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Factors Influencing People to Travel Abroad for Sport Tourism (Malaysia Evidence)



Hossein Nezakati, Mok Chuang Chin and Maryam Akhoundi
 
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ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore factors influencing people to travel abroad for sport tourism. Possibility of relationship between sport fan motivation components, demographic components and travel constraint components was examined. Using Convenience sampling method for data collection, total of 200 respondents were examined. This study performed Kruskal-Wallis Test for demographic components and Logistic regression analysis and Correlation analysis for studying relationship between the sport fan motivation components and travel constraint components. Exp (B) indicates that the people are 4.72 times (a unit raised in structural constraint) and 1.355 times (a unit raised in intrapersonal constraint) more likely plan to travel abroad for sport tourism within the next 2 years. Moreover, results showed that interest in sport, age, ethnicity, structural constraint and interpersonal constraint were influential factors. Among sport fan components, interest; among demographic components, age and among travel constraint components, structural constraint had most effect on sport tourism. Results of this study also indicated that there was significant relationship between sport fan motivation, demographic and travel constraint components. Theoretically, findings of this study will give insight and understanding of socio-psychological motives and perceived travel constraints of sport fans to travel abroad for sport tourism. The findings will also help sport tourism marketers to design marketing strategy and campaign to meet needs of target group.

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  How to cite this article:

Hossein Nezakati, Mok Chuang Chin and Maryam Akhoundi, 2013. Factors Influencing People to Travel Abroad for Sport Tourism (Malaysia Evidence). Journal of Applied Sciences, 13: 5708-5715.

DOI: 10.3923/jas.2013.5708.5715

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jas.2013.5708.5715
 
Received: May 07, 2013; Accepted: September 02, 2013; Published: January 25, 2014



INTRODUCTION

Sport tourism is another form of a leisure travel in which sport is incorporated in a tourist’s travel plan. It requires an individual to travel from home community to event place and to be distracted from daily routine. It has become popular, as sport tourists attend a sport event and perform other touristic events. Sport tourism brings social and economic benefits to country, cities and local businesses. Moreover, it increases cultural identity and social interaction opportunity in the city (Hritz and Ross, 2010).

A case study of Red Bull Big Wave Africa, conducted by Ntloko and Swart (2008) showed that the event brought entertainment value and also economic gain in certain local businesses which not only enhanced community pride but it also was a regional showcase. When a country wins the bidding of hosting a mega event, the country leader may want to invest or upgrade sport facilities, local infrastructures and hotels to cater the capacity of sport tourists and players. Therefore, the created job opportunities boost the employment rate in the community. Because of its socioeconomic benefits, many country leaders are competing with each other to win the bid to host mega event such as Olympic Games, World Championship games and so on.

However, hosting a mega sport event also brings negative impact to the country as well. The study of Ntloko and Swart (2008) also indicated minimal disruption of the local residents, negative effects on environment and social inequalities resulted from this event. There is investment risk that losses could not be covered by the revenue if the execution of the plan is not done properly; especially, from the marketing side. For example, the number of sport tourists is not big enough to generate revenue to cover the lost in investment of local infrastructures and development.

Sport tourism has become increasingly popular and gained interest from the academic field of study and practitioners (Gibson, 1998). Many researches have been done on exploring sports tourism in order to define its area (Gibson, 1998; Kurtzman and Zauhar, 2003; Green and Chalip, 1998; Martyn, 1969; Gammon and Robinson, 2003). According to Gibson (2004) progression is needed in exploring and describing the sport tourism from “what is and who” to understanding “why” and motivation is the beginning step in exploring the “why” of sport tourist’s travel behavior on sport tourism.

