Fate of Culex pipiens: Vector of Many Pathogenic Viruses
Muhammad Nouman Sohail
Received: May 25, 2011;
Accepted: August 23, 2011;
Published: September 28, 2011
mosquito has a large distribution that is affected by
availability of water and temperature (Barker et al.,
; Azari-Hamidian et al., 2011
). The phytotelmata
(water body with plants) having high water volumes with high solid contents
and large canopy favors its growth (Adebote et al.,
; Jacob et al., 2009
). C. pipiens
mosquito is a vector for many animals and human disease causing viruses e.g.,
Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV), West Nile Virus (WNV), Batai virus, Sindbis
virus etc. (Reusken et al., 2011
). The distribution
of these viruses is increasing day by day due the raise in temperature, rainfall
and dispersal patterns (Gould and Higgs, 2009
) and all
these parameters favors the growth of C. pipiens
and Flick (2011)
while reviewing the occurrence and distribution of RVFV
declared it an important potential threat to the human and livestock health.
The food and temperature provided to insect posses a significant impact on virus
infection and dissemination (Moutailler et al., 2007
Anderson et al., 2010
). At temperature (30°C)
the dissemination infection of WNV in C. pipiens
was more than 90% (Dohm
et al., 2002a
). WNV cause fever and neural epidemiology in birds,
humans, horses and other mammals, its infection rate is high in already suffering
organisms (Ulbert, 2011
). It is also known that C.
infected with virus in late summer, act as a carrier of virus in
next spring (Dohm et al., 2002b
). Thus to stop
the invasion of viruses the population of their vectors like C. pipiens
should be diminish. Many studies have been conducted that were aiming to identify
such pesticide which can effectively control C. pipiens
adults and larvae
(Hussein et al., 2005
et al., 2007
; Reza and Abbas, 2007
and Mehanney, 2000
). But in some cases external application of pesticide
is not so much effective due to the hard cuticle of insect (Ikbal
et al., 2007
). Altalhi (2005)
found the Bacillus
, a bacterium) and duck weed (aquatic
plant) as important biological controls of C. pipiens
. According to him
the presence of Bti
in water cause toxic effect on the third and forth
instars larvae in concentration dependant manner but Bti
Moreover he found that duck weed has cytochemical toxic effects on C. pipiens
population, which lessened the need of high Bti
concentrations. A more
effective and economical biological control against C. pipiens
Wolbachia are intercellular bacteria, infecting almost 66% of the pest
(arthropods and nematodes), so it has great potential as biological control
(Hilgenboecker et al., 2008). Wolbachia
inherit maternally; it shortens the life span of its host and can efficiently
cause Cytoplasmic Incompatibility (CI) (McMeniman et
al., 2009). Wolbachia also cause infection in common house mosquito
C. pipiens but rarely cause infertility, which is due to the presence
of compatible Wolbachia strains (Duron et al.,
2011; Walker et al., 2009). Atyame
et al. (2011) conducted the PCR study of Wolbachia (wPip)
strains in Culex pipiens mosquitoes, which sort out the reasons of compatibility
and incompatibility caused by Wolbachia. The incompatible Wolbachia
strains cause CI in mosquitoes and vice versa. According to them this CI property
of Wolbachia depends upon mod and resc (lock and key) model
and to evaluate its properties a total of 360 C. pipiens from 15 natural
breeding sites of La Reunion Island were examined. From these mosquitoes 11
wPip strains were isolated; mobile genetic elements markers differentiate
these strains on the basis of 1-4 genetic markers. These strains were genetically
very similar as they contain the same sequence of different ank2, pk1,
pk2, GP12 and GP15 alleles. Moreover these strains were
mutually bidirectionally compatible. They also introduce the 4 new genetically
distinct (w5, w10, w1 and w31) wPip strains
from 4 different C. pipiens of different geographical areas. The sequence
analysis showed the La Reunion Islands wPip strains were extremely
different from these 4 newly introduced strains. All the strains have different
mod/resc functions having 11 compatible/incompatible crossing types out
of which 5 compatible crossing types were identified in La Reunion Island. These
different crossing types results due to the multiple mod and resc
abilities i.e., one resc key would be compatible to more than one mod
lock. These crossing types determine the viability and non-viability of C.
pipiens eggs. The mating between C. pipiens with incompatible wPip
strains would result in non-viable eggs with 0% egg Hatching Rate (HR). But
the mosquitoes with compatible strains can produce viable eggs with HR more
than 90%. Moreover, mating of infected males with uninfected females results
in CI. These all mod and resc events occurring in host body are
independent to the host genome. Thus this can be said that the mating compatibility
of mosquitoes depends upon the Wolbachia strain present in them. If new
genetically different Wolbachia strains are introduced in the La Reunion
Island there will be more crossing types. Moreover the CI property of Wolbachia
strains depends upon their crossing type and not on the host nuclear machinery.
C. pipiens is the potential vector of many viruses which infect both
animals and humans. Wolbachia can be used as biological control of this
insect as it causes the Cytoplasmic Incompatibility (CI) in C. pipiens.
The C. pipiens of La Reunion Island has only genetically similar and
compatible strains of Wolbachia therefore no CI was observed. But if
the genetically different and incompatible strains of Wolbachia are introduced
in this area then the CI can be increased in the mosquitoes. Thus the invasion
of mosquitoes population may be stopped by the intrusions of incompatible
Wolbachia strains. This study conducted by Atyame
et al. (2011) provides more detailed understanding of Wolbachia
mode of action at molecular level, in future more research is required in order
to use this bacteria more effectively against pathogens.
Adebote, D.A., D.S. Abolude, S.J. Oniye and O.S. Wayas, 2008.
Studies on some physicochemical factors affecting the breeding and abundance of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in phytotelmata on Delonix regia
(Leguminosae: Caesalpinoidea). J. Biol. Sci., 8: 1304-1309.Direct Link |
Azari-Hamidian, S., M.R. Abai, K. Arzamani, H. Bakhshi, H. Karami, H. Ladonni and R.E. Harbach, 2011.
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of North Khorasan province, Northeastern Iran and the zoogeographic affinities of the Iranian and middle Asian mosquito fauna. J. Entomol., 8: 204-217.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Ikbal, C., B.H. Mounia and B.H. Habib, 2007.
Toxicity experiments of the saponic extract of Cestrum Parqui
(Solanaceae) on some insect spices. J. Entomol., 4: 113-120.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Reza, V.R.M. and H. Abbas, 2007.
Chemical constituents and larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Polylophium involvucratum
(Pall.) Boiss (Apiaceae). J. Plant Sci., 2: 575-578.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Altalhi, A.D., 2005.
Investigation of mosquito survival associated with Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis
and aquatic plant, Lemna minor
. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 8: 314-317.Direct Link |
Khoobdel, M., M.A. Oshaghi, N. Jonaidi, M. Shayeghi and M.R. Abaei et al
Laboratory evaluation of dimethyl phthalate against Anopheles stephensi
and Culex pipiens
. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 10: 745-750.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Hussein, H.I., D. Al-Rajhy and M. Al-Assiry, 2005.
Toxicity of four pyrethroid-based insecticides and kerosene to a laboratory population of Culex pipiens
. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 8: 751-753.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Shonouda, M.L. and S.M. Mehanney, 2000.
New botanical derivatives, used in medicinal preparations, showing bioactive action on insect pests II: Effect on the vectors Culex pipiens
and Musca domestica
larvae. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 3: 1039-1041.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Dohm, D.J., M.R. Sardelis and M.J. Turell, 2002.
Experimental vertical transmission of West Nile virus by Culex pipiens
(Diptera: Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol., 39: 640-644.PubMed |
Ulbert, S., 2011.
West Nile virus: The complex biology of an emerging pathogen. Intervirology, 54: 171-184.CrossRef |
Anderson, S.L., S.L. Richards, W.J. Tabachnick and C.T. Smartt, 2010.
Effects of West Nile virus dose and extrinsic incubation temperature on temporal progression of vector competence in Culex pipiens
quinquefasciatus. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc., 26: 103-107.PubMed |
Moutailler, S., M. Bouloy and A.B. Failloux, 2007.
Efficient oral infection of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus
by Rift Valley fever virus using a cotton stick support. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 76: 827-829.Direct Link |
Atyame, C.M., O. Duron, P. Tortosa, N. Pasteur, P. Fort and M. Weill, 2011.
determinants control the evolution of cytoplasmic incompatibilities in Culex pipiens
mosquito populations. Mol. Ecol., 20: 286-298.CrossRef |
Dohm, D.J., M.L. O'Guinn, M.J. Turell, 2002.
Effect of environmental temperature on the ability of Culex pipiens
(Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit West Nile virus. J. Med. Entomol., 39: 221-225.PubMed |
Reusken, C., A. de Vries, E. Ceelen, J. Beeuwkes and E.J. Scholte, 2011.
A study of the circulation of West Nile virus, Sindbis virus, Batai virus and Usutu virus in mosquitoes in a potential high-risk area for arbovirus circulation in the Netherlands De Oostvaardersplassen. Eur. Mosquito Bull., 29: 66-81.
Barker, C.M., B.F. Eldridge and W.K. Reisen, 2010.
Seasonal abundance of Culex tarsalis
and Culex pipiens
complex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in California. J. Med. Entomol., 47: 759-768.PubMed |
Jacob, B.G., R.L. Lampman, M.P. Ward, E.J. Muturi, J.A. Morris, E.X. Caamano, R.J. Novak, 2009.
Geospatial variability in the egg raft distribution and abundance of Culex pipiens
and Culex restuans
in Urbana-Champaign, Illinois. Int. J. Remote Sensing, 8: 2005-2019.
Gould, E.A. and S. Higgs, 2009.
Impact of climate change and other factors on emerging arbovirus diseases. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 103: 109-121.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Mandell, R.B. and R. Flick, 2011.
Rift Valley fever virus: A real bioterror threat. J. Bioterr. Biodef. Vol., 2., (In Prees).Direct Link |
Hilgenboecker, K., P. Hammerstein, P. Schlattmann, A. Telschow and J.H. Werren, 2008.
How many species are infected with Wolbachia
: A statistical analysis of current data. FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 281: 215-220.Direct Link |
McMeniman, C.J., R.V. Lane, B.N. Cass, A.W.C. Fong, M. Sidhu, Y.F. Wang and S.L. O'Neill, 2009.
Stable introduction of a life-shortening Wolbachia
infection into the mosquito Aedes aegypti
. Science, 323: 141-144.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Walker, T., S. Song and S.P. Sinkins, 2009. Wolbachia
in the Culex pipiens
group mosquitoes: Introgression and superinfection. J. Heredity, 100: 192-196.PubMed |
Duron, O., M. Raymond and M. Weill, 2011.
Many compatible Wolbachia
strains coexist within natural populations of Culex pipiens
mosquito. Heredity, 106: 986-993.PubMed |