Study of Vertical and Transverse Cephalic Indices in Three Ethnic Groups of North-eastern Nigerian Origin
Cephalometry is a branch of anthropometry through which cephalic index is estimated. Cephalometric studies on head types are useful in paediatrics, forensic medicine, plastic surgery, oral surgery and diagnostic comprehension between patient and normal populations. In Nigeria, literature is lacking on head shapes by vertical and transverse cephalic indices, this study was therefore undertaken to document the different head types in three ethnic groups of North-Eastern Nigeria residing in Gombe. Cephalic length, width and height in Fulani, Tangale and Tera ethnic groups were linearly measured in a total of 322 (152 males and 170 females) 18-40 years old subjects. The result revealed no significant difference in cephalic indices, except in Fulani males, where transverse cephalic index was higher than in the other ethnic groups (p<0.05) and in Tangale females where all the cephalic indices were higher than in other ethnic groups (p<0.05). Head types based on the indices in males and females from all the three ethnic groups are dominantly High Hypsicephalic and Acrocephalic and rarely Chamaecephalic and Tapeinocephalic according to vertical and transverse cephalic indices, respectively. The study revealed that the three ethnic groups share differences on the basis of cephalic indices and share some similarities on the basis of head types and that Nigerians share similarities with Sri Lankans base on their head types.
to cite this article:
M.B. Maina, O. Mahdi and G.D. Kalayi, 2011. Study of Vertical and Transverse Cephalic Indices in Three Ethnic Groups of North-eastern Nigerian Origin. Trends in Applied Sciences Research, 6: 1280-1286.
Received: March 12, 2011;
Accepted: July 15, 2011;
Published: September 06, 2011
Anthropometry is a field of science that deals with physical measurements of
body dimensions to study human variations and through which the health status
of a population can be determined (De Onis and Habicht,
1996; Schoenbaum et al., 1995). Anthropometric
techniques aid in the study of nutritional intake, energy consumption, malnutrition
and body composition (Al-Rewashdeh and Al-Dmoor, 2010;
Khattak et al., 2002; Khandare
et al., 2008; Eboh and Boye, 2005; Hassan
et al., 2008). They also aid in SMS satisfaction (Balakrishnan
and Yeow, 2008) identification of body remains, plastic surgery, archaeology
and in differentiation between people of different race and sex (Heidari
et al., 2006; Umar et al., 2006).
The most widely used anthropometric methods in the differentiation of race and
ethnicity is cephalometry through which head dimensions can be determined. The
most important of cephalometric dimension are height and width of head that
they used in cephalic index determination (Vojdani et
al., 2009). It has been reported that factors like race, ethnicity,
genetic interactions, traditions, nutrition, environment and climate influences
head types (Rexhepi and Vjollca, 2008). Head types can
be dolicocephalic, mesocephalic or brachycephalic based on horizontal cephalic
index; Chamaecephalic, Orthocephalic or Hypsicephalic based on vertical cephalic
index; or Tapeinocephalic, metriocephalic or acrocephalic based on transverse
cephalic index (Rexhepi and Vjollca, 2008). Various
studies had documented head types based on horizontal cephalic indices (Raji
et al., 2010; Garba et al., 2008;
Shah and Jadhav, 2004; Oladipo et
al., 2010; Golalipour et al., 2003; Golalipour,
2006) few studies however were done on head types by vertical and transverse
cephalic indices (Rexhepi and Vjollca, 2008; Ilayperuma,
2011) this study was therefore designed to determine the head types in a
north-eastern Nigerian population by vertical and transverse cephalic index
classifications. The objective is to compare this study with other similar studies.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Subjects: This study was conducted on 18-40 years normal randomly selected Fulanis, Tangales and Teras of Gombe state region of North-Eastern Nigeria, from March to June 2011. Gombe State lies in the centre of the North-East geopolitical zone of Nigeria. It shares a common boundary with all the other states in the zone, namely, Adamawa, Bauchi, Borno, Taraba and Yobe. A total of 322 subjects (152 males and 170 females) were used. Prior and informed consent was obtained from the subjects and the study was carried out after obtaining clearance from the ethical committee of Federal Medical Centre Gombe, Nigeria.
