Organic Seed Pelleting in Mustard
V. Vijaya Geetha
The cry on organic farming elaborates the need of user friendly and eco friendly technique for seed management techniques. The main aim of the study is to evaluate the quality of seeds as influenced by seed pelleting. Seed pelleting is a technique of seed encapsulation with organic, inorganic nutrient, water absorbent and pesticides and it provides an opportunity to package effective quantities of materials such that they can influence the seed or soil at the seed-soil interface. Seed pelleting is mainly adopted to smaller size seed to increase the size of seed, thereby it reduces the seed rate and improve seed germination by enriching the rhizosphere region with macro and micro nutrient that trigger the vegetative growth of seedling plant in addition to the improvement in zone specific microbial activity. The seed were pelleted with botanicals (Pungam, Prosopis, Arappu and vasambu), biofertilizer (Azospirillium, phosphobacteria and Rhizobium) and filler materials like charcoal and wood ash using maida 10% as adhesive without forming any aggregates using hand operated pelletizer. Highly significant differences were noticed due to organic pelleting seed treatments for all the evaluated seed and seedling quality characters. Among the treatments, seeds pelleted with Azospirillum enhanced the germination by 13.3% over control. The seedling quality character in terms of shoot and root length, vigour index and dry matter production had been improved by 8.1, 28.6, 32.2 and 18.8%, respectively over control. Similarly field emergence also has been increased by Azosprillium treatment compared to control. This study clearly expressed that pelleting of seeds with Azospirillium enhanced the seedling vigour.
Received: February 28, 2011;
Accepted: June 04, 2011;
Published: July 09, 2011
Physical seed enhancement techniques like seed pelleting resulted in more rapid
and synchronous germination across seed bed environment, particularly when their
seed size is very small (Halmer, 2003). Ramesh
et al. (2001) reported that soybean seed pelleted with ammonium molybdate
@ 250 mg kg-1 and ferrous sulphate @ 500 mg kg-1 and inoculated
with Brady rhizobium Japonicum resulted in increased number of branches and
pod plant-1 and seed yield. Soybean seeds of cv. CO2 pelleted
with vermicompost+arappu+thiram using 10% maida as an adhesive enhanced the
field establishment and seed yield (Anonymous, 2002).
While Srimathi et al. (2002) observed that nutrient
pelleting of soybean seeds with ZnSO4 @ 250 mg kg-1 of
seed using arappu leaf powder @ 250 g kg-1 of seed as filler enhanced
the seed quality and field emergence compared to unpelleted seeds. Balamurugan
(2002) reported that sesame seeds of cv.CO l pelleted with NH4Mo4+
ZnSO4 + MnSO4 + borax @ 300 mg each kg-1 using
gypsum @ 300 g kg-1 as a filler material and 10% maida as an adhesive
enhanced the seed germination by 2%,seedling growth by 4% and seed yield by
22% compared to control. Pelleting can indirectly improve seed germination and
stand establishment, while nutrient pelleting enrich the rhizosphere region
with macro and micronutrient that trigger the vegetative growth of seedling
plant in addition to the improvement in zone microbial activity (Suma,
2005). Keeping in view the above facts, the present study was initiated
with the objective of evaluation of seed quality as influenced by seed pelleting.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Genetically pure seeds of mustard cv. GM-2 obtained from National Research Centre on Rapeseed and Mustard, Bharatpur, Rajasthan constituted the material for the study. With a view to realize the objective enumerated in the introduction chapter, the laboratory experiments was carried out in the Department of Seed Science and Technology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore between 2004 to 2007. The experimental details and methods adopted are enumerated hereunder.
Seeds were pelleted with the following materials and dosage.
For 1 kg of seed, 50 mL adhesive (10% Maida gruel) was used. The seed were
pelleted thoroughly without forming any aggregates using hand operated pelletizer
and following quality parameters were analyzed.
Germination: Germination test was conducted with four replicates of
hundred seeds each using between paper methods in the germination room maintained
at 25±2°C and 96±2% RH. The germination percentage was calculated
based on the normal seedling evaluated on 7th day and it was expressed in percentage
(International Seed Testing Association, 1999).
Shoot length: Five normal seedlings were selected at random in each replication and length of the shoot was measured from the collar region to tip of the primary leaf and the mean value was expressed in cm seedling-1.
