In the initial stages of the product life cycle, the product is supposed to
pass through a cycle of birth (Dieter, 2000) as shown in
Fig. 1. End-of-life vehicles (ELVs) are produced in two ways,
namely, premature or natural. Premature ELVs are vehicles that have come to
the end of their helpful lives before the end of their average lifetime. This
occurrence may be due to various factors such as fire, theft, flood, vandalism,
or accident damage. ELVs have a large number of reusable vehicle parts that
can be removed before further processing. On the other hand, natural ELVs are
vehicles that have reached the end of their useful lives. Such vehicles are
usually in a severe state of repair and the resale value of the parts is at
a minimum. A number of health and safety issues must be addressed before de-pollution
and subsequent processing. Vehicles are essential products in our society and
the demand for them continues to increase. Only 4,120 passenger vehicles were
built in 1900 in the United States (the only country that manufactured cars
at that time). By 1985, approximately 109 million passenger vehicles are in
existence. This number is expected to be six times larger today when dozens
of countries participate in automobile production.
Vehicles are utilized as service commodities throughout their life cycle. Thus,
they produce a specific negative impact on the environment, including energy
and resource consumption, hazardous substance emissions and waste generation.
Automotive waste landfills exist in all parts of the world. Countries in Europe
and other developed countries prefer to recycle vehicles rather than throw them
in automotive waste landfills.
The number of vehicles from these countries recycled by specialized recycling
companies is estimated to be approximately 15 million. This large number may
be due to accident damage, test failure, or other causes that render the vehicles
uneconomical to repair. This situation equates to a million tons of material
to be recovered or disposed.
Solid waste management represents important environmental, social and economic
challenges for developed and developing economies alike (Nnorom
et al., 2007). An example of this situation is the 1960s, when abandoned
vehicles caused major environmental problems in the EU, as depicted in Fig.
2. This problem was considerably solved with the invention of the crusher
machine which grinds the hulk of a vehicle to allow for the recovery of the
In the early 1990s, through studies on numerous solid waste disposal systems,
the European Union (EU) identified ELV as a priority waste stream. A directive
was introduced toward its implementation (Zoboli et al.,
2000). As we advanced into 21st century, the automotive industry in 2012
turned its attention to issues of environmental-friendly vehicles in response
to the implementation of the EU directive for ELVs, which outlines that automobile
manufacturers must reuse or recover 85% of ELVs by 2006. At least 80% of this
value must be reused or recycled and the remaining 5% can be managed through
other recovery operations such as incineration (Goodfellow,
2002; Afrinaldi et al., 2010).
This affected all players involved in the vehicle infrastructure:financial
investment, operational strategy, design, as well as developmental process.
The whole arrangement of automotive industries is projected to change to focuses
designing in relation to recycling features. The traditional design process
will become more on designing in relation to issues regarding recycling. Furthermore,
the old design process would become more advanced as regulation demands the
removal of all harmful liquids and components in cars. Nevertheless, some form
of plastic, rubber and glass recovery is still necessary, either during the
dismantling stage or during the separation stage. This is the big challenges
to the vehicle designers. This study then reviews the progress achieved thus
far in ELV recovery strategy.
DESIGNS FOR RECYCLING
Design for Recycling (DFR) has a significant role in the vehicle growth process.
DFR considers all the recycling aspects and ecological factors at some point
in the design stage of a vehicle to increase its recyclables and extend the
end-of-life. As the vehicle manufacturers are expected to bear the recycling
cost on their own, the types of materials selected for vehicle parts manufacture
becomes a key element in the growth procedure. The selection of materials is
of great significance, with attention paid to materials problem and how they
could be directly reused for ensuing processes. The composition of a characteristic
vehicle has substantially distorted in last few years. For instance, ferrous
metal components in cars have considerably decreased, whereas plastic materials
are increasingly incorporated because of their lighter weight and better fuel
efficiency advantages. The average passenger vehicle is assembled from approximately
10,000 parts, comprising a large number of different materials. The majority
of materials used are recyclable, although some are more improved than others
for various reasons such as quality, demand, reprocessing durability and cost
(Khucharoenphaisan et al., 2012).
