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Journal of Applied Sciences
  Year: 2008 | Volume: 8 | Issue: 18 | Page No.: 3096-3107
DOI: 10.3923/jas.2008.3096.3107
 
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Temporal and Spatial Variations of Nitrate Levels in Traditional Water-Supply Wells in the Area of Buyo, Cote d`Ivoire

Marie-Jeanne A. Ohou, Veronique Mambo, Bernard O. Yapo, M. Arsene Seka, Abiba S. Tidou, Bamory Kamagate and Pascal V. Houenou

Abstract:
In this study, water nitrate concentration, pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) were monitored in 34 water-supply wells, located in the three main districts (Buyo cité, Tchemasso and Buyo provisoire) of the city of Buyo (Côte d`Ivoire, West Africa) and in two villages (Gbili and Logbozoa) around. Each water-supply well was sampled in September and October 2004 and every other month from January 2005 to November 2005. Other variables like depth of the wells and precipitations were also considered over the same period. The nitrate concentrations in the 34 wells ranged from 1.83 to 412 mg L-1. Most contaminated wells were found in the district Buyo cité and in the two villages. All wells at Buyo cité, 8 out of 10 at Gbili and 4 out of 10 at Logbozoa, exceeded at least once the WHO limit (50 mg NO3 L-1) for drinking water, indicating that populations are at risk in the study area. In contrast, none of the wells reached the WHO limit in Tchemasso and in Buyo provisoire. Pit latrines, inappropriate waste disposal and insufficient well maintenance were suspected to be responsible for the high nitrate concentrations in well water within the study area. It has been found that each contaminated well had a nitrate source in its close environment that permanently released nitrate in the well water, the recharge water exerting a dilution effect. An appropriately designed education programme directed to the populations should allow improving and protecting well water quality in the study area. The principal component analysis of the data revealed that nitrate, temperature, TDS and conductivity are higher in shallow wells than in deep wells.
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How to cite this article:

Marie-Jeanne A. Ohou, Veronique Mambo, Bernard O. Yapo, M. Arsene Seka, Abiba S. Tidou, Bamory Kamagate and Pascal V. Houenou, 2008. Temporal and Spatial Variations of Nitrate Levels in Traditional Water-Supply Wells in the Area of Buyo, Cote d`Ivoire. Journal of Applied Sciences, 8: 3096-3107.

DOI: 10.3923/jas.2008.3096.3107

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jas.2008.3096.3107

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