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Research Article
 

Effects of Spraying Gibberellic Acid Doses on Growth, Yield and Oil Content in Black Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)



Le Vinh Thuc, Jun-Ichi Sakagami, Nguyen Quoc Khuong, Susan Orgill, Tran Ngoc Huu, Nguyen Thi Thu Lang and Pham Phuoc Nhan
 
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ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Gibberellic acid promotes the growth and elongation of plant cells, making it an important plant growth regulator. The objective of this field experiment was to determine the optimal quantity of gibberellic acid (GA3) to increase seed yield and oil content of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), as well as improve nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake. Materials and Methods: The replicated pot experiment included foliar application of GA3 at six rates; control (0), 25, 50, 75, 100 and 150 ppm. Application of GA3 at 100 ppm at 25 and 35 days after sowing increased overall plant growth indicators, including plant height, number of leaves and biomass of sesame. Results: At 100 ppm GA3, there was a significant (p<0.05) increase in leaf concentration of chlorophyll, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, as well as stoma conductance. Gibberellic acid significantly (p<0.05) increased the number of flowers per plant thereby increasing the number of pods per plant, seeds per pod and weight of seeds per plant. Foliar application of GA3 at 100 ppm increased sesame yield by 1.4 times with compared to the control and significantly (p<0.05) oil content in sesame seeds (13.4%). Conclusion: Spraying 100 ppm GA3 helps sesame plant to produce more the number of seeds per pod and seed weight per plant. Spraying GA3 at a proper concentration increased sesame yield and oil content.

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  How to cite this article:

Le Vinh Thuc, Jun-Ichi Sakagami, Nguyen Quoc Khuong, Susan Orgill, Tran Ngoc Huu, Nguyen Thi Thu Lang and Pham Phuoc Nhan, 2021. Effects of Spraying Gibberellic Acid Doses on Growth, Yield and Oil Content in Black Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Asian Journal of Crop Science, 13: 1-8.

DOI: 10.3923/ajcs.2021.1.8

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajcs.2021.1.8
 
Copyright: © 2021. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

INTRODUCTION

Continuous rice production in the Mekong River Delta (Vietnam) has led to an increased susceptibility of these farming systems to plant diseases, pests and land degradation. Crop rotations are a commonly used practice that optimizes the land use during different seasons, as well as mitigating the build-up and impact of pathogens, pests and weeds. There are also economic benefits of crop rotations compared with continuous rice production. Sesame is an attractive crop to grow in rotation with rice due to relatively low nutrient requirements, resilience to low soil moisture (that is, not dependent on irrigation post-germination), heat tolerance and high economic return. These factors are becoming increasingly important as the impacts of climate change limit crop yield in the rice growing regions of the Mekong River Delta1. Gibberellic acid (GA3) is an endogenous growth regulator in plants that plays an important role in plant cell growth and elongation2. Use of this plant growth regulator is becoming increasingly common on a variety of crops, such as soybean3 based on its ability to help plants overcome abiotic stresses4. While sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is natively drought tolerant crop5, prolonged dry conditions reduce crop yield and make the crop more susceptible to pests and diseases. Gibberellic acid has been demonstrated to be effective in improving overall plant growth and yield of many crops6, however, its effectiveness depends on the concentration and timing of application, as well as environmental conditions7. Furthermore, there is limited information on the benefits of GA3 application on sesame plant growth and yield. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum concentration of GA3 for improving sesame plant growth, nutrient uptake (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium), seed yield and oil content.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study area: The field experiment was conducted in Thoi Thuan area, Phuoc Thoi ward, O Mon district, Can Tho city from February to May, 2019.

Research protocol: Soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected for characterization using a hand auger at 5 random locations across the field. Soil samples were dried by dry oven at 40°C, the methods of analysis were used as described by Sparks et al.8. Briefly, soil organic carbon (SOC; soil samples were oxidation in sulfuric acid and titration with ferrous sulfate heptahydrate), total nitrogen (Ntot; the total nitrogen content was analyzed by the regular Kjeldahl method, after the process of organic N state in soil was destruction to convert inorganic N), total phosphorus (Ptot total phosphorus content was determined by colorimetric procedure at a wavelength of 880 nm), total potassium (Ktot; total potassium content was determined by using ICP-OES) and soil pHKCl (pHKCl: soil samples were separately extracted using 1 M KCl). Soil characteristics for the field site are pHKCl (3.87±0.01), pHKCl (4.81±0.01), EC (0.35±0.005 mS cm1), CEC (15.19±0.19 meq 100 g1), SOC (2.56±0.041% C), Ntot (0.19±0.001%), Ptot (0.03±0.001%), Ktot (1.47±0.03%). A local sesame variety was used (Can Tho black sesame) with traits including short duration growth (approximately 75-85 days), high height, number of capsule, drought tolerance and yield.