The two main factors that influence the DFR concept in automotive engineering
are disassembly and recycling. The fruitful application of this concept in the
development of new passenger cars requires the deliberation of several parameters,
including material selection, design and characteristics of the components and
methods of joining or assembly. A guide for the DFR concept was developed in
1990 by the recycling and dismantling centre of the BMW group to guide designers
and improve their capability to meet the environmental criteria and recycling
requirements. The guidelines are divided into three main areas, namely, methods
of joining and fixing, selection of materials and design of components.
Many researchers and developers focus on creating tools and methods to enable
the reuse of vehicle components. The first step toward reuse begins with the
proper development of the component parts after disassembly. The ease of component
disassembly is known as disassemblability (Mok et al.,
1997). Disassemblability is also defined by Seo et
al. (2001) as the optimization of the disassembly process to remove
certain parts or components in economic and environmental aspects. Many studies
have cantered on the development of disassemble evaluation systems to achieve
a design with ease of disassembly. McGlothlin and Kroll
(1995) proposed a spread sheet-like chart that measures the ease of disassembly
of a product. A report by Kroll and Hanft (1998) extended
McGlothlin and Kroll (1995) study with emphasis on disassembly
through a time-measurement system called Maynard Operation Sequence Technique
(MOST). In other words, the particular components of the product must be assessed
and its reliability and lifespan must be predicted to ascertain the reusability
of the product. The probability of a component to execute a specific function
at specified operational conditions and specific time without failure is called
reliability. A model for automotive component optimization and reuse with artificial
intelligence has been developed (Wahab et al., 2008)
for ease of disassembly. The model aims to predict the reliability and durability
of the reused components and optimize life cycle cost and reliability with a
Genetic Algorithm (GA). This model was proposed for a local Malaysian automotive
company, enables the automotive industry to effectively assess potential components
for reuse in support of further design and manufacturing improvements. Among
the major contributions of this model is the introduction of artificial intelligence
methods, such as ANNs and the GA, which could provide satisfactory and acceptable
solutions for many complex problems.
According to Go et al. (2010), Fig.
3 investigated a design frame work for ELV recovery, namely, the optimisation
of disassembly sequence using GA. The study provided a framework with ease of
recovery for automotive components. One of the goals of disassemblability is
to reduce the impact of a product on the environment. The model was applied
as an evaluation tool and was divided into three:element design principles,
implementation guidelines and disassembly guidelines. The GA model was utilized
to generate the optimum disassembly and end-of-life product disassemblability
evaluation. The designed model was utilized to enhance and improve the disassemblability
of end-of-life products from the design stage. Amelia et
al. (2009a) studied the disassembly time evaluation for enhancing the
reusability of automotive component. Lashlem et al.
(2011) also investigated the design assessment for reusability of an automotive
Recycling is a process by which used materials are remade to form a new product
(Altschuller, 1997). The process of ELV recycling is
defined as follows:
Dismantling: The recycling value of the components is highly increased
in the dismantling process and allows the reusability of the product. The dismantling
industry has a great potential. However, the full implementation of the EU directive
for ELV dismantling is highly limited at present because it is labor intensive
and uneconomical. Only a few high value components are removed the vehicle before
sending to the shredding process. Dismantling companies can be branded into
two types of businesses, the first comprises high value parts businesses that
remove and inventory the useful and high value parts for resale. The other comprises
scrap yard businesses that store the ELVs while the parts are gradually removed
and then sold to local repair shops as well as Do it Yourself (DIY) owners.
De-pollution processes: De-pollution processes are seen as the removal
of hazardous substances, battery, fluids, tyres etc. It is good to note that
high value components are removed via manual disassembly. Several small facilities
separate pure stream plastic for direct selling to recyclers and re-processors.
The rest of the vehicle body is subjected to shredding operations for post-fragmentation
recovery. Once the ferrous content has been recovered, the non-ferrous scraps
are removed through dense media separation processes. The remaining components
are sent to landfills.
Shredding process: This is another process of ELV disposal. Shredding
industries can process large quantities of ELVs at capital-intensive sites.
The main output from this process is ferrous metal, which is sent to steel industries
for recycling (Mat Saman and Blount, 2008). In the shredding
process, rotating hammers rip a part the compressed ELV, dropping it easily
from the output grid where the light materials are separated from the heavy
materials (such as plastic from steel). However, the process efficiency depends
on the characteristics of the applied design. Therefore, recycling success can
be increased by considering the hierarchies of the recycling process in the
early design stages. Such hierarchy can be divided into four components, namely
reuse, recycle, recovery and waste as shown in Fig. 4. The
figure indicates that the component reuse is the first priority in product design
If the product cannot be reused directly, then it might need some additional
work on the same form/pattern or another form/pattern is necessary. This is
called remanufacture or reconditioning.
