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Research Article
 

Heterosis for Yield and Yield Components in Basmati Rice



Aditya Kumar, Surendra Singh and Sumer Pal Singh
 
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ABSTRACT

Basmati rice varieties are well known for their pleasant aroma and good grain and cooking quality characteristics. These varieties are in general, poor yielders. The yield potential of basmati varieties can be enhanced by the exploitation of heterosis as also reflected by the huge success of PRH 10. Keeping in view, the significance of heterosis, 28 F1 S excluding reciprocals were developed using 8x8 diallel. Mid parent, better parent and standard heterosis were estimated for yield and its components. Crosses Pant Sugandh Dhan 15 x UPR 2845-6-3-1, Pant Sugandh Dhan 15 x UPR 3003-11-1-1 and Pant Sugandh Dhan 17 x UPR 3003-11-1-1 had shown high standard heterosis for grain yield (309.53, 244.45 and 255.56%), biological yield (158.47, 150 and 124.58%) and for harvest index (58.6, 37.8 and 58.4%).

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  How to cite this article:

Aditya Kumar, Surendra Singh and Sumer Pal Singh, 2012. Heterosis for Yield and Yield Components in Basmati Rice. Asian Journal of Agricultural Research, 6: 21-29.

DOI: 10.3923/ajar.2012.21.29

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajar.2012.21.29
 
Received: October 10, 2011; Accepted: December 20, 2011; Published: February 23, 2012



INTRODUCTION

In plant breeding programme, exploitation of heterosis is vital and considered to be one of the greatest outstanding achievements. The F1 hybrids can be exploited commercially and/or can be used for selecting promising recombinants in the subsequent generations to release the best variety when it attained homozygosity. Heterosis in rice was first reported by Jones (1926). The expression of heterosis varied with the crosses and also with characters (Lokaprakash et al., 1992). To know the potentiality of hybrids, the magnitude and direction of heterosis are important (Singh et al., 1995). The magnitude of heterosis depends on the degree of genetic distinctiveness of the parental lines used (Akhter et al., 2003) while, both positive and negative heterosis is useful for crop improvement, depending on objectives of the breeding. In general, positive heterosis is desired for yield and negative heterosis for earliness (Nuruzzaman et al., 2002). The hybrid vigour is the manifestation of heterosis which is percent increase (positive) or decrease (negative) in the average performance of hybrid or cross over the mid-parent (relative heterosis), better parent (heterobeltiosis) and the check variety (standard/useful heterosis). Basmati rice, because of its unique aroma, flavour and cooking quality is the pride of India. The cultivation of basmati rice is very economical for farmers, but the yield potential of present varieties is very poor. Among the hybrids released, Pusa RH10 is the world’s first and only superfine grained aromatic rice hybrid. So, to increase the number of high yielding hybrids with basmati quality, it is important to know the heterotic potential of crosses between different basmati parents. Keeping this in view, 8x8 half diallel of basmati rice varieties was attempted and mid parent heterosis, heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis were estimated.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The material was comprised of eight basmati rice varieties namely; Pant Sugandh Dhan 15, Basmati 370, Type 3, Pant Sugandh Dhan 17, Pusa Basmati 1, Pusa Sugandh 4, UPR 2845-6-3-1 and UPR 3003-11-1-1. The popular cultivar Pusa Basmati 1 was also used as check. The 36 entries (28 F1s and eight parents) were grown in a randomised block design with two replications along with check at the Dr. N.E. Borlaug Crop Research Centre of G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar (Uttarakhand). A single seedling per hill was transplanted at a spacing of 20x15 cm. The F1 S and parents were planted in a two rows plot of 2 m length. Data were collected from 5 random but competitive plants, leaving border plant on each side of rows. Observations were recorded on 16 agronomical and quality traits viz., days to 50% flowering, plant height, flag leaf length, flag leaf breath, panicle length, panicles per plant, grain number per panicle, 1000-grain weight, grain yield per plant (EY), biological yield per plant (BY), Harvest Index (HI), Kernel length, Kernel breath, Kernel L/B ratio, amylose content and alkali spreading value. The mid parent heterosis, heterobeltiosis and standard heterosis were worked out as suggested by Hays et al. (1955) and Fonseca and Patterson (1968). However, data of standard heterosis only is given in the manuscript.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The extent of heterosis depends on the genetic diversity between parents and the specific combining ability of parents viz., the extent of non-additive genetic variance. The crosses showing high degree of heterosis along with significant specific combining ability (SCA) and good general combining ability (GCA) are expected to yield superior hybrids (Bagheri et al., 2008). In present study apart from measuring the extent of exploitable level of heterosis, evaluation was also done for quality and basmati standards of the hybrids.

