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Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences
  Year: 2008 | Volume: 11 | Issue: 2 | Page No.: 244-249
DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2008.244.249
 
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Hydrochemical Processes and Metal Composition of Ain Umm-Sabah Natural Spring in Al-Hassa Oasis Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

Ahmed A. Al-Naeem

Abstract:
This study was carried out to determine the hydro-chemical processes and the metal concentration of spring water to evaluate its suitability for irrigation and other purposes. A total of 10 water samples were collected from Ain Umm Sabah at different times and from different locations from the spring basin. EC (dS m-1), pH, temperature, total cations (Na, Ca, Mg, K) and anions [Cl, CO3, HCO3, SO4, NO3, Fluoride (F)] were determined. Some trace and heavy metals (Al, As, Ba, B, Br, Mo, Ni, Si, Cd, Cu, V, Fe, I, Pb, Mn, Zn, Sr, Se, Sb, La and Se were determined. The Spring water is classified as C4S2 (high salinity with medium sodicity problem water). Chloride (Cl) and nitrate (NO3) concentrations were higher than the permissible limits according to World Health Organization Standards. The Ain Umm Sabah water is Na-Cl dominant water and can create soil sodicity problems and cause Na and Cl ion toxicity to plants if used for irrigation of sensitive crops. The spring water is under-saturated (negative SI) with respect to calcite, dolomite, gypsum, anhydrite, halite, fluorite and aragonite and oversaturated (positive SI) with respect to goethite, siderite and hematite minerals. The concentration of all the estimated trace metals was within the permissible limits for its use as drinking water and other purposes according to WHO. Since the spring water contains high concentration of NO3, hence can not be used for drinking purposes without prior treatment. The study findings suggest careful use and pumping of water from the spring. Further studies are required on regular basis to monitor the depletion in the spring water level and the temporal change in water salinity.
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How to cite this article:

Ahmed A. Al-Naeem , 2008. Hydrochemical Processes and Metal Composition of Ain Umm-Sabah Natural Spring in Al-Hassa Oasis Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 11: 244-249.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2008.244.249

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjbs.2008.244.249

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