The second tier in this hierarchy is recycling, which in this case means the
processing of components to produce a raw material. This component processing
can be divided into two categories, which are high grade and low grade materials.
The next process that requires consideration is recovery, recovery with is the
use of waste for useful purposes, such as energy recovery, road surfacing and
so on. Then, the last consideration is waste material that is sent for disposal
in landfills. Currently, most ASR is sent to landfills for disposal. The reduction
of this waste stream through the recovery and recycling of plastics is the focus
of most current research (Mat Saman and Blount, 2008).
Figure 5 presents the summary of the de-pollution waste processes.
Based on these recycling technologies and others, several key elements can be
concluded in managing the recovery of ELVs.
GOVERNMENT LEGISLATION AND MANAGEMENT OF ELV IN SOME COUNTRIES
ELV management in EU countries: The EU countries are among the foremost
to propose legislative measures aimed at tackling environmental problems created
by ELVs. At moment, most of the developed countries have set new legislations,
to force vehicle manufacturers to recover and recycle their products at the
end-of-life. In April 2002, a new directive for EU countries came into effect,
compelling governments to enforce the responsible disposal of vehicles that
have come to their end-of-life.
According to the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA),
300,000 vehicles are simply abandoned by UK owners each year and between 8 and
9 million tons of wastes are generated from ELVs in the EU (Mat
Saman and Blount, 2006). Among such waste, are 75% ferrous metal, which
is recycled through traditional metal dealers to produce new steel or other
ferrous products and 25% other materials that go to landfill sites.
Although full implementation is still a few years away, the EU Directive on
ELVs now weight heavily on most vehicle manufacturers in Europe. The directives
were issued in stages; the first stage was announced on September 18th, 2000.
This directive was aimed at reducing the amount of ELV content that are sent
to landfills. The second stage was implemented in October 2002. In the EU, up
to 10 million vehicles a year reach end of their first useful life. According
to Mat Saman and Blount (2008), the German and Dutch
authorities introduced the concept of Producer Responsibility, which
obliges car manufacturers to re-claim their ELVs. This practice aims to control
the disposal of ELVs. Improving the recyclability of vehicle parts reduces the
burden on the environment. However, when the EU directive required that manufacturers
claim and treat ELVs at no cost to the last owner, intense opposition ensued
from the manufacturers. Manufacturers would shoulder significant financial cost
in such procedure.
A general position was reached in 1999 after some key points of the original
directive were adapted. The directive was finally implemented in October 2000.
The main provisions cover aspects such as the promotion of awareness, inclusion
needs related to de-pollution and dismantling of ELVs reuse, recycling and the
materials recovery from ELVs, set up of collection networks, outline of quantitative
targets for recovery and recycling until 2015, as well as the demanding member
states to create laws, regulations and (enforceable) agreements by April 2002.
ELV management in the United States of America (USA): In the USA, no
specific legislation focuses on the management of ELVs. All materials, either
waste or recycled materials, are considered as solid wastes. Thus, the recycling
industry has received much less interest. Currently, the abundance of land causes
no shortage in waste disposal sites, a situation that could lead to low costs
of waste disposal. Furthermore, no standard waste legislation exists for the
entire country. Each state has its own legislation and thus the target and implementation
varies. Nevertheless, Ford, Daimler Chrysler and General Motors have provided
a special programme that study methods to improve the recyclability rate and
to decrease the current ASR burden. Most of the recycling industries in the
US belong to the automotive industry. It has been reported that Ford purchased
over 25 vehicle recycling operation in the United States of America in 2001
and the number is expected to increase even more. The also has an experimental
dismantling centre in Germany (Bandivadekar et al.,
ELV management in Japan: Most of the vehicle manufacturers in Japan
are branching out into the recycling business and developing easy to recycle
vehicles in response to a new automotive recycling law that was implemented
in 2004. The first legislation was, introduced in 1990 and promoted the use
of recycled resources, applying particularly to automotive industries. In 1996,
quantified targets for recycling ELVs was set at 85% by 2012 and 95% by 2015.