Cephalic measurements: Cephalic measurements were taken after careful
palpation with subjects in a relaxed condition with head in the anatomical position
using standard anatomical landmarks (Lobo et al.,
2005). Using a spreading calliper three head measurements (cephalic length,
width and height) were measured as described below:
||Cephalic length (linear length from glabella to inion)
||Cephalic width (linear length between parietal eminences)
||Cephalic height (length from nasion to gnation)
Vertical and transverse cephalic indices according to Martin and Saller cited
in Rexhepi and Vjollca (2008) as shown in Table
1 was determined by:
|| Range of head shapes according to the Martin-Saller scale
Statistical analysis: Data obtained from the subjects were recorded on a recording sheet and then transferred into SPSS 11.0 for analysis. The means obtained from this study were subjected to Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) for assessment of statistical significance and linearity with a probability level of less than 0.05 considered significant.
Cephalometric values and indices: The minimum values of vertical cephalic indices in males and females of Fulani, Tangale and Tera were 62.77 and 61.85; 66.66 and 62.36 and 68.55 and 63.02, respectively while the maximum values were 94.79 and 91.42; 90.55 and 94.41 and 88.76 and 90.00, respectively (Table 2, 3). The minimum values of transverse cephalic index in males and females of Fulani; Tangale and Tera were 78.68 and 79.35; 88.60 and 87.21 and 92.85 and 85.51, respectively. The result showed no significant difference in means of vertical cephalic index among the three ethnic groups in males (Table 2). Fulani males however had higher transverse cephalic index (109.97±11.93) than Tangales (103.54±7.35) and Teras (105.90±6.01) (p<0.005). In females, the means of vertical cephalic index (79.74±6.31) and that of transverse cephalic index (104.44±10.23) in Tangales were higher than those of Fulani (74.50±5.81 and 97.91±8.62) and Teras (75.83±6.51 and 100.25±9.31), respectively (p<0.005) (Table 3). The result also showed no significant difference in total mean cephalic indices between males and females, except in transverse cephalic index where males had 106.43±9.12 while females had 101.17±9.83 (p<0.005).
Morphological classification of head: According to vertical and transverse cephalic indices the rarest head types in both males and females of the three ethnic groups were Chamaecephaly and Tapeinocephaly, respectively (Table 4), while the dominant head types were High Hypsicephaly and Acrocephaly, respectively. Orthocephalic and metriocephalic head types, respectively were also found to be rare in Tangales and Teras.
||Means of vertical and transverse cephalic indices and their
minimum and maximum values in males among the three ethnic groups
|***indicating that the value of TCI is extremely higher in
Fulanis than in the other ethnic groups (p<0.005)
||Means of vertical and transverse cephalic indices and their
minimum and maximum values in females among the three ethnic groups
|***indicating that the value of VCI and TCI are significantly
higher in Tangales than in the other ethnic groups (p<0.05)
|| Intra tribal percentage distribution of head shapes
The findings from this study revealed that differences exist among the population
of the three ethnicities. This result agrees with reports that postulated the
effect of ethnicity on cranial dimensions (Golalipour and
Heydari, 2004; Bayat and Ghanbari, 2010). The findings
from this study also revealed sexual dimorphism in the cephalic indices, which
was best pronounced in transverse cephalic index. This therefore agrees with
other findings which revealed sexual dimorphism in head dimensions (Maina
et al., 2011; Raji et al., 2010).
The similarities in head shapes of both vertical and transverse cephalic indices
among the ethnic groups as shown in the study could be because the main factor
that differ the groups is their ethnicity but they are subjected to same environmental,
nutritional and geographical conditions. Looking at studies on horizontal cephalic
indices in Nigeria head forms of Ogoni males and female of south-eastern Nigeria
are Hyperbrachycephalic and mesocephalic, respectively (Oladipo
et al., 2009). That of Ibibio males and females of south-south Nigeria
is mesocephalic (Oladipo et al., 2010) and that
of Ogbia tribes of southern Nigeria is dolicocephalic (Eroje
et al., 2010). The head forms of Nigerians in the middle belt (Jos)
is Mesocephalic (Umar et al., 2006) those of
Hausas and Yorubas of the same region is also mesocephalic (Umar
et al., 2011). In North-Eastern Nigeria the head types of Kanuri
and Babur newborns are dolicocephaly and mesocephaly, respectively (Garba
et al., 2008). In adults of North-Eastern Nigeria, the rarest and
dominant head types were hyperbrachycephaly and dolicocephaly (Raji
et al., 2010). The present study have revealed that on the basis
of vertical and transverse cephalic indices the rarest head types in North-Eastern
Nigerians are Chamaecephaly and Tapeinocephaly, respectively; while the dominant
are High Hypsicephaly and Acrocephaly, respectively.
