Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Effect of Different Levels of Kaolin, Bentonite and Zeolite on Broilers Performance



M. Safaei Katouli, F. Boldaji, B. Dastar and S. Hassani
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

An experiment was conducted to study the effects of different levels of kaolin, bentonite and zeolite on broiler performance in 6 weeks. Four hundred and forty eight day-old broilers of male Ross 308 strain were allocated to 7 treatments with four replications and 16 broilers in each. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design. Treatments were control and 1.5, 3% of kaolin, bentonite and zeolite. Treatments with 3% zeolite and bentonite was significantly (p<0.05) increased weight gain during the 1st and 6th weeks, 1.5% kaolin and zeolite, significantly (p<0.05) increased weight gain in 5th and 6th weeks compared to the control, respectively. Treatments 1.5% bentonite in 4th and 5th weeks and 1.5% zeolite and 3% bentonite in 5th week was significantly (p<0.05) increased feed intake compared to the control. Feed conversion ratio in diets with 3% kaolin in the 1st and 2nd weeks and 3% zeolite in the 1st week was significantly (p<0.05) improved compared to the control. There was no significant (p>0.05) differences in internal organs and fecal pH between trial groups and control. Fecal moisture in treatments with 1.5% kaolin, 3% bentonite and zeolite was significantly (p<0.05) different from control. Growth rate in treats containing 3% kaolin at 0-3 week and 1.5% zeolite, 1.5% kaolin and 3% kaolin, bentonite and zeolite at 0-6 week was more than control (p<0.05). The results demonstrated that adding silicate minerals in diet, improve performance of broiler chickens.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

M. Safaei Katouli, F. Boldaji, B. Dastar and S. Hassani, 2010. Effect of Different Levels of Kaolin, Bentonite and Zeolite on Broilers Performance. Journal of Biological Sciences, 10: 58-62.

DOI: 10.3923/jbs.2010.58.62

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jbs.2010.58.62
 

INTRODUCTION

Silicates cover about 90% of earth’s minerals. Kaolin and bentonite belong to group of silicates with the name of phillosilicates. Phillosilicates are classified into the main group according to the type of the layers, interlayer content, charge of the layers and chemical formulas. Kaolin is a plastic raw material, particularly consisting of the clay mineral kaolinite. The chemical formula is Al2O3.2SiO2.2H2O. Structure kaolinite allowed easily adsorbs water and forms a plastic, paste-like substance (Trckova et al., 2004). Bentonites are clays with strong colloidal properties that absorb water rapidly, which results in swelling and a manifold increase in volume, giving rise to a thixotropic gelatinous substance (Pasha et al., 2008). Bentonite is actually a mixture of minerals from montmorilonite group with high ion exchange capacity which binds with deferent cations (Huntington et al., 1977; Walz et al., 1998).

Zeolites are crystalline, hydrated aluminosilicates of alkali and alkaline earth cations having three dimensional structures. Among many properties attributed to zeolites, two most characteristics that relates to their effectiveness in animal nutrition are their ability to lose and gain water reversibly and being capable of exchanging selectively a variety of cations in their structure without much major changes of structure (Mumpton and Fishman, 1977; Shariatmadari, 2008). Some studies show that the use of silicate minerals in broiler chickens diet would improve their weight gain (Prvulovic et al., 2008; Salari et al., 2006; Tauqir et al., 2001). Various researches (Elliot and Edwards, 1991; Pasha et al., 2008; Hesham et al., 2004) show that the use of these minerals will cause decrease in the feed conversion ratio. One of the benefits of using silicate minerals in the diet is improvement the quality of broiler litter (Cabuk et al., 2004).

Therefore, the present study was conducted to further evaluate the effects of dietary kaolin, bentonite and zeolite on broiler body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, internal organs, growth rate, fecal moisture and pH.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The experiment was carried out in Animal Research Station of Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources in Golstan province, Iran during December 2008 and April 2009. Four hundred forty eight day-old male broiler chicks of uniform weight (Ross 308) randomly divided into 7 treatments with 4 replicate groups per treatment and 16 chicks per replicate.

Table 1:Composition of experimental diets for the starter phase (%)
Image for - Effect of Different Levels of Kaolin, Bentonite and Zeolite on Broilers Performance
*Premix contained 50% vitamin premix and 50% mineral premix. Each kg of vitamin premix contained: Vitamin A, 3,500,000 IU; Vitamin D3, 1,000,000 IU; Vitamin E, 9000 IU; Vitamin K3, 1000 mg; Vitamin B1, 900 mg; Vitamin B2, 3,300 mg; Vitamin B3, 5,000 mg; Vitamin B5, 15,000 mg; Vitamin B6, 150 mg; Vitamin B9, 500 mg; Vitamin B12, 7.5 mg; Biotin, 500 mg; Choline chloride, 250,000 mg and each kg of mineral premix contained: Mn, 50,000 mg; Fe, 25,000 mg; Zn, 50,000 mg; Cu, 5,000 mg; I, 500 mg, Se, 100 mg