Similar to Europe, Japan has considered the issue of ELVs recycling as a priority.
According to the Japan Automotive Manufacturing Association (JAMA,
2004), the waste disposal law specified that shredder residue is a waste
that requires specially controlled landfills. Few such landfills meet the strict
standards, leading to an increased cost of land-filling. Despite such scenario,
approximately 50% of ELVs are still traded at a profit due to the value in metals
that offset the cost of land-filling with the waste (JAMA,
2004; Mat Saman and Blount, 2006).
ELV management in Australia: In the management of ELV in the Australia,
no regulation requires the last owner of an ELV to enter the recycling infrastructure.
More so, the last owner does not need to deregister the ELV. However, currently
being introduced in all local councils are new requirements for ELVs that would
provide full authority to local councils to act regarding ELVs that cause a
health or fire hazard, or a loss of amenity to other residents. The requirements
apply even though the ELVs are stored on private properties. Comparative to
this directive, several states as in Western Australia have emphasized abandoned
vehicles as being of a broader concern.
These vehicles cost local authorities several weeks of storage before they
could dispose of them. With the aim to reduce costs, some local council have
introduced collection points for ELVs. The proportion of ELVs that reach recycling
facilities appears to be over 90% (Puri et al.,
ELV management in Mexico: The state of ELV management in developing
countries, such as Mexico, is highly different from that in the EU and other
industrialized countries. The management of products at their end-of-life stage
has not yet been addressed by environmental authorities as an important issue.
In the case of ELV, specific legislations and plans to manage such products
are lacking. In addition relevant data about on Mexican vehicular fleets are
scarce (Cruz-Rivera and Ertel, 2009).
The current management of ELV in Mexico is driven by market conditions, where
mostly valuable materials and components are recovered from ELV, because major
operators aim obtains large profits. The ELV chain remains disaggregated,
due to the scarcity of commercial relationships among stakeholders. The main
reason for this is the lack of consolidated networks adding value to ELV (Cruz-Rivera
and Ertel, 2009).
The lack of legal incentives and disaggregation, results in mainly unstandardized
operations for ELV management. In many cases, this lack of standardization promotes
malpractices in ELV management activities. In turn, these practices lead to
negative effects on the recovery value of an ELV, such as contamination of shredder
material by operative fluids. This scenario affects the efficient recovery of
value from ELV, as the steel industry rejects shredded metal from such vehicles.
Figure 6 depicts general configuration of ELV management in
Regarding take-back activities, the de-pollution and dismantling processes
are conducted by an undetermined number of businesses, which are composed of
a majority of automotive repair, body shops and scrap-yards. Most of these businesses
perform non-standardized operations, as only valuable material and components
for re-sale are dismantled. The remaining wastes are sent to shredders and landfills.
These undertakings cause a number of strong impacts on the environment, particularly
those related with the improper management of operative fluids from ELV.
ELV management in Egypt: The report published by the Industrial Development
Authority states that, over the last 20 years, the vehicle assembly sector has
expanded from three assembly plants, which relied almost exclusively on imported
components, to 17 businesses that employ 27 assembly lines manufacturing a range
of passenger cars, light commercial vehicles, trucks and buses. The vehicle
assembly production continued to grow and reached 101,319 vehicles in 2007,
an increasing percentage of approximately 118% from 2003 with over 360 factories
manufacturing automotive components. When comparing data from the Egyptian Automotive
Manufacturers Association (EAMA) it indicated that the total number of vehicles
demanded in Egyptian auto market increased from 70,834 units in 2003 to 227,488
units in 2007 and this number is expected to have increased. This increase is
more that 200% in five years (Harraz and Galal, 2011).
The recent growths in the automotive industries are connected to the financing
schemes made available by vehicle distributors and banks. Nevertheless, old
cars are usually not abandoned, but rather sold on a second hand market to continue
its use stage. These data are presented based on the report published by the
information and decision support centre, 2007; to provide an idea of the structure
of the Egyptian vehicular fleet (Harraz and Galal, 2011).
More than a quarter of the currently registered vehicles are more than 30 years
of age, indicating that the registration of the new cars does not mean deregistration
of the old cars. The latter continues its circulation through another owner.