Today, in order to attract more sport tourists from overseas, sport tourism marketers have to design marketing strategies and sport tourism package to meet consumer needs. Due to that, an understanding of sport consumer’s travel behavior in term of their motivation and travel constraint is essential. Hence, this study will explore the factors influencing people to travel abroad for sport tourism in order to give insight and understanding of the effect of sport fan motivation and travel constraints on sport tourism to the sport tourism marketers. It also seeks to examine factors that influence sport tourism the most, as well as explore if there is a significant relationship between the sport fan motivation components, demographic components and travel constraint components.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Sport tourism: There have been many controversies and debates in defining sport tourism. For Gibson (1998), an appropriate definition of sport tourism would be: Taking leisur-based travel tentatively out from their home community to participate in a physical activity, to watch a physical activity, or to visit attractions associated with a physical activity. Gibson suggested three types of sport tourism namely active sport tourism, event sport tourism and nostalgia sport tourism. While Kurtzman and Zauhar (2003) pointed to five categories of sport tourism: (1) Attractions which the primary focus of the sport travelers is venues such as the sport hall of fame, sport museum, sport theme parks, sport arena and so on; (2) Resorts, the package of services provided by resort such as high-end sport facilities and coaching expertise; (3) Cruise, such as sport facilities, meeting room for sport conference and transporting from one place to another place compliments to sporting activities; (4) Tours, cater for a group of people sharing the same interests to tour a certain places and (5) Events, refers to the sport spectators who travel from their home to a place to watch a sport event. Gammon and Robinson (2003) conceptualized the interdisciplinary of Sport and tourism into two categories: sport tourism and tourism sport. Their difference is in the primary objective of the travelers. For the former, sport event is the first priority and visits and sightseeing are the second while for the latter, visits and sightseeing are the first priority and sport event is the second. They also further categorized sports tourism and tourism sport into “hard” and “soft” definition. In “hard” sports tourism travelers purposely travel for either active or passive participation in competitive sport events, while in “soft” sport tourism travelers purposely travel for active participation in recreation sport such as skiing, hiking and so on. For the former, the primary objectives are holidays or visits but they also expect to join some sport activities. For the latter, again the primary objectives are holidays or visits but their involvement in sport events is incidental (Gammon and Robinson, 2003).

Socioeconomic impact of sport tourism: People attracted by the games making them to travel abroad, not only spend on the sport events but also bring revenues to local business such as accommodations and foods (Gibson, 2004; Yu, 2010). Fourie and Spronk (2011) used a time-series lagged regression model on IRB Rugby World Cup 1995, ICC Cricket World Cup 2003, ICC World Twenty 20 2007, IPL 2009 and British and Irish Lions Rubgy Tour 2009. They confirmed that the number of tourists’ arrivals tended to increase significantly when South Africa hosted the mega sport events. Besides the increases in tourists’ arrivals, the country which wins the bidding in hosting a mega sport event will make an investment in developing or upgrading sport facilities and infrastructure such as sport arena, public transport and accommodations. It stimulates the businesses and job creation in communities involved in. Community also takes advantage on sport tourism in term of increased cultural identity and social interaction opportunities (Hritz and Ross, 2010). So, as Gibson (2004) suggests, there is a need to move beyond from exploring “what is and who” to understanding “why” in sport tourism and extend the knowledge of sport tourism. Gibson (2004) purposed applying a range of theories and concepts from other disciplines such as management, economics, sociology, psychology, geography, anthropology, sport, tourism and leisure related topics and so on in sport and tourism research. Due to that, the research explored the motivation of sport tourists.

Sport fan motivation: Wann (1995) and Wann et al. (1999) developed “Sport Fan Motivation Scale” to measure eight motives of sport fans and confirmed them namely eustress, self-esteem, escape, entertainment, economics, aesthetics, group affiliation and family as influential motivation. They also found that male sport fans gave high values for eustress, self-esteem and aesthetics while female sport fans gave more values on family needs. Trail and James (2001) argued that sport fan motivation scale has several validity and reliability problems in measuring sport spectator motives. They developed “Motivation Scale for Sport Consumption (MSSC)” that later identified nine factors (achievement, acquisition of knowledge, aesthetics, drama/eustress, escape, family, physical attractiveness of participants, the quality of the physical skill of the participants and social interaction) as influential motivations. When used on Australian Football League fans, MSSC revealed that social interaction was the most influential factor in sport fan travel behavior (Hoye and Lillis, 2008). Interest in team, escape, role model, aesthetics, socialization, drama, interest in sport, vicarious achievement, support women’s opportunity and interest in players were influential factors that affected sport spectators to travel abroad to watch sport game (Funk et al., 2003). Funk et al. (2009a) developed a hybrid approach instrument that measured the 5 facets of motivations: Socialization, performance, excitement, esteem and diversion. During an exploratory analysis on 500 college students in Taiwan, Yu (2010) found 6 factors influencing the students’ intention to travel to United States for sport tourism. These factors include cost and ease of arranging travel plans, interest in professional sports, different cultural experience, interest in travel, experience of watching live sport events and the chance to see Asian players or famous United States players in the games.