Earlier reports on head forms of vertical and transverse cephalic indices showed
that Negrito, Melanesian, Caucasian and Malay are hypsicephalic (Sullivan,
1923). More recent studies suggest that Waxiang people of China are Hypsicephalic
and metriocephalic (Pi et al., 2011), Yunnan Mongols
are also Hypsicephalic (Lian-Bin et al., 2011)
Sri Lankans are Hypsicephalic and Acrocephalic (Ilayperuma,
2011) and Kosovans are Hypsicephalic and Tapeinocephalic (Rexhepi
and Vjollca, 2008). Therefore, comparison of mean cephalic indices from
this study and that of other closely related studies in Sri Lanka and Kosova
(Table 5) revealed some variations between the populations.
Mean vertical cephalic index in males and females from this study are significantly
higher (p<0.05) than those in Kosova (Rexhepi and Vjollca,
2008) but lower than those of Sri Lankans (Ilayperuma,
2011). Transverse cephalic indices in males and females from this study
are significantly higher (p<0.05) than those in Kosova and Sri Lanka. According
to vertical cephalic index classification, Nigerians, Kosovans and Sri Lankans
|| Comparison of vertical and transverse Cephalic Index with
|*** Indicates that VCI and TCI from this study are extremely
higher than in kosovans.* indicates that VCI in Sri Lankans is significantly
higher than in the present study (p<0.05)
But Nigerians are more related to Sri Lankans because their vertical cephalic
indices both placed them in High Hypsicephalic head type while that of the Kosovans
placed them in low Hypsicephalic head type. While on the basis of transverse
cephalic index classification Kosovans are Tapeinocephalic while Nigerians and
Sri Lankans are Acrocephalic. Thus, the differences observed in the indices
between the populations could be attributed to the differences in environmental,
genetic/biological, social, geographical, ethnic and age factors which existed
between these studies which have been reported to influence bodily dimensions
(Kobyliansky, 1983; Kobyliansky
and Livshits, 1985; Nagaoka et al., 2011; Okupe
et al., 1984; Golalipour et al., 2003;
Rexhepi and Vjollca, 2008). On the basis of head forms,
the similarities that exists between Nigerians and Sri Lankans is supported
by a similar study (Leary et al., 2006) and could
be because Nigerians and Sri Lankans belong to tropical zone, while the difference
between Nigerians and Kosovans could be because the Kosovans belong to a temperate
zone therefore, confirming the work of Bharati et al.
(2001) who postulated that head forms in tropical zone differ from those
in temperate zone.
Cephalic dimensions are affected by climatic, genetic, nutritional, environmental,
ecological, biological, geographical, racial, gender and age factors (Buretic-Tomljanovic
et al., 2007; Bharati et al., 2001;
Kasai et al., 1993; Okupe
et al., 1984; Heidari et al., 2006;
Golalipour and Heydari, 2004; Golalipour
et al., 2003, 2005; Tuli
et al., 1995; Rajlakshmi et al., 2001;
Maina et al., 2011). Time has also been shown
to influence cephalic dimensions (Nakashima, 1986; Vojdani
et al., 2009). This study has therefore provided valuable information
in 18-40 years old Fulanis, Tangales and Teras ethnic groups of North-Eastern
Nigeria that can be used in diagnosis and treatments in orthodontics (Grau
et al., 2001) plastic and oral surgery (Williams
et al., 1995) and in forensics for the reconstruction of craniofacial
remnants (Ilayperuma, 2011) and for the study of ethnicity
and race in this region.
The study revealed that the three ethnic groups share differences on the basis of cephalic indices and share some similarities on the basis of head types and that Nigerians share similarities with Sri Lankans base on their head types.
Authors wish to record their appreciation to Aisha Umar Yaro, Abdulkadir Halliru, Hajara Isah Jibrin, Maisamari Chailau Abare, Maryam, the staffs and students of Gombe State University for their support and assistance during this study.
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