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Research Journal of Medicinal Plants
  Year: 2017 | Volume: 11 | Issue: 2 | Page No.: 68-76
DOI: 10.3923/rjmp.2017.68.76
 
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Improvement of Anti-malarial Artemisinin and Essential Oil Production in Response to Optimization of Irrigation and Nitrogen Supply to Artemisia annua L. Plant

Amaal Abd-Elkhalek Mohamed Heikal

Abstract:
Background and Objective: Malaria is a major health problem in many developing countries. Artemisinin-based combination therapies are the highly effective against the most prevalent and lethal malaria parasites. Artemisia annua plant is the only source of anti-malarial drug artemisinin. There is no research effort with respect to effect of irrigation and chemical fertilization on this modern medicinal plant in Egyptian agriculture. The objective of study was to describe how plant biomass, essential oil production and anti-malarial artemisinin accumulation can be enhanced through irrigation and nitrogen fertilization. Materials and Methods: A field experiment was carried out during 2012 and 2013 seasons to determine biomass yield, essential oil and artemisinin content of German Artemisia under water stress (2, 3 and 4 weeks irrigation intervals) and nitrogen fertilization (30, 45 and 60 kg N/fed = 0.42 ha). Irrigation intervals and nitrogen rates were laid out in strip-plot design with three replicates. The obtained data were used to determine optimal irrigation interval and nitrogen rate. Statistical analysis was performed based on a strip-plot arrangement in a randomized complete block design. Results: Prolonging irrigation intervals up to 4 weeks significantly decreased (p<0.05) biomass yield, essential oil content, artemisinin content, total carbohydrates content and leaves minerals content. Nitrogen nutrition enhanced biomass yield, artemisinin content; total carbohydrates and leaves mineral contents up to 60 kg N. Applying 45 kg N under 2 weeks irrigation interval produced the highest essential oil content, while prolonging irrigation intervals to 3 weeks and applying 60 kg N significantly increased (p<0.05) artemisinin production. Camphor, Artemisia ketone and 1,8-cineole were the major constituents of the essential oil profile. Conclusion: Artemisia annua can be grown as an economically viable crop under Egyptian conditions. Water stress and extensive nitrogen fertilization had adverse effect on essential oil production. Moderate water stress enhanced artemisinin accumulation in leaves of artemisia plants.
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How to cite this article:

Amaal Abd-Elkhalek Mohamed Heikal , 2017. Improvement of Anti-malarial Artemisinin and Essential Oil Production in Response to Optimization of Irrigation and Nitrogen Supply to Artemisia annua L. Plant. Research Journal of Medicinal Plants, 11: 68-76.

DOI: 10.3923/rjmp.2017.68.76

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=rjmp.2017.68.76

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