Experimental design: The field experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design including six treatments (T) each with five replications. Plot size was 25 m2. Treatments as follows were applied as a foliar spray:

T1: Control (spray water without GA3)
T2: Gibberellin (25 ppm)
T3: Gibberellin (50 ppm)
T4: Gibberellin (75 ppm)
T5: Gibberellin (100 ppm)
T6: Gibberellin (100 ppm)

The GA3 solution with different concentrations was applied directly on the total leaf surface area at the growth stage of flower bud formation (25 days after flowering, DAS) and flowering (35 DAS).

Seed density: Sesame seed was sown at 4 kg ha1, with seeds mixed with sand at ratio of 2:1 (sand: sesame) to ensure uniform seed distribution.

Fertilizers and amendments: Before planting, mineral fertilizer was applied at the recommended rate of 90 kg N, 60 kg P2O5 and 60 kg K2O for hectare. Single super phosphate (P 16%) was applied as a basal application. Urea (N 46%) was applied as split applications, with 30, 40 and 30% applied at 15, 30 and 40 days after sowing respectively. Potassium chloride (K 60%) was applied as split applications, with 50% applied at 15 and 30 days after sowing respectively.

Growth parameters and yield of sesame: Plant height (cm) was measured from the soil surface to the highest growth peak of 20 plants per plot at harvest time. Height to first fruit (cm) was measured from the soil surface to the position of the first capsules of 20 plants per plot. Number of flowers per main plant (flower) was assessed by counting all open flowers. Percentage stained pollen (%): Detached pollen grains and stained with Aceto-carmine 5% was assessed according to Saini et al.9. Using a M-40X microscope objective, stained and unstained pollen in 5 frames on each flower were counted and recorded. The number of pods per plant (left) was assessed at harvest time. Stomatal conductance was determined using a SC-1 Leaf Porometer (Decagon Devices, Pullman, WA, USA) on the 12th leaf from the ground at 35 and 60 days after sowing. Results are the mean of four plants per replicate. Chlorophyll content was extracted with N, N-Dimethylformamide10. Leaves were analyzed for N, P and K content at 50 days after sowing following Jones et al.11. Number of seeds per pod (seed) was assessed in 20 randomly selected pods per replicate. Seed moisture was assessed by oven drying seeds at 45°C for 72 hrs. Weight (g) of 1,000 seeds was recorded at 8% moisture. Yield (kg ha1) was calculated using the weight of seed of the 25 m2 plot at harvest based on 8% moisture. Lipid content of sesame seeds was assessed using the Soxhlet method12.

Data analysis: The data presented in this paper are the mean values of five replications unless otherwise stated. All data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS software package version 13.0 and comparison for significant differences for treatment effects using Duncan’s test at p<0.05.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Effect of GA3 on plant height and number of leaves: Foliar application of GA3 above 50 ppm significantly (p<0.05) increased plant height (Fig. 1). At 100 ppm GA3, greatest plant height was recorded (mean 123.1 cm) and this was significantly (p<0.01) higher than the control (102.2 cm). There was no significant difference in plant height between GA3 applications of 75 and 150 ppm (112.0 and 116.9 cm, respectively). There was significantly (p<0.05) more leaves per plant with GA3 applications at 100 and 150 ppm compared with the control and no difference between these higher rates and the 25, 50 and 75 ppm treatments (Fig. 1). Current study results support the growing evidence that the application of GA3 promotes overall plant growth; indicated here by plant height and number of leaves per plant13. This agrees with increased plant growth recorded for soybean3.

Effect of GA3 on chlorophyll content in leaves: Total chlorophyll a, b and chlorophyll index in plants where GA3 was applied were higher than the control at 35 and 65 DAS (Table 1). There was no significant difference in total chlorophyll content between GA3 supplementation treatments with concentrations of 50, 75, 100 and 150 ppm. Gibberellin is an important factor regulating chlorophyll content of plants14 and the application of GA3 has been reported to increase chlorophyll indicators in mung bean grown on sandy soils15 and lettuce16.

Effect of GA3 on stomata conductance: The stomata conductance of sesame leaves at 35 and 60 DAS was significantly (p<0.01) different (Table 2).

