Efficiency of Silicon, Nickel and Acetylsalicylic Acid Reduced Senescence and Extended Vase Life of Cut Rose Flowers
Short postharvest vase life is one of the most important problems on the cut flowers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of silicon, nickel and acetylsalicylic acid and their interaction on extending the vase life, total chlorophyll content, ACC-oxidase (Aminocyclopropanecarboxylate oxidase, ACO) activity, anthocyanin leakage, membrane stability and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of Cut rose flowers. The treatments were distilled water, silicon (0, 1.5, 2.5 mM), acetylsalicylic acid (0, 1,1.5 mM) and nickel (0, 1, 2 mM). Vase life in solution containing 1.5 mM silicon and 1 mM acetylsalicylic acid didnt have significant difference than control. The results showed that silicon, acetylsalicylic acid and nickel treatments increased cut flower water absorption, fresh weight and vase life, while decreasing malondialdehyde content, ACC-oxidase activity and membrane premeability together with total delay of senescence and peroxidation of lipids. Our results suggest the application of silicon, acetylsalicylic acid and nickel in preservative solutions for rose flowers maintained the vase life of flowers for a longer period.
to cite this article:
M. Kazemi, M. Gholami, M. Asadi and S. Aghdasi, 2012. Efficiency of Silicon, Nickel and Acetylsalicylic Acid Reduced Senescence and Extended Vase Life of Cut Rose Flowers. Trends in Applied Sciences Research, 7: 590-595.
Received: January 09, 2012;
Accepted: February 22, 2012;
Published: May 25, 2012
Cut rose flowers are usually short and senescence of the rose petals increase
with ethylene production during postharvest life (Elgimabi
and Ahmed, 2009). Ethylene promoted flower senescence, increased production
of oxygen free radicals (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation, respiratory
activity and loss of cell membrane fluidity (Mayak et
al., 1977; Liu et al., 1987; Witte
and van Doom, 1991; Epstein, 1994; Sankat
and Mujaffar, 1994; Khan et al., 2003; Shi
and Zhu, 2008; Karlidag et al., 2009; Reezi
et al., 2009; Kazemi et al., 2010;
Kazemi and Shokri, 2011; Kazemi
et al., 2011a-d). Ethylene antagonists inhibit
the action of ethylene at the molecular level by blocking its receptor site
(Kazemi et al., 2011a-d).
Three of the preserving agents are ASA, Ni and Si that inhibits ethylene synthesis
and reduces sensitivity of flowers to ethylene. (Reezi et
al., 2009) showed that Si could extend the vase life of rose cut flowers
by decreasing ROS, malondialdehyde content and ethylene. SA has been identified
as an important signaling element involved in establishing local and systematic
disease resistance responses of plants after pathogen attack (Janda
et al., 1999; Ananieva et al., 2002;
Metwally et al., 2003; Ansari
and Misra, 2007; Mahdavian et al., 2007; Mba
et al., 2007; Canakci, 2008; Karlidag
et al., 2009; Zheng et al., 2006),
Wood and Reilly (2007) and Fan et
al. (2008) reported that addition of SA and sucrose in the preserving
solution increased the vase-life of cut flowers. Therefore in this study, the
preservative effects of Si and ASA with Ni on the vase life of cut rose flowers
was compared with emphasis on the possibility of Si and SA with Ni effect on
antioxidative indicators of cut flower.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plant material and storage conditions: The experiment was started on August 6, 2011 and chlorophyll content, Membrane stability, MDA content and ACC oxidase activity were measured. Roses were obtained from local commercial greenhouses (Pakdasht, Tehran, Iran). Following harvest and transport to the laboratory, the stems were recut to 40 cm length. In this study three levels of Si (0, 1.5, 2.5 mM), three levels of Ni (0, 1, 2 mM), three levels of acetylsalicylic acid (0, 1, 1.5 mM) were applied on rose cut flowers. After recording the fresh weight, each flower was placed in a 250 mL bottle containing preservative solutions.
Vase life: Vase life was determined as the number of days to wilting of flowers.
Chlorophyll content measurement: Total chlorophyll (a+b) content was measured by chlorophyll meter (SPAD-502, Minolta Co. Japan) which is presented by SPAD value. Average of 3 measurements from different spots of a single leaves was considered.
Determination of anthocyanin leakage: Anthocyanin leakage was measured
based on the method of Poovaiah (1979).
