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Research Article
 

Weed Survey in Sweet Corn (Zea mays saccharata Sturt.) in Regency of Sumedang and Bandung Indonesia



Denny Kurniadie, Uum Umiyati and Dedi Widayat
 
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ABSTRACT

Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the dominant weed species on sweet corn in two sweet corn production centers in West Java (Sumedang and Bandung Regency). Methodology: The materials used in this experiment was weed that grows in sweet corn, basic map and quesioner. The instruments used in this experiment were the square meters (0.5×0.5 m), hoe, scale, plastic rope, plastic bags, a spade, electric scale, dryer oven and altimeter. The study was carried out in Sumedang Regency (District Pamulihan and Sukasari) and Bandung Regency (District Cileunyi and Arjasari), each Regency consisted of 12 sweet corn farms. The study was carried out from March, 2014 until July, 2014. The experimental design used was descriptive with survey method. Each district consisted of 6 sweet corn farms. There were 12 observations on each Regency, so the total observations were 24 observations. Results: The results of this study showed that based on Sum Dominance Ratio (SDR) analysis, the dominant weeds found in Sumedang Regency were Ageratum conyzoides and Eupatorium odoratum L. (broad leaves) and Cyperus rotundus (sedge), whereas the dominant weed species found in Bandung Regency only Ageratum conyzoides (broad leave). The comparison of coefficient communities value (C) between Regency of Sumedang and Bandung was of 69.75% which means that, the weed population in Bandung and Sumedang was different. The total value of species diversidty index (H’) in districts Pamulihan, Sukasari, Arjasari and Cileunyi were 1.18, 1.12, 1.39 and 1.35 consecutively, which means a relatively low diversity category. Conclusion: The dominant weeds and weed population in Bandung Regency and Sumedang Regency were different. All weed population in all study areas have low diversity.

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  How to cite this article:

Denny Kurniadie, Uum Umiyati and Dedi Widayat, 2016. Weed Survey in Sweet Corn (Zea mays saccharata Sturt.) in Regency of Sumedang and Bandung Indonesia. Asian Journal of Crop Science, 8: 66-70.

DOI: 10.3923/ajcs.2016.66.70

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajcs.2016.66.70
 
Received: February 15, 2016; Accepted: March 01, 2016; Published: March 15, 2016



INTRODUCTION

The presence of weeds in sweet corn crop can reduce both yield and seed quality. Yield loss of crop due to weed depend on type of weed, weed density, length of competition and allelopathy. Generally, yield loss due to weed can exceed yield loss due to pest and diseases. Nevertheless, yield loss due to weed was quite hard to predict, due to the effects were not easy to observed. Some studies show that there was negative correlation between dry weight of weeds and yield of corn, with the decline in yield1 can be up to 95%. Corn grown in monocultures and with low input do not give high yield due to weed competition2. The amount of yield loss in corn due to weed competition was ranged3 from 16-62%. Therefore, weed control is necessary to reduce weed infestation and crop losses. Yield loss in crop mostly due to competition with light, water, nutrients and space between crop and weed4. There were many factors that affect the diversity of weed species such as light, temperature, water and wind5. Soil factors (moisture, aeration, pH and nutrients) play an important role in weed diversity. Several weed species can grow better in soil that has certain condition. Soil with has high moisture content will affect the emergence of weed in rice fields. Broad leaves weeds found more dominant in podsolik soil type6.

Another factor that affects weed diversity was altitude. Weed composition was varied according to different altitude. As an example in North Sumatera and Aceh, rubber plantation with an altitude of 0-30 m a.s.l., the dominant weed species found was sedges, whereas in altitude of 30-100 m, the dominant weed species found was grasses5. Cultural method, such as the usage of cover crop, row spacing and cropping system also influence weed diversity6.

Mapping or survey of weeds in corn in various ecosystems and environmental conditions in two production centers of sweet corn in West Java province (Bandung and Sumedang Regency) is required in order to design the control method of weed in corn effectively. Corn production centers in West Java province in accordance with West Java corn belt program is concentrated in the Regencys of Kuningan, Majalengka, Sumedang, Ciamis, Tasikmalaya, Garut, Bandung and Sukabumi. The objective of this study was to investigate the dominant weed species on sweet corn in two sweet corn production centers in West Java (Sumedang and Bandung Regency).

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The study was carried out in sweet corn farms belongs to farmers in Sumedang Regency (District Pamulihan and Sukasari) and Bandung Regency (District Cileunyi and Arjasari), each district consisted of 6 sweet corn farms. The experiment was carried out from March, 2014 until July, 2014. The materials used in this experiment was weed that grows in sweet corn, basic map and quesioner. The instruments used in this experiment were the square meters (0.5×0.5 m), hoe, scale, plastic rope, plastic bags, a spade, electric scale, dryer oven and altimeter.

The experiment design used was descriptive with survey method. In each Regency will be examined 6 sweet corn farms with has an age between 6 and 8 weeks. Vegetation analysis was determined based on parameters: weed density, weed frequency, weed dominance, Sum Dominance Ratio (SDR), coefficient communities and dry weight of weed. Vegetation analysis was conducted one times in each sweet corn farm. Questionnaire was given to the farmer to find out the history of the studied area of corn, such as crop varieties used, cropping patterns used, kind of fertilizer used, weed control technique, age of corn, row spacing and type of tillage.