Image for - Effects of Spraying Gibberellic Acid Doses on Growth, Yield and Oil Content in Black Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)
Fig. 1:
Plant height (cm) and number of sesame leaves at harvest for different concentrations of GA3
  Letters within the column represent a significant (p<0.05) difference

Image for - Effects of Spraying Gibberellic Acid Doses on Growth, Yield and Oil Content in Black Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)
Fig. 2:
Height (cm) of first pod forming at different concentrations of GA3
  Letters within the column represent a significant (p<0.05) difference

Table 1:Chlorophyll content in leaves at 35 and 60 DAS
Image for - Effects of Spraying Gibberellic Acid Doses on Growth, Yield and Oil Content in Black Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)
Letters within the column represent a significant (p<0.05) difference. DAS: Days after sowing

Table 2:
Opening and closing of the stomata of sesame at 35 and 60 days after sowing
Image for - Effects of Spraying Gibberellic Acid Doses on Growth, Yield and Oil Content in Black Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)
Letters within the column represent a significant (p<0.05) difference. DAS: Days after sowing

For example, GA3 applied at 100 ppm was 1,576.7 and 1,500.7 mmol m2 sec1 at 35 and 60 DAS. At 35 DAS, GA3 applied at 50 ppm and above had significantly (p<0.05) higher stomata conductance compared with the control, while at 60 DAS only GA3 applied at 100 and 150 ppm were significantly (p<0.05) higher. Concentration of GA3 is regulates stomata opening and closing17 and has been reported to slow stomatal closure in submerged lettuce4.

Height (cm) of first pod forming: There was a significant (p<0.01) difference in the height (cm) of the first pod with GA3 application; with all treatments being higher (range of first pod height 46.4-51.7 cm) than the control (35.3 cm; Fig. 2). However, there was no difference between GA3 applied at 25, 50 and 75 ppm. Similarly, where GA3 was applied at concentrations of 100 and 150 ppm height to the first pod forming was not statistically different (Fig. 2). These results agree with Hedden and Phillips18 who reported that GA3 promotes stem elongation, thus influences the height of first pod forming.

Effect of GA3 on plant dry matter of sesame: Where GA3 was applied at 100 ppm there was a significant increase (p<0.05) in plant dry matter compared to the control (9.4 g vs. 5.8 g per tree, respectively; Fig. 3). There was no difference in plant dry matter at GA3 concentrations of 25, 50, 70 and 150 ppm. These results correlate with the increase in plant height and the number of leaves per plant (Fig. 1) and agree with research on chickpea (Vicia faba L.)19 and leafy vegetables13 which also reported increased dry matter with foliar application of GA3.

Image for - Effects of Spraying Gibberellic Acid Doses on Growth, Yield and Oil Content in Black Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)
Fig. 3:Plant dry matter (g) with concentration of GA3
  Letters within the column represent a significant (p<0.05) difference

Image for - Effects of Spraying Gibberellic Acid Doses on Growth, Yield and Oil Content in Black Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)
Fig. 4:Number of flowers/plant and percentage stained pollens
  Letters within the column represent a significant (p<0.05) difference

Table 3:
Leaf N, P and K concentration at 50 days after sowing
Image for - Effects of Spraying Gibberellic Acid Doses on Growth, Yield and Oil Content in Black Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)
Letters within the column represent a significant (p<0.05) difference. DAS: Days after sowing

Effect of GA3 on leaf content of N, P and K 50 days after sowing: There was a significant (p<0.05) difference in leaf N and K concentration between GA3 applied at 75, 100 and 150 ppm at 50 DAS compared to the control treatment (Table 3). At GA3 100 ppm, there was significantly (p<0.05) higher P concentration in leaves (0.82%) compared to all other treatments with the exception of 150 ppm. Current results support the notion that application of GA3 increases nutrient uptake and suggest an optimal rate of 100 ppm. This is consistent with findings of Shah et al.20 and Pal et al.21 who reported increased N, P and K uptake compared with the control for black fennel (Nigella sativa L.) cucumber, respectively.

Effect of GA3 on number of flowers on main plant and percentage of stained pollen: The results presented in Fig. 4 show that the number of flowers on the main stalk in the treatments was statistically significant difference at 1%. The number of flowers on the main stalk was highest in the treatment applied 100 ppm GA3 (29.4 flowers), among the treatments applied GA3 with concentrations of 25, 50 and 75 ppm, the number of flowers on the main stalk was 23.3; 23.2 and 23.5 flowers were no significant difference from the control treatment.