Determination of ACC-oxidase activity: ACC oxidase activity was assayed
by measuring to the method described by Moya-Leon et
Assays of MDA content (lipid peroxidation): Lipid peroxidation rates
were determined by measuring the malondialdehyde equivalents according to Heath
and Packer (1968).
Water uptake and fresh weight: The volume of water uptake was calculated by subtracting the volume of water evaporated from a control bottle without cut flowers from the amount of water decreased in bottles containing flowers. The fresh weight of the cut flowers also measured in initial day and terminal day of experiment.
Experimental design and statistical analysis: Experiment was arranged
in a factorial test with complete randomized design with six replications. Analysis
of variance was performed on the data collected using the General Linear Model
(GLM) procedure of the SPSS software (Version 16, IBM Inc.). The mean separation
was conducted by Tukeys analysis in the same software (p = 0.05).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Vase life: The results of showed that in comparison to the control,
concentrations of Ni, ASA and Si prolonged the vase life of cut rose flowers.
There were no significant (p<0.05) differences between 1 mM (ASA and Ni),
1.5 mM Si and control. Vase life of cut flowers held in 2.5 mM Si+ 1.5 mM Ni+1.5
mM ASA received to 12 days (Table 1). Jamali
and Rahemi (2011) reported that treatment with Ni and Si significantly extends
the vase life carnation. Ions of Ni, have an inhibitory effect on ACC oxidase
by forming an enzyme-metal complex.
||Mean comparisons of chlorophyll content, vase life, MDA, Membrane
stability and ACC oxidase activity in Ni, Si and ASA treatments and their
|Means in each column followed by similar letters are not significantly
different at 5% level
On the other hand the nitrogen cycle within plants can be affected by Ni (Bai
et al., 2006) and this element have beneficial influence on rigidity
of protein structures (Wood and Reilly, 2007) which might
increase the total resistance of plants against senescence (Jamali
and Rahemi, 2011). Similarity, Fan et al. (2008)
found that application of SA on cut flowers increased vase life and enzyme antioxidant
Water uptake and fresh weight loss: Water uptake rate increased at the
first days of experiment in all treatments tested and then decreased (p<0.05).
Uptake rate decreased rapidly in control and 1 mM ( ASA and Ni) and 1.5 mM Si,
while flowers that were treated by 2.5 mM Si+1.5 mM Ni+1.5 mM ASA showed the
minimum decrease to day 12 (Table 1). These findings are in
agreement with those reported by Lamikanra and Watson (2001,
2002), Fan et al. (2008),
Kazemi and Shokri (2011) and Kazemi
et al. (2011a-d).
Chlorophyll content and anthocyanin leakage: The application of different
Ni, ASA and Si concentrations delayed the chlorophyll degradation and decreased
anthocyanin leakage in comparison to control. The best treatment in this regards
was 2.5 mM Si+1.5 mM Ni+1.5 mM ASA and 1.5 mM ASA. There were no significant
(p<0.05) difference between 1 mM (ASA and Ni), 1.5 mM Si and control. Hodson
and Sangster (1988) reported that accumulated monosilicic acid polymerizes
into polysilicic acid and then transforms to amorphous silica which forms a
thickened silicone-cellulose membrane, by this means, a double cuticular layer
protects and mechanically strengthens plants. Si might also form complexes with
organic compounds in the cell walls of epidermal cells, therefore increasing
their resistance to degrading enzymes (Snyder et al.,
ACO activity and MDA content: ACO activity and MDA content in the cut
flower decreased with increased ASA, Si and Ni concentrations treatments. ACO
activity and MDA content in the cut flower, ASA, Si and Ni treatments significantly
decreased the anthocyanin in the floret cut flower when compared to control
(p<0.05). The results indicate that the treatment by 2.5 mM Si+1.5 mM ASA+1.5
mM Ni improved membrane permeability by decreasing Anthocyanin leakage and ACO
activity in compared to control (p<0.05). Nickel (Ni) as an essential element,
plays different roles in completion of plant life cycle (Wood
and Reilly, 2007). It has been demonstrated that this element has anti-ethylene
features and can impede its production (Zheng et al.,
2006). Similarity, Kazemi et al. (2011a)
showed that treatment with SA decreased the level of Anthocyanin leakage and
The results showed that in comparison to the control, high concentrations of ASA, Si and Ni prolonged the vase life cut flowers. Holding rose cut flowers in vase solutions containing 2.5 mM Si+1.5 mM Ni+1.5 mM ASA significantly increased their vase life and delayed flower senescence compared to flowers of distilled water. This could suggest that the protection mechanism had helped the plants to increase their tolerance against ASA, Si and Ni.
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