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Pharmacologia
  Year: 2013 | Volume: 4 | Issue: 4 | Page No.: 285-300
 
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Analgesic Effects of an Ethanol Extract of the Fruits of Xylopia aethiopica and Xylopic Acid in Murine Models of Pain: Possible Mechanism(s)

Eric Woode, Elvis O. Ameyaw, George K. Ainooson, Wonder K.M. Abotsi, Eric Boakye-Gyasi and James Oppong Kyekyeku

Abstract:
Background: The present study examined the possible mechanism(s) of analgesic action of the ethanol extract of the fruits of Xylopia aethiopica (XAE) and its kaurene diterpene constituent, xylopic acid (XA). Methods: Naloxone (2 mg kg-1 i.p.), L-NAME (10 kg-1 i.p.), ondansetron (0.5 mg kg-1 i.p.), theophylline (5 mg kg-1 i.p.), glibenclamide (8 mg kg-1 i.p.), yohimbine (3 mg kg-1 i.p.) and atropine (5 mg kg-1 i.p.) were used to antagonise the anti-nociceptive effects of XAE (100 mg kg-1) and XA (30 mg kg-1) in the formalin test, with morphine as a control. The mechanism was further determined in glutamate-, epinephrine-, capsaicin-, bradykinin- and prostaglandin E2-induced nociception test models. XA was further examined for its μ-opioid receptor (MOR) binding in a [3H]diprenorphine ([3H] DPN) competition binding assay using membranes derived from C6μ cells. Results: The anti-nociceptive effects of XAE, XA and morphine were blocked after naloxone, L-NAME, ondansetron, theophylline and atropine. The effects of XA were also blocked by yohimbine but not glibenclamide. XAE and XA inhibited nociceptive behaviour induced with capsaicin and L-glutamic acid. Additionally, XAE and XA produced anti-hyperalgesic effects in the epinephrine-, bradykinin- and prostaglandin E2-induced hyperalgesia tests. XA and DAMGO were able to competitively displace the binding of [3H]DPN from the MOR but XA appears to bind to two different sites. Conclusion: These results suggest that the anti-nociceptive effects of XAE and XA are mediated through the opioidergic, adenosinergic, muscarinic cholinergic, NO/cGMP, serotoninergic (i.e., via 5-HT3 receptors) pathways. XA additionally acted on the α2- adrenergic system.
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How to cite this article:

Eric Woode, Elvis O. Ameyaw, George K. Ainooson, Wonder K.M. Abotsi, Eric Boakye-Gyasi and James Oppong Kyekyeku, 2013. Analgesic Effects of an Ethanol Extract of the Fruits of Xylopia aethiopica and Xylopic Acid in Murine Models of Pain: Possible Mechanism(s). Pharmacologia, 4: 285-300.

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pharmacologia.2013.285.300

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