Image for - Effects of Spraying Gibberellic Acid Doses on Growth, Yield and Oil Content in Black Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)
Fig. 5:Sesame seed yield and oil content in different GA3 treatments
  Letters within the column represent a significant (p<0.05) difference

Table 4:Sesame yield ingredient in GA3 treatments
Image for - Effects of Spraying Gibberellic Acid Doses on Growth, Yield and Oil Content in Black Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)
Letters within the column represent a significant (p<0.05) difference

Similar results were found when studying soybean sprayed with additional 100 ppm GA33. The percentage of successful dyeing pollen grains ranged from 79.3-91.6%. The successful dyeing ratio of pollen grains tended to increase when spraying GA3 with concentration gradually increasing from 25-150 ppm. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the treatments (Fig. 4).

Effects of GA3 on sesame yield components: The results presented in Table 4 showed that the number of capsules per tree in the treatment applied GA3 at 100 ppm was 23.6 fruits per tree, which was statistically significant difference at 5% from the non-sprayed treatments (18.4 fruits per tree). However, the number of capsules per tree decreased as the GA3 concentration increased to 150 ppm. Similar to the results of the study obtained when spraying GA3 on soybean G7R-31522. According to Pramanik et al.23 GA3 plays a role in helping plants increase fruit-set ability on trees. Applied 25 ppm GA3 for sesame has begun to increase the weight of seeds per tree, but there was no statistically significant difference compared to the control treatment. Increased the concentration of GA3 to 50, 75, 100 and 150 ppm further increased the weight of seeds per tree and was statistically significant difference at 1% from the control treatment (Table 4). The treatments applied from 75-150 ppm GA3 was not significant difference in seed weight per tree. The lowest number of seeds per capsules is in control treatment (81.3 seed per pod). Applied GA3 with a concentration of 25 ppm increased the number of seeds per capsule (86.3 seeds). Spraying 100 ppm GA3 for the highest number of seeds per capsule (108.8 seeds per pod) when increased the concentration of GA3 spray to 150 ppm the number of seeds on the fruit tended to decrease (103.3 seeds per pod). Similar to the BS-3 soybean study results, the number of seeds per capsule was higher when applied 100 ppm GA3 but when increased to 200 ppm, the number of seeds per capsule decreased3. The results presented in Table 4 show that the weight of 1,000 sesame seeds of the treatments ranged from 3.1-3.8 g and there was no statistically significant difference between treatments when spraying GA3. Similarly, the results of the study by Dathe et al.22 on soybean when applied GA3 did not increase grain mass.

Effects of GA3 on sesame seed yield and oil content: The results presented in Fig. 5 show that in the treatment applied GA3 with the concentration of 100 ppm has the highest yield was 1.076 ton ha1, there was a statistically significant difference at 5% compared to the control treatment (0.794 ton ha1). Sesame yield between treatments sprayed GA3 with concentration from 25-75 ppm were not significant difference. Treatment applied GA3 at a concentration of 100 ppm helps to increase grain yield recorded on many crops such as soybean6,24. The results presented in Fig. 5 show that the treatments applied GA3 increased the oil content in sesame seeds compared to the control treatment. In particular, the treatment applied GA3 with concentrations of 100 and 150 ppm had the highest oil content in sesame seeds, respectively 49.2 and 49%, which is significant difference from the control treatment did not apply GA3. Different sesame varieties will have different in oil content in the seeds25, however the oil content in seeds will range from 40.7-58.8%26. Besides, GA3 is thought to help improve the oil content in sesame seeds25.

CONCLUSION

Apply more of gibberellic acid at a concentration of 100 ppm at 25 and 35 DAS helps to increase growth indicators of plant height, the number of leaves and dry biomass of sesame plant. Content of chlorophyll, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium in leaves and stomata increase when spraying gibberellic acid at a concentration of 100 ppm compared with no supplement of GA3. Gibberellic acid helps increase the number of flowers on the main plant thereby increasing the number of pods on the sesame. At the same time GA3 also increases the number of seeds per pod and the seed weight per plant. Sesame yield increased by 1.4 times when spraying GA3 at a concentration of 100 ppm compared to without spraying GA3. Applying GA3 at a concentration of 100 ppm by spraying through the leaves helps to increase the oil content in sesame seeds.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT

This study discovered an appropriate dose of GA3 that can be beneficial for farmers. This study will help the researchers to determine the mechanism of GA3 to support sesame growth.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This project was funded by the Upgrading Project of Can Tho University VN14-P6 with ODA loans from the Japanese Government.

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