Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Effect of Frozen Storage Time on the Lipid Deterioration and Protein Denaturation During Caspian Sea White Fish (Rutilus frisi kutum)



A. Keyvan, S. Moini, N. Ghaemi, A.A. Haghdoost, S. Jalili and M. Pourkabir
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

The study was designed to investigate the effect of duration of frozen storage on chemical analysis, lipid damage and extractability of Myofibrillar proteins of Kutum (Rutilus frisi kutum. The fish were collected from Anzaly landings in north of Iran and were subjected to 12 months of frozen storage and analyzed at intervals of three month. Protein content ranges from 21.8±0.01 to 19.9±0.01. Protein decrease with increasing duration of frozen storage; fish samples that were for frozen thirty days; having highest protein content 21.8±0.01 while the least 19.9±0.01 was recorded for fish samples that were frozen for 12 months. Similar results obtained for the fat content where the highest fat content 3.21±0.01 was recorded for the fish samples that were for frozen 30 days and the least value was recorded for those stored for 12 months. The least moisture content was observed for fish samples the was stored for 12 months but, the highest Ash content was observed for fish samples the was stored for 12 month. Lipid damage were measured on the basis of Free Fatty Acids (FFA), Peroxide Value (PV), Thiobarbituric acid index (TBA-i). PV, TBARS and FFA concentration of frozen Caspian Sea white fish stored at -18°C; the temporal variation of these three variables were statistically significant (p<0.001). SDS-PAGE patterns showed that myosin heavy chain was much more susceptible to hydrolysis than actin.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

A. Keyvan, S. Moini, N. Ghaemi, A.A. Haghdoost, S. Jalili and M. Pourkabir, 2008. Effect of Frozen Storage Time on the Lipid Deterioration and Protein Denaturation During Caspian Sea White Fish (Rutilus frisi kutum). Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 3: 404-409.

DOI: 10.3923/jfas.2008.404.409

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jfas.2008.404.409
 

INTRODUCTION

The kutum fish (Rutilus frisi kutum) which is distributed abundantly in Caspian Sea in Iran. Kutum fish (Rutilus frisi kutum) is the most popular fish in Iran with the highest economic value. Fish is one of the most important sources of animal protein available in the topics and has been widely accepted as a good source of protein and other elements for the maintenance of healthy body (Arannilewa et al., 2005). Fish tissue protein is characterized by a very desirable composition of amino acids (Aburg et al., 1999) and also is a rich source of group B vitamins and is rich in vitamins A and D (Zmijewski et al., 2006). Fish muscle is composed of myofibrillar proteins, Sarcoplasmic proteins, connective tissue, storma proteins, polypeptides, nucleotides and non-protein nitrogen compounds. The major alteration in fish tissue occurs largely in the myofibrillar proteins, the main muscle proteins, comprising myosin (500-600 mg g-1) and actin (150-250 mg g-1), (Badii and Howell, 2001).

Freezing is one the best methods, for fish preservation and has been employed increasingly both on shore and fishing vessels (Begona, 1999). However ,measurement of sensory, chemical and physical changes have shown deterioration of fish quality continues to some extent during frozen storage (Celik et al., 2005). Although, microbial deterioration of fish muscle can be inhibited by frozen storage, fish proteins undergo a number of changes that affect the flavor and texture of the flesh, (Abourg et al., 1998).

This study therefore is aimed at determining the acceptable storage life of frozen storage and the freezing effects on the proximate analysis, chemical (PV, FFA, TBRAS) composition and protein denaturation of the white fish (Rutilus frisi kutum) in Iran.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Sample Collection
Kutum fish (Rutilus frisi kutum) average weight (1000+100 g) used in this study , were caught in 15th of 2006 March from Caspian Sea. After being caught, they were transferred to laboratories, filleted and then frozen at -30°C. Frozen fillets dispatched packed into a box ice to the faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran. Analyzes of the frozen kutum fish (Rutilus frisi kutum) were carried out 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 mounts from the beginning of frozen storage.

Determination of Proximate Analysis
Water content was determined by the sample drying technique at temperature of 105°C; crude protein content with the use of the Kjeldahl method with 6.25 multiplier; ash content by sample mineralization at a temperature 550-600°C and fat content was determined with blight and dyer method (Ozogul and Ozogol, 2007).