Zhang et al. (2001) developed a Scale of Attendance. The result of their study confirmed that salubrious effects, achievement seeking and stress and entertainment were influential factors in sport game attendance, while 5 demographics (age, gender, household, size, marital status, and education) were related to the scale of attendance motive.

Still, there are other factors that influence the sport spectators to travel abroad for sport tourism including: (a) Facilities associated with sport events and emotion (Hall et al., 2010), (b) Cultural learning, cultural experience and event interest (Funk et al., 2009b), (c) Psychological well-being, self-expression, pride-in-place, social integration, clarification of gender roles (Grove et al., 2010), (d) Attendance in a lifetime opportunity, availability of housing, availability of tickets (Neitto et al., 2001), (e) Push and pull factors (Naghiloo et al., 2011; Mohammad and Som, 2010) and (f) Travel motives such as social interaction, escape, prestige, relaxation, cultural experience, knowledge exploration and cultural learning inventory (Funk et al., 2007).

Travel constraints: Travel constraints are the factors that limit or prohibit an individual to perform a travelactivity. In case study of Beijing Olympic Games 2008 (Funk et al., 2009a), a leisure constraint model was developed which consisted of structural constraint, intrapersonal constraint and interpersonal constraint; among them the most effect constraint factor was intrapersonal constraint. Lack of knowledge, lack of someone to attend with, lack of success, no interest from others, commitments, cost, leisure alternatives, location, parking, participant sport alternatives and alternative sport entertainment are internal and external constraint factors that prohibit sport consumer travel behavior (Kim and Trail, 2010). Travel constraints can be negotiated or overcame by other factors such as motivation. Structural constraint has been mostly cited in leisure study but when an individual has strong desire to do something; other constraints can be negotiated (Funk et al., 2009b).

Relationship between sport fan motivation components and demographic components: Past researches revealed that there was a relationship between sport fan motivation components and demographic components. Kim et al. (2008) analyzed spectator motives on mixed martial arts fans and the result showed that there was gender difference that male was motivated strongly with sport interest, economy and violence. In James and Ridinger (2002) study, it was also revealed that there was a gender difference in sport fan motives where male had overall higher score on sport fan motives compared to female. There are other researches that show gender difference in sport fan motives (Wann, 1995; Wann et al., 1999; Fink et al., 2002) and ethnicity difference in motives (Zhang et al., 2001).

Relationship between demographic components and travel constraint components: Although people have similarities of constraints to travel abroad for sport tourism, there is gender difference in structural constraint. Trail et al. (2008) showed evidence that opportunity for other sport and lack of team success were the greatest constraint for male whereas female perceived poor weather as constraint to travel to watch a sport event. Qi et al. (2009) found that male perceived more on health risk and cultural risk as constraint factor whereas female perceived more on violence risk as constraint factor which restrained them to travel for sport tourism. There is also ethnicity difference in constraint components (Shinew et al., 2004). Nyaupane and Andereck (2008) showed that there was gender difference in financial constraint and age difference in time constraint and categorized time constraint and cost constraint as structural constraints. Hudson et al. (2010) used qualitative approach in the research and found that Chinese-Canadians perceived intrapersonal constraint whereas Anglo-Canadians perceived structural constraint that restrained them for sport tourism.

Relationship between sport fan motivation components and travel constraint components: Kim and Chalip (2004) did a simultaneous regression analysis of fan motives and travels on risk constraint and financial constraint. The result showed that aesthetics had negative effect on risk constraint, whereas interest in player and escape had positive effect on risk constraint. The result also indicated that escape had negative effect on financial constraint.

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS AND MODEL

The hypotheses posited in this study are as follow:

H1: Among the sport fan motivation components, interest in sport has most effects on sport tourism
H2: Among the demographic components, age has most effects on sport tourism
H3: Among the travel constraints components, structural constraint has most effects on sport tourism
H4: There is a significant relationship between travel constraints components and demographic components
H5: There is a significant relationship between demographic components and travel constraints component
H6: There is a significant relationship between sport fan motivation components and travel constraints component

Figure 1 illustrates that among the sport fan motivation components, interest in sport has most effect on sport tourism. The study of Yu (2010) showed 6 factors influencing international fans’ intention for sport tourism and one of the factors was interest in professional sport.