The size of all pens was 1.5x1.5 m; therefore, each bird had about 0.14 m2 spaces. The temperature was maintained at 32°C during the 1st week and then was reduced by 3°C per week until 18°C was reached and this temperature was maintained until the end of the experiment. Relative humidity of the room was about 60-70% and artificial lighting was set to provide 24 h of light daily. Dietary treatments consisted of a control corn-soybean meal diet and six other treatments contained 1.5 or 3% of kaolin, bentonite and zeolite for each treatment a 2-phase feeding program was utilized based on NRC (1994) recommendation. The starter diet was fed from 1 to 21 day and the grower from 22 to 42 day. Feed and water were given ad libitum. Table 1 and 2 show the composition of the diets. The diets of starter phase calculated to contain 20.85% CP and 2900 kcal of ME per kg of diet. They also contained 18.75% CP and 3000 kcal of ME kg-1 of diet for the grower phase. Diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric and contain the suitable levels of methionine, lysine, vitamins and minerals. Body weight gain, feed intake of all chicks from all pens was recorded weekly. Daily chick mortality were weighed, recorded and added to the total pen live body weight for the calculation of feed conversion ratio during each week. At the 42 days of age, 2 birds from each replicate weighing average of pen weight were selected and body weights were determined, slaughtered and eviscerated in order to determine, liver, heart, spleen, bursa as a percentage of live body weight.

Feces were collected for moisture and pH analysis at 40 days of experiment. The pH of fecal content was determined using a pH meter (Inolab model WTW-720 made in Germany) and moisture content of fecal material was determined according to the method as described in AOAC (2005). Values of growth rate of treatments were measured by using the formula (Bernacki et al., 2008).

Table 2:Composition of experimental diets for the grower phase (%)
Image for - Effect of Different Levels of Kaolin, Bentonite and Zeolite on Broilers Performance
*Premix contained 50% vitamin premix and 50% mineral premix. Each kg of vitamin premix contained: Vitamin A, 3,500,000 IU; Vitamin D3, 1,000,000 IU; Vitamin E, 9000 IU; Vitamin K3, 1000 mg; Vitamin B1, 900 mg; Vitamin B2, 3,300 mg; Vitamin B3, 5,000 mg; Vitamin B5, 15,000 mg; Vitamin B6, 150 mg; Vitamin B9, 500 mg; Vitamin B12, 7.5 mg; biotin, 500 mg; choline chloride, 250,000 mg and each kg of mineral premix contained: Mn, 50,000 mg; Fe, 25,000 mg; Zn, 50,000 mg; Cu, 5,000 mg; I, 500 mg, Se, 100 mg

Image for - Effect of Different Levels of Kaolin, Bentonite and Zeolite on Broilers Performance

Where:

mk = Final body weight
mp = Initial body weight

The data were analyzed using the General Linear Models (GLM) procedure of SAS (2003). The treatments means were compared using Duncans multiple range tests (Duncan, 1955) at 5% probability level.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 3 shows the effects of experimental treatments on the feed intake. Feed intake was significantly (p<0.05) higher in 1.5% bentonite in 4th and 5th weeks and 1.5% zeolite, 3% bentonite in 5 week compare to the control. Also in 4th week significant differences were found between two levels of bentonite (1.5 and 3%) in feed intake (p<0.05). Salari et al. (2006) reported that chickens fed diets containing 1, 2% bentonite consume more feed (p<0.05). There were no significant effects of dietary treatments on feed intake at 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 6th weeks. These finding are in agreement with others (Cabuk et al., 2004; Grosicki et al., 2004). Acosta et al. (2005) reported the addition of 1% zeolite in diet decrease feed intake.

Table 3:Effect of kaolin, bentonite and zeolite on the average of weekly feed intake (g)
Image for - Effect of Different Levels of Kaolin, Bentonite and Zeolite on Broilers Performance
Means within columns with no common superscripts are significantly different (p<0.05)

Table 4:Effect of kaolin, bentonite and zeolite on the average of weekly body weight gain (g)
Image for - Effect of Different Levels of Kaolin, Bentonite and Zeolite on Broilers Performance
Means within columns with no common superscripts are significantly different (p<0.05)

Table 5:Effect of kaolin, bentonite and zeolite on the average of weekly feed conversion ratio (%)
Image for - Effect of Different Levels of Kaolin, Bentonite and Zeolite on Broilers Performance
Means within columns with no common superscripts are significantly different (p<0.05)

Diets consisted of 3% zeolite and bentonite (p<0.05) increased weight gain during the 1st and 6th weeks, 1.5% kaolin and zeolite significantly (p<0.05) increased weight gain in 5th and 6th weeks compared to the control, respectively. In 3rd week significant differences were found in 1.5% kaolin compared with 3% bentonite (p<0.05) (Table 4). This result was in agreement with other reports (Tauqir et al., 2001; Grosicki et al., 2004; Salari et al., 2006; Pasha et al., 2008). But Elliot and Edwards (1991) and Altiner et al. (2009) found that addition natural zeolite to the diet had no effect on body weight (p>0.05). It is possible to relate the existing differences in different experimental results, on using silicate minerals in broiler diets, maybe due to the structure of the mineral and the metal oxide content. So, good processing to reduce metal oxide content, as much as possible, will result in better outputs.