Root length: From the above seedlings, the length of the root was measured from the collar to tip and the mean value was expressed in cm seedling-1.
Vigour index: Vigour index value was computed using the following formula
suggested by Abdul-Baki and Anderson (1973) and expressed
as whole number.
Dry matter production: After measuring the root and shoot length, the five normal seedlings were shade dried for 24 h and then in a hot air oven maintained at 85±1°C for 24 h. Then, they were cooled in a desiccator which contained calcium chloride for 30 min and weighed. The mean weight was expressed in mg 5 seedling-1.
Field emergence: Four replications of 100 seeds were sown individually in the seed bed as line sowing. After seven days, the number of seedlings emerged were counted and reported in percentage.
Statistical analysis: The data collected for different parameters from
the field and the laboratory experiments were statistically analyzed by the
'F' test for significance as suggested by Panse and Sukhatme
(1985). The critical difference CD was computed at 5% probability. Where
ever necessary, the% values were first transferred to angular (arc sine) value
Highly significant differences were noticed due to organic pelleting seed treatments for all the evaluated seed and seedling quality characters.
Among the treatments, seed pelleted with Azospirillum recorded the highest germination of 90% followed by Prosopis (84%), while the minimum germination was registered by seeds pelleted with charcoal (68%). The lengthiest shoot length of 8.60 cm was registered by the seeds pelleted root length was registered by the seeds pelleted with Prosopis (17.10 cm) followed by Azospirillum (16.05 cm), whereas it was minimum in seeds pelleted with Vasambu (11.21 cm) which was on par with Rhizobium (11.23 cm). Among the treatments, seeds pelleted with Azospirillum recorded the maximum computed value of 2177 which was on par with seeds pelleted with Prosopis (2159), while it was the minimum of 1123 for the seeds pelleted with Vasambu. Seeds pelleted with Azospirillum recorded the maximum dry weight of 32 mg which was on par with seeds pelleted with Prosopis (31 mg), while it was minimum in seeds pelleted with Vasambu (13 mg). Among the treatments, seeds pelleted with Azospirillum recorded the highest field emergence of 85%, while the minimum field emergence of 63% was registered by seeds pelleted by charcoal, however it was on par with Rhizobium pelleted seeds (65%) (Table 1).
In India, the green revolution undoubtedly helped to tide over the food crisis
during the last four decades. Use of chemical fertilizers is one of the major
factors for increasing the food production from 50 million tonnes to 200 million
tonnes. The quantum of chemical fertilizer usage has also been increased from
1.54 million less during 1967-68 to 17.31 million tonnes in 2002-03 (Kubsad
et al., 2002). Green revolution technology is extremely exploitative
and has not only showed ill-effects on natural resources but also increases
the demand for inputs like fertilizers to the tune of about 28 million tonnes
from the current level of 17 million tonnes and pesticides to 1.5 lakh tonnes
as against current usage of 0.8 lakh tonnes. Inspite of increased use of costly
inputs, it is not certain whether we could meet the challenge of feeding the
people with the right quality of safe food. It is now realized that the first
green revolution has weekend ecological base in addition to degrading soil,
water resources and the quality of the food. At this juncture, a keen awareness
has sprung in the adoption of organic farming as a remedy to cure the ills of
modern chemical agriculture.
|| Effect of pelleting on germination percentage, shoot and
root length (cm), vigour index, dry matter production (mg 5 seedlings-1)
and field emergence percentage in mustard seeds cv. GM-2
|Values in parenthesis are arc sine values
For organic farming, organically produced seeds are very much required. Hence,
the present study was conducted using botanicals and biofertilizers for pelleting
The eco-friendly production technique for maximization of quality seed yield
necessitates the use of organic, botanical and bio-fertilizers in the place
of inorganic fertilizers. The researchers pointed out that inoculation of bio-fertilizers
stimulate the growth (Swaminath and Vadiraj, 1988) and
other micronutrients (Vinayak and Bagyaraj, 1990) and
thereby increased the survival rate of planted seedlings. In the present investigation,
seeds were pelleted with botanical and bio-fertilizers (Fig. 1).
The seeds pelleted with Azospirillum enhanced the germination by 13.3%
over control. The seedling quality character in terms of shoot and root length,
vigour index and dry matter production had been improved by 8.1, 28.6, 32.2
and 18.8%, respectively over control. Similarly field emergence also has been
increased by Azosprillium treatment compared to control (Fig.
1). The hike in germination of seeds pelleted with bio-fertilizer might
be due to the increased cytokinin production which actively involved in cell
division (Neiland, 1981) and production of growth regulating
substances like auxin, GA and Cytokinin (Kucey, 1988).
Similar results were obtained by Bhaskar et al. (2000)
in ground nut, Srimathi et al. (2002) in soybean,
Balamurugan (2002) and Suma (2005)
in sesame. As contradictory, seed pelleting also delays germination in case
of some cold crops inorder to overcome some adverse conditions. Seeds pelleted
with Eucalyptus camadulensis leaf extract exhibited delayed germination
for longer time than Ephedrine, Vanillin, Caffeine and ABA (Esfahani
and Shariati, 2006). Zn was applied as soil application, seed pelleting
and foliar spraying, Among Zn application forms, spray application had the highest
accumulation of Zn compared to other two forms (Poshtmasari
et al., 2008). The crop yield of soybean seeds coated carboxymethylchitosan
was increased by 17.95% (Zeng and Zhang, 2010). Conventional
captan and eugenol incorporated into chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer coated
seeds were capable to inhibit most of the fungi until 9 months of storage (Thobunluepop,
2009). Seed coating with bio-digested slurry 50%, superphosphate 2%, Bradyrhizobium
2%, and Phosphobacteria 2% (w/w of seed) increased the number of filled pods
and grain yield by 29.6 and 37.2%, respectively over the uncoated (Jeyabal
et al., 1992).
|| Effect of organic pelleting on germination and field emergence
in mustard cv. GM2
Nevertheless, CL chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (CL) and eugenol incorporated
into chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (E+CL) coating polymer could maintain
seed storability, which significantly improved seed germination and seedling
performances. These improvements were attributed to maintain the nutritive reserve
and dehydrogenase activity in seeds. Moreover, the biological seed treatment
stimulated the embryo growth and so speeding up the seedling emergence when
compared untreated seeds (Thobunluepop et al., 2008).
T. hamatum soil inoculation and seed coating treatments gave the highest
increase for chlorophyll a, b and cartenoids. Also the same treatments showed
the highest increase of phenolic compounds (free and conjugated) and the lowest
percentage for sugars content of tomato leaves infected with the concerned pathogens
(El-Rafai et al., 2003). The variant of CL coating
polymer for seed coating was only during the first 6 months of storage able
to inhibit all species of the observed seed borne fungi, whereas CA and E+CL
coating polymer were capable to inhibit most of the fungi until 9 months of
storage (Thobunluepop, 2009). The biological coated
seeds were found to maintain high sugar contents inside the seeds, which resulted
high seed storability significantly. In contrast, under fungicide stress (CA),
those compounds were lost that directly affected seed vigor during storage (Thobunluepop
et al., 2009). The in vitro studies showed that a 70% concentration
of the culture filtrate of S. aureofaciens significantly inhibited the
spore germination, mycelial growth and sporulation of Fusarium solani.
The in vivo studies involved different treatments. Seed coating treatment
was the most effective in controlling F. Solani at all cultivation periods
in all the three-sugarbeet cultivars Raspoly, TOP and Tribel (Tarek
Moussa and Mohamed Rizk, 2002). The biological coated (biological fungicide
polymers [chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (CL) and eugenol incorporated into
chitosan-lignosulphonate polymer (E+CL)] )seeds were found to maintain high
sugar contents inside the seeds, which resulted high seed storability significantly
in rice cv. KDML 105 (Thobunluepop et al., 2009).
The studies on seed pelleting with botanicals (Pungam, Prosopis, Arappu and vasambu), biofertilizer (Azospirillium, phosphobacteria and Rhizobium) and filler materials like charcoal and wood ash using maida 10% as adhesive revealed that the seeds pelleted with Azospirillum @ 50 g kg-1 registered maximum germination (90%), shoot and root length of 8.14 and 16.05 cm, respectively. Similar result was also observed for vigour index, dry matter production and field emergence.
Abdul-Baki, A.A. and J.D. Anderson, 1973.
Vigor determination in soybean seed by multiple criteria. Crop Sci., 13: 630-633.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Area and Production of Principal Crop in Agricultural Facts and Figures. Commissioner of Agriculture, Pune, Maharashtra, India, pp: 150-154
Balamurugan, V.M., 2002.
Nutrient management for seed yield maximization in rainfed sesame (Sesamum indicum
L.) cv. CO 1. M.Sc. Thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India.
Bhaskar, S., Shivashankar, K.G.J. Dhan and C. Ramchandra, 2000.
Gypsum and sulphur nutrition to groundnut. Int. J. Trop. Agric., 18: 355-360.
Zeng, D.F. and L. Zhang, 2010.
A novel environmentally friendly soybean seed-coating agent. Acta Agric. Scand. Section B: Soil Plant Sci., 60: 545-551.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Esfahani, M.N. and M. Shariati, 2006.
The use of seed pelleting in order to delay germination of Trifolium repens
L. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 9: 893-897.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Panse, V.G. and P.V. Sukhatme, 1985.
Statistical Methods for Agricultural Workers. ICAR Publication, New Delhi, India.
Ramesh, K., V. Thirumurugan and B. Chandrasekaran, 2001.
Effect of nutrient uptake and productivity of soybean (Glycine max
). Indian J. Agron., 46: 506-510.
Halmer, P., 2003.
Enhancing seed performance for better yield and quality. Asian Seeds Plant Mater., 10: 4-7.
International rules for seed testing. Annex to chapter 5: The germination test. Seed Sci. Technol., 27: 27-32.
El-Rafai, I.M., M.W.S. Asswah and A.O. Awdalla, 2003.
Biocontrol of some tomato disease using some antagonistic microorganisms. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 6: 399-406.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Jeyabal, A., G. Kuppuswamy and A. Lakshmanan, 1992.
Effect of seed coating on yield attributes and yield of soybean (Glycine max
L.). J. Agron. Crop Sci., 169: 145-150.CrossRef |
Kubsad, V.S., U.K. Hulihalli, V.R. Naik and G.G. Gulaganji, 2002.
New methods of weed control. Bilingual Monthly Magazine, Swarna Sedyam-Agri Gold, India, pp: 50.
Kucey, R.M.N., 1988.
Alteration of size of wheat root systems and nitrogen fixation by associative nitrogen-fixing bacteria measured under field condition. Can. J. Micribiol., 34: 735-739.
Neiland, J.B., 1981.
Microbial iron compounds. Annu. Rev. Biochem., 50: 715-731.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Poshtmasari, H.K., M.A. Bahmanyar, H. Pirdashti and M.A.A. Shad, 2008.
Effects of Zn rates and application forms on protein and some micronutrients accumulation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris
L.). Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 11: 1042-1046.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Srimathi, P., K. Malarkodi, R. Geetha and V. Krishnaswamy, 2002.
Nutrient pelleting to augment quality seed production in soybean. Seed Res., 30: 186-189.
Suma, N., 2005.
Studies of seed quality enhancement techniques in sesamum (Sesamum indicum
L.) cv. Co 1 in sesamum. M.Sc. Thesis, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore.
Swaminath, M.H. and B.A. Vadiraj, 1988.
Nursery studies on the influence of Azospirillum bio-fertilizer on the growth and dry matter of forestry species. My forest, 24: 289-324.
Moussa, T.A.A. and M.A. Rizk, 2002.
Biocontrol of sugarbeet pathogen Fusarium solani
(Mart.) Sacc. by Streptomyces aureofaciens
. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 5: 556-559.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Thobunluepop, P., W. Pan-in, E. Pawelzik and S. Vearasilp, 2009.
The perspective effects of various seed coating substances on rice seed variety khao dawk mali 105 storability II: The case study of chemical and biochemical properties. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 12: 574-581.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Thobunluepop, P., E. Pawelzik and S. Vearasilp, 2008.
The perspective effects of various seed coating substances on rice seed variety khao dawk mali 105 storability I: The case study of physiological properties. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 11: 2291-2299.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Thobunluepop, P., 2009.
The inhibitory effect of the various seed coating substances against rice seed borne fungi and their shelf-life during storage. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 12: 1102-1110.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Vinayak, K. and D.J. Bagyaraj, 1990.
Selection of efficient VA mycorrhizal fungi for Trifoliate
orange. Biol. Agric. Hort., 6: 305-311.Direct Link |