Fig. 1: Study model of factors influencing people to travel abroad for sport tourism

Kim et al. (2008) showed that sport interest and drama are the most effect motives. It seems that an individual who loves in a particular sport will compel him/her to travel abroad for sport tourism. Without the interest inherent in the heart of the individual, there is no sure that the individual will travel abroad to watch a sport event as their primary focus. However, Hsieh et al. (2011) revealed in their study that US people perceived more important on family influence while escape motive and gender were found important for the Taiwanese to travel abroad for sport tourism.

RESEARCH METHOD

The survey questionnaire consisted of three parts with 35 questions. The first part contained 21 questions to investigate the importance of respondent’s motivation for sport tourism. They were developed based on the previous studies: Motivation Scale for Sport Consumption (Trail and James, 2001) and Sport Interest Inventory (Funk et al., 2003), with some modification on the wordings of items. Among the factors revealed in the previous studies, only 7 factors were used in this study: Escape, socialization, excitement, interest in sport, vicarious achievements, drama and aesthetics. The second part of the survey questionnaire contained 9 questions to investigate the constraint factors that affect them to travel abroad for sport tourism. The respondents were asked to assess each question in first and second parts of the survey questionnaire on five-point Likert scale, ranging from “5” represented the most influential to “1” represented the least influential. The third part contained 5 questions to collect respondents’ information on age group, gender, ethnicity, education level and their plan to travel for sport tourism within the next 2 years. The questions of this part were developed based on the review of literature and previous studies.

Convenience sampling method was used in this study. According to Bartlett et al. (2001) the number of respondents in research can be determined 200; where, t is the value for selected alpha level of 0.025 in each tail = 1.96. The alpha level of 0.05 indicates the level of risk the researcher is willing to take that true margin of error may exceed the acceptable margin of error, where s is estimate of standard deviation in the population = 1.1. Estimate of variance deviation for 7 point scale calculated by using 7 (inclusive range of scale) divided by 6 (number of standard deviations that include almost all (approximately 95%) of the possible values in the range); where, d = acceptable margin of error for mean being estimated = 0.16. (No. of points on primary scale *acceptable margin of error; points on primary scale = 7; acceptable margin of error = 0.02 (error researcher is willing to except).

In the research of Trail and James (2001), the Motivation Scale for Sport Consumption showed good construct validity, convergent validity and discriminated validity. The validity of Sport Interest Inventory (Funk et al., 2003) was supported in their study. The Travel Constraints in the research of Funk et al. (2009a) provided evidence in a measure of discriminated validity. A reliability test was conducted to check the internal consistency of the measurement. The result showed that the instrument had Cronbach’s alpha of 0.899 which indicated the strong reliability.

The link of the electronic survey questionnaire form was distributed to the students and staff in sport center of one public university with consent of the Deputy Dean to carry out this study. The email which contained the link of the electronic survey questionnaire form was sent through the assistance from the assistant registrar from the administrative unit of the sport center. The e-mail also asked the respondents to disseminate the link to their friends to fill in the survey form.

Using SPSS 19.0 to perform the analyses, this study conducted descriptive analysis to observe the respondents’ demographic background. Because the data was not normally distributed, logistic regression was used to explore the factor in sport fan components, demographic components and travel constraint components which had most effect on sport tourism. Three logistic regression analyses were performed where sport fan motivation components, demographic components and travel constraint components were entered as independent variables while sport tourism was entered as dependent variables. In order to reveal which factors give the most effect on sport tourism, the independent variables that were not significant were removed from the equation. The constraint factors used in this study were structural constraint, intrapersonal constraint and interpersonal constraint where these factors were revealed and had high reliability in previous studies (Kim and Chalip, 2004; Funk et al., 2009b). The dependent variable (Sport Tourism) was operationalized as a question by asking the respondents whether they had plan to travel abroad for sport tourism within the next 2 years. The non-significant independent variables that had the high Wald value were removed one at a time and the regression analysis was repeated. Only the items that showed significant were retained in the equation. The item having high Wald value had most effect on sport tourism. Spearman=s correlation analysis was performed to see the relationship between sport fan motivation components and travel constraint components. Kruskal-Wallis Test was conducted to observe the relationship between sport fan motivation components and demographic components and the relationship between travel constraint components and demographic components.

