Mahasarakham University, Khmriang Campus located in Takhonyang and Khmriang
districts, Maha sarakham Province, Thailand has the area of 208 ha. It
located in the Northeast region of Thailand (Fig. 1)
where rapidly urbanization area. Nowadays, there are 18 faculties with
the student more than 29,000 persons. The areas around this campus are
changed from the field to the commercial zone. Many activities of water
use led to the impact of groundwater quality. There are 49 buildings that
have been constructed in this area. Hence, more than 20,000 foundation
piles were driven in this area over 7 m per column.
In previous study, there are 8 buildings and the record of water table
varied below ground level about 3-4 m (Anongrit et al., 2002).
Then, the buildings have been constructed. For this reason, most of foundation
piles were submerged under water table about 3- 4 m. The mainly impacts
of water table include rain over surface area, soil properties, interflow,
infiltration etc. (Helalia, 1993; Lashkaripour, 2003; Nouri and Malmasi,
2005; Johnson and Simon, 2007). However, soil properties and rain over
surface are attracted to study in this area because of their easy to record.
Generally, the column is failed by a chloride that permeated into iron
of reinforce concrete (Erdog du and Turker, 1998; Chindaprasirt et
al., 2005). However, the progressive process of this reaction is based
on chloride concentration and the submerged time. There are several forms
of chloride in groundwater such as sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride
(KCl) etc. (Islam et al., 2003; Kulabako et al., 2007;
van der Grift and Griffioen, 2008).
|| Location of Mahasarakham University
Most chlorides are recorded in the
term of NaCl and KCl because there are simple methods.
This research thus monitors groundwater in the Mahasarakham University, Khmriang
Campus, Thailand by constructed the observed wells cover the study area. The
water table and water quality of the observed wells were weekly recorded. The
chloride concentration was recorded in the term of NaCl. Soil properties of
the wells were investigated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The observed wells were installed over the study area of 9 wells using
the standard method (USEPA, 1995).
|| Location of the observed wells
The locations of each well are shown
in Fig. 2 It indicated that most wells are drilled around
the building zone because of nearly foundation piles. The method of drilling
is Standard Penetration Test (ASTM D1586-08, 2008). Each observed well
is drill along soil from surface area until the rock zone is met. The
PVC pipe of 4 inches diameter was put into the well for protecting soil
wall. Soil samples from the wells were analyzed for classifying soil type.
A contour map area was constructed for evaluating ground level and water
table level of the study area using 0.50 m of contour interval. This map
based on mean sea level (MSL) system. A bench mark was transferred to
the observed well. The fluctuated water level of each well is monitored
during the study using MSL system.
Water sample of each well were carried out to laboratory for analysis
water quality. The water qualities (such as pH, temperature, NaCl and
DO) in the observed wells were carried out weekly. The results will be
shown in the fallowing.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Figure 3 shows the fluctuate water table in the observed
wells. It indicates that water table in the wells are different about
3-4 m. The lowest level is in the BH-6 located behind the building of
demonstrative school and the highest level is in the BH-3 at the zone
of dormitory. The water tables of each well are varying about 0.5 to 1.5
m, the lowest level occurring in April and the highest level appearing
|| A fluctuate water table
The groundwater level is proportional to quantity of surface water and
more increasing during rainy season due to water infiltration and interflow
according with the study of Nouri and Malmasi (2005).
Figure 4 presents the soil properties along the observed
wells. It indicates that the deepest well are BH-3, BH-4, BH-10 and BH-11
of 8 meters from ground surface. The shortest well is BH-8 at the zone
of fallow area, because this area is low level than surrounding area.
There are 4 types of soil type including sand loam, silty loam, sandy
clay and clayed silty.
|| Soil properties along the observes wells
|| A fluctuate water quality in the observed wells
The thick zones of each type are present in the Fig. 4. The top of surface are is sand loam around 1.0
m and following with the silty loam of 2-3 m and sandy clay of 2-3 m,
respectively. The deepest zone is clayey silty from 5-8 m below the ground
Figure 5 shows the water quality of NaCl during the
study. It presents that NaCl in the BH-9 at the zone nearby the faculty
of Humanities and Social Sciences is the highest value. The lowest concentration
of NaCl is in the BH-6 at the area behind the building of administration.
Further, the NaCl of each well are varying during the study about 50 to
150 ppm. This NaCl was used to describe chloride in groundwater. However,
the difference of NaCl in each well is upon the water infiltration from
the surface area and the activities of water use. The groundwater was
slightly acidic to neutral. The rapid urbanization area does not affect
to the groundwater quality in term of NaCl. However, this issue is required
to monitor for the long time record.
This research proposes a monitoring groundwater in the Mahasarakham University,
Khmriang Campus (the northeast region of Thailand). A contour map of the
study area was constructed for evaluating land level and transferring
the MSL system for well reference. The observed wells were installed over
the study area of 9 wells. The shallowest well is 4.0 m depth and the
deepest well is 8.0 m. Soil properties of the wells were investigated
to classify soil type. The water table and water quality of the observed
wells were weekly recorded from April 2006-April 2008. The results have
shown that the water table varied during 3 to 4 meters below the land
surface. The groundwater levels were 2-4 m during January to May, 1-2
m during May to October and 2-3 m during November to December. Soil properties
along the wells from land surface were sand loam, silty loam, sandy clay
and clayed silty respectively. NaCl of each well during the study varied
about 50 to 150 ppm. The groundwater was slightly acidic to neutral. The
rapid urbanization area does not affect to the groundwater quality in
term of NaCl.
The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support by the Faculty
of Engineering Mahasarakham University (budget on 2008) and the Mahasarakham
University. Thanks are also due to Mr. Kritsadeekorn Pragiranung for collecting