The previous value also demonstrates the elevated amount of generated pollution.
Private cars constitute approximately half of the number of all vehicles. Report
credited to the Ministry of Interior Affairs, 26.4% of the circulating cars
are older than 30 years and 25% are manufactured in the period between 1980s
and 1990s. These numbers indicate the amount of pollution caused by operating
these vehicles, in addition the report showed that 36.1% of the all the vehicles
are located in the large cities.
Attempts to control the environmental hazards are not enough; ELVs practices
exist but are scattered and unsystematic. At present, such practices are limited
to scattered small sized workshops and scrap yards. Figure 7
depicts the ELV route in this category. The arrows represent the material flow
through the network. Money flow goes in the opposite direction of materials.
Unlike other industrialized countries, Egypt does not implement the export option
of ELVs, due to fact that most of the industrialized countries set very high
standards for circulation of used cars. Used cars in developing countries do
not meet such standards due to the excessive usage of cars. Unlike in the EU
where the lifespan of a vehicle is estimated to last 10 to 14 years, some developing
countries use cars for nearly twice that period.
Another problem faced by developing countries is the lack of regulation concerning
the ELV treatment operation in their own countries, which requires control to
meet the objective of decreasing environmental burdens caused by vehicles.
People retain their old vehicles due to limited resources, despite the high
operating cost, inefficiency in fuel consumption and traffic problems. The implementation
of ELV management requires consideration of the ELV owner hence, the criticality
of the government role. On one hand, old vehicles cause the increased environmental
burden and traffic congestion, while on the other hand ELV owners and dismantlers
have conflicting interests. In other to promote ELV, a reasonable amount of
profitability must be safeguarded to engage automotive manufacturers in ELV
practices in Egypt. Furthermore, the study of the management of such a recovery
network is vitally necessary to assure economic profitability and social benefits
of different stakeholders, in addition to environmental preservation.
ELV management in Malaysia: Though Malaysia is the largest producer
of automobiles in South East Asia, the National Automotive Policy has not dealt
with the environmental impact of the development of the automotive industry.
To date, directives or legislation on ELV for the automotive industry have not
been established. In the EU and other countries, such the directive is considered
as a driver factor for the establishment of an environmentally conscious automotive
industry. As this industry develops, its impact on the environment also increases.
The life of vehicles is between 10 and 15 years, after which, they enter the
retired phase. In Malaysia, cars as old as 25 and even 30 years remain on the
roads (Amelia et al., 2009b). However, the issue
in this study is how to deal with wastes from retired vehicles. In other countries,
several vehicle manufacturers have developed an end-of-life recovery program,
such as reuse, remanufacturing and recycling. For example, Volvo Genuine Exchange
Parts System, a remanufacturing program established in 1945 by the Volvo Cars
Industry accounts for approximately 13% of the total spare parts turnover (Volvo.,
2008). The concept of reuse is still new in the local automotive industry.
Automotive manufacturers and the Department of Environment in other countries
should adhere to the ELV policies.
A review of ELV design protocols and management was investigated. The following
is a summary of conclusions:
||Based on the current environmental awareness, meeting the
directive on ELV reuses, recycling and recovery target is possible with
the existing organizational system. However, in 2015 a trend that will require
many of the objective and more determined. At present, the technology is
insufficient and uneconomical, especially in the developing and even in
industrialized countries. Thus, meeting these targets is likely to require
substantial cost, research and developments on areas such as design concepts,
technology and restructuring of reuse infrastructure
||The fundamental problem with recycling ELVs is that the vehicles were
not originally designed for recycling. This problem may be addressed by
incorporating recycling purposes during the design stage. Vehicle manufacturers
must then continue to consider reuse, remanufacturing and recycling into
the design of new vehicles
||To improve recyclability of ELVs, require a highly efficient strategy
with full commitment from the involved in ELV management
||A monitoring system is necessary to track the progress of the ELV directive
||The stakeholders involved must come together to share the cost of the
development of new technology and to promote recycling infrastructure development
||Investment in infrastructure and building on existing infrastructure is
essential to achieve the goal of recyclability
||Uses for recovered materials must be developed
||Dismantling is labour intensive and thus improving its efficiency would
help make material and component recovery more economical
||Many component parts in the vehicle development process require further
development especially in the early stage of the design process to increase
the efficiency of recycling