Chemical Analysis
Chemical parameters (PV, TBRAS, FFA) were studied for frozen kutum fish. Thiobarbiutic Acid Reactive Substance (TBRAS) were analyzed by the direct method of Vyncke and Peroxide value were determined according method Lee and Free fatty acid were analyzed according Pearson method, (Zmijewski et al ., 2006).

SDS-Poly Acryl Amide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)
The protein pattern of kutum fish (Rutilus frisi kutum) muscle was analyzed by SDS-PAGE according to the method of laemmli (Bauchart et al., 2007). To prepare the protein sample, 27 mL of 5% (w/v) SDS solution heated to 85°C, were added to the sample (3 g).The mixture was than homogenized using homogenizer (Ependorph, model 5810R, Germany) for 2 min. The sample were centrifuged at 4000 x g for 10 min to remove un dissolved debris. Protein concentration was determined according to the method of Warburg. SDS-PAGE gel was made of 10% running gel and 4% stacking gel. After separation were fixed and stained with coomassie Blue R-250.

Statical Analysis
Data was analyzed statically by the Analysis of variance (Repeated measure) and using SPSS 13.0.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Fish tissue possesses high nutritional value and is therefore a particularly recommended directly component (Abourg et al., 2004). Lowering if fish quality during frozen storage has been attributed to undesirable changes associated with lipid and proteins (Huidobro and Tejaja, 2004). Changes in lipid occur through hydrolysis and oxidation mechanism. Fish muscle proteins can undergo denaturation during frozen storage due to formation and accretion of ice crystals resulting in dehydration (Simeonidou et al., 1997). Protein aggregation in frozen fish depends on storage temperature, temperature fluctuation, moisture change, storage time and enzymatic degradation (Bauchart et al., 2007).

The proximate composition of the Kutum fish that was stored in a freezer compartment of refrigerator for different number of month analysis is presented in Table 1. Protein content ranges from 21.8±0.01 to 19.9±0.01 protein decrease with increasing duration of frozen storage; fish samples that were for frozen thirty days; having highest protein content 21.8±0.01 while the least 19.9±0.01 was recorded for fish samples that were frozen for 12 months. Similar results obtained for the fat content where the highest fat content 3.21±0.01 was recorded for the fish samples that were for frozen thirty days and the least value was recorded for those stored for 12 months. The changes in fat content during frozen storage could be associated with the oxidation of fat. The highest moisture content was observed for fish samples was stored for one month and least moisture content was observed for fish samples the was stored for 12 months but, the highest ash content was observed for fish samples the was stored for 12 months and the least ash content was observed for fish samples the was stored for thirty days.

Table 1: Proximate composition (dry weight basis) of kutum fish (Rutilus frisi kutum) subjected to different freezing periods (Mean±SE)

Fig. 1: Peroxide values content in frozen Caspian Sea kutum fish stored at -18°C for 12 months

The lowering of quality during frozen storage could also be caused by lipid changes. Oxidative rancidity during frozen storage at -18°C was evaluated by determining the peroxide value (Fig. 1 ) Peroxide value is widely employed for determining the formation of hydro peroxides, which are primary products of oxidative reaction (Begona, 1999). The concentration of TBRAS has not significant during storage time at-18°C (Fig. 2). FFA, resulting from lipid hydrolysis , may accumulated during frozen storage and accelerate quality deterioration (Saeed and Howell et al., 2002). Although FFA have not been reported to directly cause quality defects. The concentration of FFA increased during storage time at -18°C (Fig. 3). Measurement of chemical changes has shown that deterioration of fish quality continues to some extent during frozen storage (Rodriguez et al., 2007).

Fig. 2: FFA content in frozen Caspian Sea Kutum fish stored at -18°C for 12 months

Fig. 3: TBARS content infrozen Caspian Sea kutum fish stored at -18°C for 12 months

Fig. 4: SDS Pattern of muscle protein Caspian Sea kutum fish stored at -18°C

The major alteration in fish tissue occurs largely in the myofibrillar proteins. The main muscle proteins comprising myosin and actin. Storage of frozen fish brings about a decrease of extractability of myofibrillar proteins. There is also deterioration of the texture of functional properties on the flesh, (Samra et al., 2002). SDS analyses revealed that intensity of the myosin heavy chain and actins bounds was reduced with increasing storage time. SDS-PAGE patterns showed that myosin heavy chain was much more susceptible to hydrolysis than was actin (Fig. 4). The decreased in solubility is accompanied by changes in texture and development of toughness or ruberiness in fish muscle. This result was in agreement with Benjakule et al.(2003). Protein aggregation in frozen fish depends on storage temperature, moisture, temperature function, storage time and enzymatic degradation (LeBlank and Leblank, 1992).

