antiplasmodial activity (31.62 μg mL-1<IC50<50 μg mL-1). The effective antiplasmodial activities of V. ambigua could be attributed to its content of certain phytochemicals and may partly explain its use for the treatment of malaria.
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How to cite this article:

M.I. Builders, N.N. Wannang, G.A. Ajoku, P.F. Builders, A. Orisadipe and J.C. Aguiyi, 2011. Evaluation of the Antimalarial Potential of Vernonia ambigua Kotschy and Peyr (Asteraceae). International Journal of Pharmacology, 7: 238-247.

DOI: 10.3923/ijp.2011.238.247

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ijp.2011.238.247

 
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