Effects of the dietary treatments on feed conversion ratio are shown in (Table 5). Feed conversion ratio in diet with 3% kaolin in the 1st and 2nd weeks and 3% zeolite in the 1st week significantly (p<0.05) improved compared to the control. Feed conversion ratio in 3% bentonite treatment at 4th week increased significantly (p<0.05) compared to 3% kaolin and 1.5% bentonite treatments. Also in 5th week two levels bentonite (1.5, 3%) showed higher feed conversion ratio against 3% kaolin. Elliot and Edwards (1991) and Pasha et al. (2008) showed that feeding of natural zeolite and bentonite improved the feed conversion ratio. Ledoux et al. (1999), Oguz and kurtoglu (2000), Rosa et al. (2001), Pasha et al. (2007) and Shi et al. (2009) reported feed conversion ratio improved by adding silicate minerals to AF-containing diets. Whereas Cabuk et al. (2004) reported that the supplementation of zeolite to the diet had no effect on feed conversion ratio.

The effects of dietary treatments on the Growth rate, fecal moisture and pH are presented in Table 6. The growth rate could be considered as an important characteristic in effects of silicate mineral in broiler performance. In this research, growth rate value at 0-3 week in 3% kaolin and 0-6 week at 1.5% kaolin, zeolite and 3% kaolin, bentonite, zeolite was more than control (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in growth rate at 3-6 week of age among treatments (p<0.05).

Fecal moisture in treats with 1.5% kaolin and 3% bentonite and zeolite significantly (p<0.05) decreased compared to control. But there were no significant (p>0.05) differences in fecal pH among treatments. Miles and Henry (2007) reported fecal moisture decreased linearly (p<0.001) in response to increase in hydrate sodium calcium aluminosilicates in diet.

Table 6:Effect of kaolin, bentonite and zeolite on growth rate value, fecal moisture (%) and fecal pH
Image for - Effect of Different Levels of Kaolin, Bentonite and Zeolite on Broilers Performance
Means within columns with no common superscripts are significantly different (p<0.05)

Table 7:Effect of kaolin, bentonite and zeolite on internal organs as percent of LBW*
Image for - Effect of Different Levels of Kaolin, Bentonite and Zeolite on Broilers Performance
*LBW= Live body weight

There were no significant (p<0.05) differences in internal organs between trial groups and control (Table 7). These results are in agreement with (Santin et al., 2002; Grosicki et al., 2004; Hesham et al., 2004; Shi et al., 2009). Prvulovic et al. (2008) reported that spleen weight was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the 5% zeolite treatment whereas the weight of the other measured organs were not affected by the dietary treatment.

CONCLUSION

The results of this study showed that using silicate minerals in diet had no adverse effect on broiler performance and internal organs. Also, it improved growth rate, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio and decreased fecal moisture.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

We greatly acknowledge Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources for financial support (Grant No. 86503).

REFERENCES

  1. Acosta, A., E.L. Wo and O. Dieppa, 2005. Effect of the natural zeolite (Clinoptilolite) and of the different feeding schemes on the productive performance of broilers. Cuban J. Agric. Sci., 39: 311-316.
    Direct Link  |  


  2. AOAC., 2005. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemist. 18th Edn., Horwitz William Publication, Washington, DC., USA
    Direct Link  |  


  3. Bernacki, Z., D. Kokoszynski and T. Mallek, 2008. Evaluation of selected meat traits in seven-week-old duck broilers. Anim. Sci. Papers Rep., 26: 165-174.
    Direct Link  |  


  4. Altiner, A., F. Kaygisiz, H. Eseceli and T. Bilal, 2009. Effect of vitamin D3 and/or zeolite supplementation to laying hen rations added microbial phytase on performance and enterprise income. J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 8: 1013-1020.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  5. Cabuk, M., A. Alcicek, M. Bozkurt and S. Akkan, 2004. Effect of Yucca schidigera and natural zeolite on broiler performance. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 3: 651-654.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  6. Duncan, D.B., 1955. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics, 11: 1-42.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  7. Elliot, M.A. and H.M. Jr. Edwards, 1991. Comparison the effects of synthetic and natural zeolite on laying and broiler chickens performance. Poult. Sci., 70: 2115-2130.
    Direct Link  |  


  8. Grosicki, A., B. Kowalski and D. Bik, 2004. Influence of bentonite on trace element kinetics in rats. II. calcium. Bull. Vet. Inst. Pul., 48: 337-340.
    Direct Link  |  


  9. Huntington, G.B., R.J. Emerick and L.B. Embry, 1977. Sodium bentonite, effects when fed at various levels with high concentrate diets to lambs. J. Anim. Sci., 45: 119-125.