The result of the investigation shows that the fish is a good source of protein, fat and the quality of fish decrease in the 12 months frozen storage, deterioration increased as the duration of storage increased.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Authors would like to thank central laboratory of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran.

REFERENCES
Abourg, S.P., A. Rodriguez and J.M. Gallardo, 2004. Rancidity development during frozen storage of Mackerel (Scomber scombrus): Effect of catching season and commercial presentation. Eou. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 107: 316-323.
CrossRef  |  ISI  |  

Abourg, S.P., C. Stolelo and R. Perez-Martin, 1998. Assessment of quality changes in frozen sardine (sardine pilchardus) by floursence detection. J. Am. Oil Soc., 75: 575-580.
CrossRef  |  ISI  |  

Arannilewa, S.T., S.O. Salawu, A.A. Sorungbe and B.B. Ola-Salawu, 2005. Effect of frozen period on the chemical, microbiological and sensory quality of frozen tilapia fish (Sarotherodun galiaenus). Afr. J. Biotechnol., 4: 852-855.
Direct Link  |  

Aubourg, S.P. and I. Medina, 1999. Influence of storage time and temperature on lipid deterioration during cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) frozen storage. J. Sci. Food Agric., 79: 1943-1948.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Badii, F. and N.K. Howell, 2002. A comparison of biochemical changes in cod (Gadus morhua) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) fillets during frozen storage. J. Sci. Food Agric., 82: 87-97.
CrossRef  |  

Bauchart, C., C. Chambon, P.P. Mirand, I. Savary-Auzeloux, D. Remond and M. Morzel, 2007. Peptides in rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) muscle subjected to ice storage and cooking. J. Food Chem., 100: 1566-1572.
CrossRef  |  

Begona, B., 1999. Chemical changes and visual appearance of Albacore Tuna as related to frozen storage. J. Food Sci., 64: 20-24.

Benjakule, S., W. Visessanguan and J. Tuksuban, 2003. Changes in physic-chemical properties and gel-forming ability of Lizard fish (Saurida tumbile) during post-morten storage in ice. Food Chem., 80: 535-544.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Celik, M., A. Diller and A. Kucukgulmez, 2005. A comparison of the proximate composition and fatty acid profiles of Zander (Sander lucioperca) from two different region and climatic condition. J. Food Chem., 92: 637-641.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Huidobro, A. and M. Tejada, 2004. Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata): Suitability for freezing and commercial alternatives. J. Sci. Food Agric., 84: 1405-1413.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

LeBlank, E.L. and R.J. Leblank, 1992. Determination of hydrophobicity and reactive groups in proteins of cod (Gadus morhua) muscle during frozen storage. Food Chem., 43: 3-11.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Ozogul, Y. and F. Ozogol, 2007. Fatty acid profiles of commercially important fish species from the mediterranean, aegean and black seas. Food Chem., 100: 1634-1638.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Rodriguez, A., V. Losda, M.A. Larrain, V. Quitral, J. Vinagre and S.P. Abourg, 2007. Development of lipid changes related to quality loss during the frozen storage of farmed Coho salmon(Onchorhynchus kisutch). J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 84: 727-734.
CrossRef  |  

Saeed, S. and N.K. Howell, 2002. Effect of lipid oxidation and frozen storage on Muscle ofAtlantic Mackrel (Scomber scombrus). J. Sci. Food Agric., 82: 579-586.
CrossRef  |  

Samra, J., G. Vidya Sagar Reddy and L.N. Srikar, 2002. Effect of frozen storage on lipids and functional properties of dressed Indian oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps). Food Res. Int., 33: 815-820.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Simeonidou, A., A. Govaris and K. Vareltzis, 1997. Quality assessment of seven Mediterranean fish species during storage on ice. Food Res. Int., 30: 479-484.
Direct Link  |  

Zmijewski, T., R. Kujawa, B. Jankowska, A. Kwiatkowska and A. Mamcarz, 2006. Slaughter yield proximate and fatty acid composition and sensory properties of rapfen (Aspius aspius L.) with tissue of bream (Abramis brama L.) and pike (Exox lucius L.). J. Food Composit. Anal., 19: 176-181.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

©  2020 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved