Effect of Duration of Cooking Lablab purpureus Beans on its
Utilization by Broiler Finishers (4-8 Weeks)
This study was conducted to determine the effect of duration of cooking
of Lablab purpureus beans on the performance, carcass characteristics
and haematological profile of broiler finishers from 4-8 weeks of age.
Seven isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were formulated to contain 50%
of Lablab beans boiled at 100OC for 0.0, 10.0, 20.0,
30.0, 40.0, 50.0 and 60.0 min, respectively together with a control diet
which was a conventional groundnut cake-maize based broiler finisher diet.
This amounted to a total of eight dietary treatments. Each treatment was
replicated three times, in a complete randomized design. There were 25
broiler chicks (4 weeks old) per replicate. Feed and water were given
ad libitum. The experiment lasted for four weeks. Results obtained
show that increasing the duration of cooking of lablab seeds up to 30
min had significant (p<0.05) positive effect on final weight, weight
gain, feed intake, feed efficiency and mortality rate. The performance
of the birds became better as the duration of cooking increased up to
30 min. Beyond that, performance began to decline as the cooking time
increased beyond 30 min. It was observed that birds fed the control diet
performed significantly (p<0.05) better than all the lablab based diets.
to cite this article:
F.O. Abeke, S.O. Ogundipe, A.A. Sekoni, I.A. Adeyinka, O.O. Oni, A. Abeke and I.I. Dafwang, 2008. Effect of Duration of Cooking Lablab purpureus Beans on its
Utilization by Broiler Finishers (4-8 Weeks). Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 3: 85-91.
The nutritive value of Lablab purpureus beans is masked by the
occurrence of antinutritional factors such as haemagglutinin, trypsin
inhibitors, saponins, phytic acids, tannins, alkaloids and polyphenolic
compounds. These toxic components inhibit protein and energy utilization
in poultry birds (Abeke, 2005; Taiwo et al., 2005; Emenalon et
al., 2007; Ani and Omeje, 2007; Igene et al., 2002). Attempts
have been made to reduce or eliminate the toxicity of this legume but
only a few breakthroughs have been made, while other solutions are still
being investigated. Improved utilization of this legume can only be achieved
by the elimination or considerable reduction in the antinutitional factors.
A variety of processing procedures such as soaking, boiling, roasting
or fermentation are commonly used to eliminate the negative effects of
antinutritional factors present in tropical legumes and other vegetable
protein sources (Kperegbeyi and Onwumere, 2007; Ani and Adiegwu, 2005;
Oladunjoye et al., 2005; Akinmutimi, 2003). Little is known about
the effects of these processes on the nutritive value of lablab seeds
and there is scarcity of information on the use of this legume as a component
of poultry diet. This experiment was therefore carried out to determine
the effect of duration of cooking of Lablab purpureus beans on
the performance of broiler finishers from 4-8 weeks.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study was carried out at the poultry research unit of the National
Animal Production Research Institute (NAPRI), Ahmadu Bello University,
Shika, Zaria, Nigeria, from March to May 2003. Shika is geographically
located between latitude 11° 12`N and longitude 7° 33`E at an
altitude of 640 M above sea level (Akpa et al., 2002). Shika is
located about 20 km along the Zaria Sokoto road in Kaduna state, North
Western Nigeria. It has three distinct climatic seasons. These are the
cold dry season (November-February), the hot dry season (March-May) and
the wet season (June-October). The total annual rainfall ranges from 617
to 1365 mm with a 50-year average of 1041 mm Most of the rains fall between
July and September (Bawa et al., 2003b).
The Lablab purpureus beans used for this experiment is the Rongai
variety. It is milky white in colour. They were obtained from the Sabon-gari
market in Zaria, Nigeria. The heating duration to properly process lablab
beans was determined. For this 25 kg lablab bean samples were subjected
to various cooking duration of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min.
For each cooking time 50 L of water was first brought to boiling in a
200 L metal drum container. The batch (25 kg) of lablab bean was then
poured into the boiling water. From this point, the specified time of
cooking was taken. At the end of the period of cooking, the excess water
was drained off and the cooked beans were sun dried for 3 days before
milling. The average ambient temperature for the three days of drying
was 32°C and average relative humidity was 35%. After sun-drying chemical
evaluation of the processed lablab beans was done. Each duration of cooking
represented a treatment (treatment1-7).
Eight isonitrogenous (20.40% crude protein and approximately 3000 kcal
kg-1 metabolizable energy) broiler finisher diets were formulated
(Table 2). Diets 1-7 contained lablab seeds at 50% of the diets. Diet
8, which served, as the control was a standard corn-groundnut cake-based
broiler finisher diet. The only difference between diets one to seven
were the variations in the durations of cooking the lablab seeds used
for the ration. Each of diets 1-8 represented a treatment and each of
the treatment was replicated three times. There were 25 (4 weeks old)
broiler chicks per replicate.
Feed and water were given ad libitum. The experiment lasted for
four weeks. Data were collected on feed consumption, weight gain and mortality.
Before the commencement of the experiment, five birds from each replicate
group were bled using a 2 mL syringe at the wing. This was repeated when
the birds were six and eight weeks old, respectively. These represented
the initial, mid and final blood analysis, respectively (Table 3). The
blood samples were analysed for Packed Cell Volume (PCV) Haemoglobin (Hb)
and Total Protein (TP). At the end of the experiment, five birds representing
the average weight per replicate were fasted but given water overnight
before being slaughtered by cutting the neck at the first cervical vertebrae
for carcass analysis. All data were subjected to the analysis of variance
using the (SAS, 1985) general model procedure. Differences between treatment
means were separated using the Duncans Multiple Range Test (Steel and
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The chemical composition of the cooked lablab beans used for the experiment
(Table 1), the composition of rations fed the performance
of the broiler finishers (Table 2), the carcass analysis (Table 3) and
haematological profile are shown in Table 1-3, respectively.
Results obtained show significant (p<0.05) response of the broiler
finishers to the duration of cooking of the lablab beans. Weight gain
was significantly (p<0.05) better for the 30 min cooked lablab beans
diet than for all other cooking time. It was however significantly (p<0.05)
lower than that of the control diet. A significant (p<0.05) increase
in weight gain was observed as the duration of cooking the lablab beans
increased up to 30 min before declining as the cooking time increased
beyond 30 min.
||Effect of duration of cooking of Lablab purpureus beans on
the performance of broiler finishers
|Means within the same row with different letter superscripts
are significantly (p<0.05) different; SEM = Standard error of the
means. FE = Feed Efficiency; FGR = Feed Gain Ratio; FI = Feed Intake;
IAFE = Income Above Feed Expenses, Calculated at N350 per kg liveweight
||Effect of duration of cooking of Lablab purpureus beans on
carcass composition of broilers (4-8 weeks)
Means within the same column with different letter
superscripts are significantly (p<0.05) different; SEM = Standard
error of the means; LW = Liveweight
||Effect of duration of cooking of Lablab purpureus beans
on PCV, Hb and TP status of broiler finishers (4-8 weeks)
|Means within the same row with different letter superscripts
are significantly (p<0.05) different; SEM = Standard error of the
means; PCV = Packed Cell Volume; Hb = Haemoglobin; TP = Total Protein
This result suggests that some level of cooking is necessary for rendering
lablab purpureus beans safe for incorporation into poultry diets. This level
of cooking seems to be achieved at about 30 min of cooking at 100°C.
It is generally believed that heat treatment
is one of the means of reducing
the antinutritional factors
of legume beans (Akinmutimi, 2007; Tuleun and
Igba, 2007; Akanji and Osho, 2007; Bawa et al
., 2003a, b). This fact
is based on the principle that heat denatures protein and since antinutritional
factors such as antitrypsin, phytic acid
, haemaglutinin and lectins found
in raw lablab beans are protein substances they tend to be denatured by
which can be through cooking, toasting, autoclaving or steaming.
However the rate of denaturation of protein differs from protein to protein.
It seems that antinutritional factors
are denatured more quickly from legume
beans than the real protein content of the beans itself. There seems also
to be a relationship between the duration of cooking and the efficiency
with which the legume beans being cooked is utilized by chickens. There
is therefore the danger of overcooking or undercooking, which will not result
in the desired performance of the birds. Undercooking of the beans may result
in the antinutritional factors
not being properly destroyed while overcooking
may result in the denaturation of the real protein content of the beans.
This study is focused on moist cooking as a means of rendering lablab purpureus
beans safe for incorporation into broiler finishers` diets to achieve better
performance. However other methods such as toasting, autoclaving, steaming
or soaking need to be explored. Ogundipe et al
. (2003) had earlier
reported increase in weight of pullet chicks fed 30 min cooked lablab purpureus
beans meal diets as opposed to decline in weight for those fed raw lablab
beans meal diets. According to the author, cooking lablab beans for 30 min
before incorporation into pullets` diets gave the best result in terms of
growth and feed efficiency. The author reported that diets, which had lablab
beans, cooked below or above 30 min at 100°C gave significantly (p<0.05)
This implies that a minimum of 30 min is required to cook lablab seeds
at 100°C to effectively eliminate or reduce to the barest minimum
most of the antinutritional factors in the beans such that poultry birds
can utilize them efficiently. According to Bawa et al. (2003a),
about 76% destruction of typsin inhibitor, which is the major antinutritional
factor in lablab seed, is achieved in 30 min cooking at 100°C. This
reduced level of antinutritional factors, according to the authors is
safe for incorporating lablab beans into diets of monogastric animals.
Cooking time of below 30 min may imply that a lot of the antinutritional
factors still remain in the beans and may exert their negative influence
on protein utilization by the birds. In the same vein, cooking the seeds
beyond 30 min could have resulted in the denaturation of the protein and
hence reduction in their bioavailability to the birds. Bawa et al.
(2003b) also reported that there were no significant (p>0.05) differences
for final live-weight, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio
and feed cost per kilogram gain when lablab seeds cooked for 30 min was
compared to 45 min cooking before being incorporated in weaker pig diets
at the same level of inclusion. This indicates that there is no need to
cook beyond 30 min so as to save cost on fuel. Etuk (2001), Amaefule and
Onwudike (2000) and Abeke et al. (2003) have all worked on a number
of unconventional legume seeds to replace the conventional groundnut and
soyabean cakes in broiler diets. They have all reported that heat treatment
of these seeds for at least 30 min before incorporation into diets resulted
in significantly (p<0.05) better performance of the birds than those
heated for less time period.
Feed intake was found to increase significantly (p<0.05) as the duration
of cooking of the lablab beans increased (Table 1). This could be attributed
to increased palatability and better utilisation of the feed as the level
of antinutritional factors was reduced. Balogun et al. (2001) and
Ani and Okeke (2003) have reported better feed intake in broilers fed
well-processed soyabean and pigeon pea diets, respectively. They argued
that palatability is enhanced by cooking the seeds for at least 30 min
because the pleasant aroma of cooked beans can be perceived at that duration
of cooking. Bawa et al. (2003b) also reported improved feed intake
in weaker pigs as the duration of cooking of the lablab seeds used in
their diets increased.
Feed conversion efficiency was significantly (p<0.05) better for the
broilers fed the 30 min cooked lablab beans diets than for all other diets
except for the control diet which gave the best feed conversion efficiency
(Table 1). This result agrees with the report of Amaefule and Onwudike
(2000) and Ja`afaru (2001) who reported increased feed conversion efficiency
in broilers fed well cooked pigeon pea and lablab beans meal as opposed
to poor feed conversion efficiency observed when the raw forms of the
legumes were fed in the diets. The authors believed that the destruction
of the antinutritional factors in the legume as a result of adequate cooking
might have enhanced their nutrient status and availability for use by
the birds. Negative interference by antinutritional factors such as trypsin
inhibitors has been a major problem in the efficient utilization of protein
contained in tropical legume seeds. Cooking the beans for 30 min was found
to have reduced these factors to a level that the birds were able to utilize
the feedstuff efficiently.
Feed cost (N/kg feed, N/bird) and total cost (N/bird) increased significantly
(p<0.05) as the duration of cooking of the lablab seeds increased.
This is due to the cost of fuel and the level of feed consumption of the
birds. However, feed cost (N/kg gain) was significantly (p<0.05) better
for treatment 4, which contained lablab seed cooked for 30 min than for
all the other treatments. This implies that the better efficiency of feed
utilization observed in the birds fed this diet, coupled with the relative
cheap prices of the diet may have resulted in this better feed cost per
kilogramme gain. The significantly (p>0.05) higher feed cost per kg
gain observed for birds that were fed raw lablab seed diets compared to
those fed the cooked lablab seed diets could be attributed to the poor
rate of conversion of the raw lablab seed protein into body tissues.
The cost per unit weight gain of broilers fed cooked lablab based diets
was significantly (p<0.05) lower than those on the groundnut cake diets.
This suggests that the use of cooked lablab seeds to replace groundnut
cake in broiler finisher diets may result in savings in the cost of production.
Income above feed expenses was found to be significantly (p<0.05)
better for the birds fed the 30 min cooked lablab seed diet than for all
the other treatment including the control (Table 1). The reason for this
is because lablab beans are far cheaper than groundnut cake. According
to Ogundipe et al. (2003), the main objective of inclusion of well-processed
unconventional grain legume in poultry diets is to lower feed cost and
increase profit margin.
There was a significantly (p<0.05) reduction in percent mortality
as the duration of cooking of the lablab beans increased. This result
agrees with the observation of Amaefule and Onwudike (2000) who reported
reduce mortality when cooked pigeon pea beans was incorporated in broiler
diets as opposed to when the raw samples of the seeds was fed in the diets.
This could be due to reduction of the antinutritional factors which are
harmful to poultry birds as the cooking duration increased..
Results obtained for the carcass analysis indicate significant (p<0.05)
positive responses for live weight, slaughter weight, defeathered weight,
dressing percentage and weights of the breast, thigh, wing, back, neck,
leg and head. There were increases in these body parts as the duration
of cooking of lablab seeds increased up to 30 min before declining as
the duration of cooking continued to increase beyond 30 min (Table 2).
However, results obtained for birds fed the control diet were significantly
(p<0.05) higher for these parameters than for those fed the lablab
The pancreas, liver, spleen and the heart were found to be significantly
(p<0.05) heavier in birds fed the raw lablab diet than for those fed
the control and cooked lablab diets. This agrees with the report of Omeje
(1999) and Ogundipe et al. (2003) that hypertrophy of these organs
may occur as a result of their attempt to increase protein availability
or in the process of detoxifying the antinutritional factors in the body
of the birds. This hyperactivity of the organs is a normal body reaction
to counteract the short fall in body nutrient supply, especially protein
(Oladele, 2000). Pancreatic hypertrophy is particularly observed in birds
feeding on low or poor quality protein diets. Pancreas is the site for
the production of trypsin, the enzyme responsible for protein breakdown.
Therefore any short fall in protein supply in the body activates the pancreas
to produce more trypsin. This increase in their activity results in the
enlargement of the organ. The high level of trypsin inhibitor from the
raw lablab seed diets may result in an inefficient digestion of the protein
in the feed. As a result, the pancreas responds by increasing its activity
in trypsin enzyme synthesis to meet the short fall. The liver may also
have been over tasked in its attempt to detoxify many of the toxic compounds
found in raw legume seeds such as tannins, phytic acids and alkaloids.
These increased activities may result in the enlargement of the organs
as is noticed in the birds fed the raw lablab seed based diets. There
were decreases in percent weights of the heart, liver, pancreas and the
spleen as the duration of cooking of the lablab beans increased (Table 2).
Analysis of the haematological parameters show a significant (p<0.05)
response of the birds to the various cooking time applied for processing
the lablab seeds (Table 3). The final packed cell volume haemoglobin and
total protein in the blood increased significantly (p<0.05) as the
duration of cooking of the lablab seeds increased up to 30 min of cooking
the lablab seeds. This is an indication of not only a better nutrient
status for the birds as the lablab seed is properly cooked but also a
better health status. The birds fed diets containing lablab seeds cooked
for at least 30 min and the control diet gave significantly (p<0.05)
better TP, PCV and Hb in their blood than those fed diets containing raw
lablab seed and lablab seeds cooked below 30 min. This implies that the
lablab seeds are better utilized and assimilated into the blood stream
for use by the birds when the seeds are cooked for at least 30 min. The
significant finding of this study is that Lablab purpureus beans
are a good source of protein for broiler finishers. However the beans
need to be cooked for at least 30 min in water at 100°C before broilers
finishers can efficiently utilize them.
From the results obtained in this study it can be concluded that lablab
purpureus beans can be processed by cooking for 30 min before being incorporated
in the diets of broiler finishers for optimum performance.
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