A vegetation analysis of weed was calculated based on Tjitrosedirdjo et al.7: Important value = Relative density +relative frequency+relative dominant and the Summed Dominance Ratio (SDR) is the important value/3, whereas the coefficient communities was calculated based on the following formula:

Image for - Weed Survey in Sweet Corn (Zea mays saccharata Sturt.) in Regency of Sumedang and Bandung Indonesia

Where:
C = Coefficient community
W = The sum of two lowest quantity for each type of community
a = The sum of entire quantity on first community
b = The sum of entire quantity on second community

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The study areas profile of Sumedang and Bandung Regency are described in Table 1.

Vegetation analysis of weed: Table 2 showed that there were 30 weed species found in Sumedang Regency that consist of 21 broad leaves weed, 8 grasses weed species and one sedges species. At district Pamulihan there were 2 dominant weed species, namely Ageratum conyzoides and Cyperus rotundus, while in district Sukasari there were also 2 dominant weed species, namely Ageratum conyzoides and Eupatorium odoratum.

Table 1:Profile of study areas in Sumedang and Bandung Regency
Image for - Weed Survey in Sweet Corn (Zea mays saccharata Sturt.) in Regency of Sumedang and Bandung Indonesia

Table 2:Summed Dominance Ratio (SDR) weed in Sumedang and Bandung Regency
Image for - Weed Survey in Sweet Corn (Zea mays saccharata Sturt.) in Regency of Sumedang and Bandung Indonesia
Image for - Weed Survey in Sweet Corn (Zea mays saccharata Sturt.) in Regency of Sumedang and Bandung Indonesia
*Most dominant of weed

Table 3:Comparison of coefficient community value of weed in Sumedang and Bandung Regency
Image for - Weed Survey in Sweet Corn (Zea mays saccharata Sturt.) in Regency of Sumedang and Bandung Indonesia

Table 4:Value of species diversity index (H’) in Sumedang and Bandung
Image for - Weed Survey in Sweet Corn (Zea mays saccharata Sturt.) in Regency of Sumedang and Bandung Indonesia

The most dominant weed species that found in Sumedang Regency was Ageratum conyzoides. This weed species was encountered in all study areas in Sumedang. Weed species of Ageratum conyzoides belongs to annual broad leaved weed and has a lot of seeds that easy to be dispersed8. Ageratum conyzoides species can grow any where because it can adapt to different environmental condition.

In Bandung Regency found that there were 32 weed species found that consist of 24 broad leaves species, 7 grasses weed species and one sedge species (Table 2). The most dominant weed species in district Arjasari and district Cileunyi was Ageratum conyzoides. Weed species of Ageratum conyzoides was also found in all observation areas in Bandung Regency. This weed can grow to an altitude up to 1200 m a.s.l. Weed of Ageratum conyzoides can grow on dry land or moist soil9. Weed composition that grows in Sumedang and Bandung Regency was different. This might due to different altitude, climate and cultural method. The different altitude will affect weed diversity. High altitude tend to have more weed as compare with lower altitude7. Shifting weed composition occurred as a consequence of farming practices system, such as the tillage system, fertilizer application, weed control methods10. The frequency of weeding also causing weed shifting11.

Coefficient community value of weed: Table 3 showed that the value of coefficient community of weed (C) in all areas of observation in Sumedang and Bandung Regencies were under 75%, which means that the value of C on the district Pamulihan: District Sukasari and so on do not have similarity in population. If the value of coefficient community (C) was more than 75%, the similarity in weed population community between the two regions were large enough, whereas if the value of C was smaller than 75%, there was no similarity in weed population between two population in two regions7. Weed diversity in one location was different with other locations. This might due to various factors, such as soil type, altitude and cultural method12. The difference in weed species can be caused by change in cultural method and microclimate13. If the condition of micro climate was relatively not change, so changing in weed composition will occur very slow or did not changed at all14.

Species diversity index (H’): The species diversity index (H’) of each species in each study area belongs to very low (Table 4). The value of H’ usually ranges15 from 0-7. If H’<1 the diversity index belongs to the category of very low, H’>1-2 belong to low, H’>2-3 belong to moderate , H’>3-4 belong to be higher and H’>4 belong to quite high. District Arjasari has the highest value of H’ (1.39). This probably due to the number of weed species found in this area was very high as compared with the other study areas. The number of weed species found in sweet corn farms in Sumedang and Bandung can be affected by herbicide use, soil tillage system and soil fertility. The value of H’ would increase if the number of weed species within the community was increase and weed distribution was more even15. Low or high weed diversity in their communities depends on the number of individual weed in the community16. Planting system earlier and soil type affect the number and weed diversity17. Factors that affect diversity of weed community was altitude6.

CONCLUSION

•  The dominant weeds found in Sumedang Regency were Ageratum conyzoides and Eupatorium odoratum L. (broad leaves) and Cyperus rotundus (sedge), whereas the dominant weed species found in Bandung Regency was only Ageratum conyzoides (broad leave)
The comparison of coefficient communities value (C) between Regency of Sumedang and Bandung was of 69.75% which means that, the weed population in Bandung and Sumedang was different
The total value of species diversidty index (H’) in districts Pamulihan, Sukasari, Arjasari and Cileunyi were 1.18, 1.12, 1.39 and 1.35 consecutively, which means a relatively low diversity category

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Thank to Weed Science Society of Indonesia (WSSI) for supporting the research fund under "Research support schema".

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