RESULTS

H1 (Result for sport fan motivation components): Table 1 illustrates that the independent variable (interest in sport) was reliably distinguished between the people plan to and plan not to travel abroad for sport tourism within the next 2 years (χ2 = 46.008, p = 0.000 with df = 7). But it was moderately weak in nature (Nagelkerke R-square = 0.274). The overall percentage of correctly classified was 73.5% (67.7% people plan not to travel abroad for sport tourism within the next 2 years; 79.2% people plan to travel abroad for sport tourism within the next 2 years) which means predicting “73.5% of times” was correct. The Exp (B) indicates that people were 15.27 times (a unit raised in interest in sport) more likely plan to travel abroad for sport tourism within the next 2 years. The Wald criterion indicated (p<0.05) for age, so, interest in sport has a significant effect on dependent variable.

H2 (Demographic Components): Table 2 shows that the independent variables (age and ethnicity) were reliably distinguished between the people plan to and plan not to travel abroad for sport tourism within the next 2 years (χ2 = 23.965, p = 0.000 with df = 4).

Table 1: Result of logistic regression analysis for sport fan motivation components influencing the people plan to travel abroad for sport tourism within the next 2 years
*p<0.05, **p = 0.000

Table 2: Result of logistic regression analysis for demographic components predicting the people plan to travel abroad for sport tourism within the next 2 years
*p<0.01, **p< 0.05, ***p = 0.000

But it was weak in nature (Nagelkerke R-square = 0.151). The overall percentage of correctly classified is 63.5% (79.8% people plan not to travel abroad for sport tourism within the next 2 years; 47.5% people plan to travel abroad for sport tourism within the next 2 years) which means predicting “63.5% of the times” was correct. The Wald criterion indicates that (p<0.01) for age and (p<0.05) for ethnicity. Therefore, compared to ethnicity, age had most effect on dependent variable.

H3 (Travel Constraint Components): Table 3 indicates that independent variables (structural constraint and intrapersonal constraint) were reliably distinguished between the people plan to and plan not to travel abroad for sport tourism within the next 2 years (χ2 = 35.436, p = 0.000 with df = 3). The relationship was weak in nature (Nagelkerke R-square = 0.217). The overall percentage of correctly classified is 67.5% (68.7% people plan not to travel abroad for sport tourism within the next 2 years; 66.3% people plan to travel abroad for sport tourism within the next 2 years) which means predicting “67.5% of times” was correct. The Exp (B) indicates that the people are 4.72 times (a unit raised in structural constraint) and 1.355 times (a unit raised in intrapersonal constraint) more likely plan to travel abroad for sport tourism within the next 2 years. The Wald criterion indicates (p = 0.000) for structural constraint and (p<0.05) for intrapersonal constraint. So, compared to socialization, structural constraint had most effect on dependent variable.

H4 (Relationship between sport fan motivation and demographic components): As shown in Table 4, age was significantly affected by interest in sport, χ2 (6) = 14.483, p<0.05; drama, χ2 = 14.297, p<0.05; and aesthetics, x2 = 12.699, p<0.05. In Table 5, gender was significantly affected by escape, χ2 (1) = 4.574, p<0.05; excitement, χ2 (1) = 11.886, p<0.05; interest in sport, χ2 (1) = 15.293, p<0.001; drama, χ2 (1) = 4.873, p<0.05 and aesthetics, χ2 (1) = 4.648, p<0.05.

Table 3: Result of logistic regression analysis for travel constraint components predicting the people plan to travel abroad for sport tourism within the next 2 years
STRUC: Structural constraint; INTRA: Intrapersonal constraint. *p<0.000,**p<0.05, ***p = 0.000

As indicated in Table 6, ethnicity was significantly affected by interest in sport, χ2 (3) = 12.109, p<0.05 and aesthetics, χ2 (3) = 10.207, p<0.05; while in Table 7, education was not significantly affected by sport fan components (escape, socialization, excitement, interest in sport, vicarious achievement, drama and aesthetics).

H5 (Relationship between demographic components and travel constraint components): In Table 8 age, χ2 (6) = 33.940, p<0.001; and in Table 9, gender, χ2 (1) = 14.738, p<0.001 were significantly affected by structural constraint. In Table 10, ethnicity was significantly affected by structural constraint, χ2 (3) = 39.432, p<0.001, intrapersonal constraint, χ2 (3) = 11.846, p<0.05; and in Table 11, education was significantly affected by intrapersonal constraint, χ2 (4) = 10.727, p<0.05.