  10. Ledoux, D.R., G.E. Rottinghaus, A.J. Bermudez and M. Alonso-Debolt, 1999. Efficacy of a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to ameliorate the toxic effects of aflatoxin in broiler chicks. Poult. Sci., 78: 204-210.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  11. Miles, R.D. and P.R. Henry, 2007. Safety of improved Milbond-TX® when fed in broiler diets at greater than recommended levels. Anim. Feed. Sci. Technol., 138: 309-317.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  12. Mumpton, F.A. and P.H. Fishman, 1977. The application of natural zeolite in animal science and aquaculture. J. Anim. Sci., 45: 1188-1203.
    Direct Link  |  


  13. NRC., 1994. National Research Council: Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th Edn., National Academy Press, Washington, DC


  14. Oguz, H. and V. Kurtoglu, 2000. Effect of clinoptilolite on performance of broiler chickens during experimental aflatoxicosis. Br. Poult. Sci., 41: 512-517.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  15. Pasha, T.N., M.U. Farooq, F.M. Khattak, M.A. Jabbar and A.D. Khan, 2007. Effectiveness of sodium bentonite and two commercial products as afalatoxin absorbents in diets for broiler chickens. Anim. Feed. Sci. Tech., 132: 103-110.


  16. Pasha, T.N., A. Mahmood, F.M. Khattak, M.A. Jabbar and A.D. Khan, 2008. The effect of feed supplemented with different sodium bentonite treatments on broiler performance. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 32: 245-248.
    Direct Link  |  


  17. Prvulovic, D., D. Kojic, G. Grubor-Lajsic and S. Kosarcic, 2008. The effects of dietary inclusion of hydrated aluminosilicate on performance and biochemical parameters of broiler chickens. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 32: 183-189.
    Direct Link  |  


  18. Rosa, C.A.R., R. Miazzo, C. Magnoli, M. Salvano and M. Chiacchiera et al., 2001. Evaluation of the efficacy of bentonite from the south of argentina toameliorate the toxic effect of aflatoxin in broilers. Poult. Sci., 80: 139-144.
    Direct Link  |  


  19. Salari, S., H. Kermanshahi and H.N. Moghaddam, 2006. Effect of sodium bentonite and comparison of pellet vs. mash on performance of broiler chickens. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 5: 31-34.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


  20. Santin, E., A. Maiorka, E.L. Krabbe, A.C. Paulillo and A.C. Alessi, 2002. Effect of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicates on the prevention of the toxic effects of ochratoxin. J. Applied Poult. Res., 11: 22-28.
    Direct Link  |  


  21. SAS, 2003. SAS User's Guide: Statistics. Version 8.2, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC


  22. Shariatmadari, F., 2008. The application of zeolite in poultry production. World's Poult. Sci., 64: 76-84.
    Direct Link  |  


  23. Shi, Y., Z. Xu, Y. Sun, C. Wang and J. Feng, 2009. Effects of two different types of montmorillonite on growth performance and serum profiles of broiler chicks during aflatoxicosis. Turk. J. Anim. Sci., 33: 15-20.
    Direct Link  |  


  24. Tauqir, N.A., G.I. Sultan and H. Nawaz, 2001. Effect of different levels of bentonite with varying energy levels on the performance of broilers. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 3: 85-88.


  25. Teleb, H.M., A.A. Hegazy and Y.A. Hussein, 2004. Efficiency of kaolin and activated charcoal to reduce the toxicity of low level of aflatoxin in broilers. Scient. J. King Faisal Univ. (Basic Applied Sci.), 5: 145-160.
    Direct Link  |  


  26. Trckova, M., L. Matlova, L. Dvorska and I. Pavlik, 2004. Kaolin, bentonite and zeolites as feed supplements for animals: Health advantages and risks. Veterinarni Medicina, 49: 389-399.
    Direct Link  |  


  27. Walz, L.S., T.W. White, J.M. Fernandez, L.R. Gentry and D.C. Blouin et al., 1998. Effects of fish meal and sodium bentonite on daily gain, wool growth, carcass characteristics and ruminal and blood characteristics of lambs fed concentrate diets. J. Anim. Sci., 76: 2025-2031.
    CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  


©  2022 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved