The two wild rice species, Oryza rufipogon and O. nivara, which inhabit Thailand and the Lao PDR, are threatened with the loss of their natural habitats. The losses are primarily attributable to human intervention. Before this process advances, it is crucial to obtain basic information on the genetic variations of these species, so important knowledge about the current status of genetic variability. In this study, genetic variation within and between fourteen natural populations of the two populations from Thailand and Lao PDR was investigated at the DNA level by analysis of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) mediate molecular markers. The results illustrated that wild rice from Thailand carried deletion (D) type ORF100, but deletion and non-deletion type (ND) were found in wild rice samples from the Lao PDR. Five different plastid subtypes (7C7A, 6C8A, 7C6A, 6C7A and 9C7A) were found in the collected samples. Both polymorphism and pattern of distribution of p-SINE1-r2 in the two wild rice species were found among the populations. These data indicated that genetic variation existed in these natural populations of wild rice, suggesting that the strategies should be developed that are conducive to the conservation of wild rice in its natural environment.