Table 4: Kruskal Wallis Test for travel constraint components with grouping variable: Age (n = 200)
ESC: Escape, SOC: Socialization, EXT: Excitement, ITR: Interest in sport, DRA: Drama, AES: Aesthetics. * p<0.05

Table 5: Kruskal Wallis Test for travel constraint components with grouping variable: Gender (n = 200)
ESC: Escape, SOC: Socialization, EXT: Excitement, ITR: Interest in sport, DRA: Drama, AES: Aesthetics.*p<0.05, **p<0.001

Table 6: Kruskal Wallis Test for travel constraint components with grouping variable: Ethnicity (n = 200)
ESC: Escape, SOC: Socialization, EXT: Excitement, ITR: Interest in sport, DRA: Drama, AES: Aesthetics.*p<0.05

Table 7: Kruskal Wallis Test for travel constraint components with grouping variable: Education (n = 200)
ESC: Escape, SOC: Socialization, EXT: Excitement, ITR: Interest in sport, DRA: Drama, AES: Aesthetics.*p<0.05

Table 8: Kruskal Wallis Test for travel constraint components with grouping variable: Age (n = 200)
STRUC: Structural constraints, INTRA: Intrapersonal constraint, INTER: Interpersonal constraint. *p<0.001

Table 9: Kruskal Wallis Test for travel constraint components with grouping variable: Gender (n = 200)
STRUC: Structural constraints, INTRA: Intrapersonal constraint, INTER: Interpersonal constraint. *p<0.001

Table 10: Kruskal Wallis Test for travel constraint components with grouping variable: Ethnicity (n = 200)
STRUC: Structural constraints, INTRA: Intrapersonal constraint, INTER: Interpersonal constraint. *p<0.001

Table 11: Kruskal Wallis Test for travel constraint components with grouping variable: Education (n = 200)
STRUC: Structural constraints, INTRA: Intrapersonal constraint, INTER: interpersonal constraint. *p<0.001

Table 12: Spearman’s Correlations between sport fan components and travel constraint components (N = 200)
ESC: Escape, SOC: Socialization, EXT: Excitement, ITR: Interest in sport, ACH: Vicarious achievement, DRA: Drama, AES: Aesthetics, STRUC: Structural constraints, INTRA: Intrapersonal constraint, INTER: Interpersonal constraint, not significant p>0.5, *p (2-tailed)<0.05, **p (2-tailed)<0.01

H6 (Relationship between sport fan motivation components and travel constraint components): Table 12 shows that there is no significant relationship between the sport fan components (escape, socialization, excitement, interest in sport, vicarious achievement, drama and aesthetics) and travel constraint components (structural constraint, intrapersonal constraint and interpersonal constraint), p>0.05.

CONCLUSION

The aim of this study was to explore factors influencing people to travel abroad for sport tourism. The result indicated that among the sport fan motivation components, interest; and among the demographic components, age had most effect on sport tourism. Apart from that, the result showed that among the travel constraint components, structural constraint has the most effect on sport tourism. There was a significant relationship between sport fan motivation components and demographic components, and between the demographic components and travel constraint components. Qualitative and quantitative research in regards to the study is suggested to reveal greater insight and understanding of sport consumer travel behavior.

As this study used convenience sampling and confined in university students and staff, the result could not be generalized to other population. It might be bias and could not serve as representative of a particular population in terms of ethnicity and education level because of unequal size of samples in these terms. A combination of qualitative and quantitative research in regards to this study is recommended to explore more motivation and constraint factors and to gain more understanding about the factors that influence people to travel abroad for sport tourism. Hence, homogeneous or equal sample size of ethnicity is suggested for future study. To gain greater insight in designing marketing strategies and meeting target groups’ needs, further study on the demographic differences in motivational factors and constraint factors would be beneficial for the sport marketers. For example, younger people tend to go for sport tourism compared to the older people. Perhaps younger people have higher adventurous spirit than older people. There is an interesting finding that ethnicity has significant effect on sport tourism. Perhaps different ethnic group has different culture and may perceive different behavior toward sport tourism. In this study, it is suggested that intrapersonal constraint can be negotiated or overcame by other factors. Further research is required to show the negotiation factor.

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