For days to 50% flowering, crosses Pant Sugandh Dhan 17x Pusa Sugandh 4 and Pusa Sugandh 4 x UPR 2845-6-3-1 showed significant negative relative heterosis, better parent heterosis and standard heterosis over check while crosses Pusa Sugandh 4 x UPR 3003-11-1-1 and Pusa Basmati 1 x Pusa Sugandh 4 showed significant negative relative heterosis and better parent heterosis as reported by Selvaraj et al. (2011) for other varieties (Table 1). Days to 50% flowering of two crosses viz., Pant Sugandh Dhan 17 x Pusa Sugandh 4 and Pusa Sugandh 4 x UPR 2845-6-3-1 (-7.95, -7.01) were significantly different from check and can be used for developing early maturing hybrids as observed by Dwivedi et al. (1998) for other parents. For plant height, cross Type 3x UPR 3003-11-1-1 showed significant negative estimate of relative heterosis (-28.87), better parent heterosis (-40.13) and standard heterosis (-22.91) which indicated that this cross can be used for breeding dwarf hybrid. Cross Basmati 370 x Type 3 showed significant negative value of mid parent and better parent heterosis.

Cross Pusa Basmati 1xPusa Sugandh 4 showed significant positive estimate of relative, better parent and standard heterosis over check for flag leaf length and most of the crosses showed significant positive standard heterosis. This cross showing significantly high value of standard heterosis (102.70) can be utilised to develop more productive hybrids because flag leaf length and breadth contribute significantly in total photosynthate.

Crosses Pant Sugandh Dhan 15 x Basmati 370, Pant Sugandh Dhan 15 x Type 3, Pant Sugandh Dhan 15 x Pusa Basmati 1, Basmati 370 x Pant Sugandh Dhan 17 and Basmati 370 x Pusa Basmati 1 showed significant positive estimate of relative heterosis, better parent heterosis and standard heterosis for panicle length. However, crosses Basmati 370 x UPR 2845-6-3-1 (13.17), Type 3 x UPR 2845-6-3-1 (12.84), Pant Sugandh Dhan 17 x UPR 2845-6-3-1 (12.50) and Pusa Basmati 1 x UPR 2845-6-3-1 (12.33) showed significant positive value of standard heterosis. These cross combinations can be utilised for development of hybrids having longer panicles. More number of effective panicles per plant is an essential trait for developing more productive hybrids, in our study all hybrids except Pant Sugandh Dhan 15 x Pant Sugandh Dhan 17, Type 3 x Pusa Sugandh 4 and Pant Sugandh Dhan 17 x UPR 2845-6-3-1 showed high value of relative, better parent and standards heterosis for panicles per plant (Liang et al., 2003).

Crosses, Pant Sugandh Dhan 15 x Pant Sugandh Dhan 17, Pant Sugandh Dhan 15 x Pusa Basmati 1, Pant Sugandh Dhan 15 x UPR 2845-6-3-1, Type 3 x Pusa Basmati 1, Pant Sugandh Dhan 17 x Pusa Sugandh 4 and UPR 2845-6-3-1 x UPR 3003 -11-1-1 showed significant positive estimate of relative heterosis, better parent heterosis and standard heterosis over the check for grain number per panicle. Test weight is an essential trait of basmati variety which ranged from 20-26 g. Crosses, Pant Sugandh Dhan 15x Pusa Sugandh 4, Pant Sugandh Dhan 15x UPR 2845-6-3-1, Pant Sugandh Dhan 15 x UPR 3003-11-1-1, Pusa Sugandh 4 x UPR 2845-6-3-1 and Pusa Sugandh 4 x UPR 3003-11-1-1 showed significant positive value of standard heterosis (Table 1) and also the mean value within the range of 20-26 g as observed by Suresh and Anbuselvam (2006) for other variety.

Out of 28 crosses, 23 crosses (Table 1) showed significant positive standard heterosis for grain yield per plant. This indicates that materials used in the study were quite diverse and all 23 crosses can be used for developing good hybrids as reported by Tiwari et al. (2011a) for other parents. All 28 crosses showed significant standard heterosis for biological yield per plant. Crosses having high grain yield per plant (economic yield per plant) and high biological yield per plant indicate that these crosses may be utilized in developing high yield potential hybrids (Akinwale et al., 2011). For harvest index also 20 out of 28 crosses showed significant and positive standard heterosis. Crosses Pant Sugandh Dhan 15 x UPR 2845-6-3-1, Pant Sugandh Dhan 15 x UPR 3003-11-1-1 and Pant Sugandh Dhan 17 x UPR 3003-11-1-1 had shown high standard heterosis for grain yield (309.53, 244.45 and 255.56%) (Tiwari et al., 2011a, b), biological yield (158.47, 150 and 124.58%) and for harvest index (58.6, 37.8 and 58.4%) which further support the concept that high biological yield leads to high economical yield and finally high harvest index (Bansal et al., 2000).

Cross, Pant Sugandh Dhan 15 x Pusa Sugandh 4 showed the significant value for mid parent and better parent heterosis while crosses Pant Sugandh Dhan 15x Basmati 370, Pant Sugandh Dhan 15 x Type 3, Basmati 370 x UPR 2845-6-3-1 and Basmati 370 x UPR 3003-11-1-1 showed significant relative heterosis for kernel length an important quality trait of basmati rice. For kernel breadth, the cross Type 3 x UPR 2845-6-3-1 (17.65) showed significant positive value of standard heterosis while crosses Pant Sugandh Dhan 15 x UPR 3003-11-1-1 and Pusa Sugandh 4 x UPR 3003-11-1-1 showed significant positive value of relative and better parent heterosis. Crosses Basmati 370 x UPR 2845-6-3-1 (22.32) showed significant positive value of mid-parent heterosis for L/B ratio.

Table 1: Mean value and standard heterosis percent for yield and its components in 28 basmati rice hybrids
Image for - Heterosis for Yield and Yield Components in Basmati Rice
Image for - Heterosis for Yield and Yield Components in Basmati Rice
Image for - Heterosis for Yield and Yield Components in Basmati Rice
*, **: Significant at 5 and 1% probability level, respectively. Sh: Standard heterosis over the check 

For amylose content, some crosses showed significant negative value of standard heterosis and better parent heterosis while crosses Pant Sugandh Dhan 17x UPR 3003-11-1-1, Pusa Basmati 1 x UPR 3003-11-1-1, Pusa Sugandh 4x UPR 3003-11-1-1, Pant Sugandh Dhan 15x UPR 2845-6-3- 1, UPR 2845-6-3-1x UPR 3003 -11-1-1 and Pant Sugandh Dhan 15x UPR 3003-11-1-1 showed significant positive value of relative heterosis. Amylose content in basmati rice is very important for the fluffiness of rice and it should range from 20-25%. No cross showed the significant positive deviation of amylose content from the check which means that the amylose content in crosses was in permissible limit. For alkali spreading value not a single cross showed significant deviation from the check while cross Basmati 370x UPR 2845-6-3-1 showed positive significant value of mid parent heterosis (20.99) and the better parent heterosis (20.03).

The hybrids which are likely to be released for commercial scale should surpass the yield level of locally cultivated superior variety/hybrid (Swaminathan et al., 1972). Hence, in practical breeding programme, standard heterosis would alone be taken into consideration for selection of hybrids rather than mid and better parental heterosis. Out of 28 hybrids and 16 characters as a whole (Table 2) most of the crosses showed significant value of standard heterosis for grain yield/plant, biological yield/plant and Harvest Index (HI) and also these crosses showed significant value of specific combining ability for these traits.

Table 2: Crosses showing significant value of standard heterosis for different characters over check
Image for - Heterosis for Yield and Yield Components in Basmati Rice
Image for - Heterosis for Yield and Yield Components in Basmati Rice

Most of the crosses did not show significant deviation for quality traits from the standard check variety which means that these crosses can be utilised for the development of hybrids with the excellent basmati quality. So, the crosses showed significant value for standard heterosis and also the significant value of sca can be used for the development of the hybrids.

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