An ancient Chinese proverb is "Better to be deprived of food for three days,
than tea for one" with green tea being used as a medicine in China for at least
4,000 years (Taylor, 1998). Much attention to tea catechins
and health has focused on its effects on cancer (Dreosti,
1996) while taking tea has been regarded traditionally in Asia as a generally
healthful practice (Janle et al., 2008). Today,
scientific research in both Asia and the West is providing hard evidence for
the health benefits long associated with taking green tea. For example, in 1994
the Journal of the National Cancer institute published the results of an epidemiological
study indicating that taking green tea reduced the risk of esophageal cancer
in Chinese men and women by nearly 60% (Leventhal et
al., 1999). Americas university of purdue researchers concluded
that a compound in green tea inhibits the growth of cancer cells (Janle
et al., 2008).
Human studies show that cancer onset of patients in Japan who have consumed
10 cups of green tea per day was 8.7 years later among females and 3 years later
among males, as compared with patients who had consumed under three cups per
day (Liao et al., 1995). Thus, a possible relationship
between high consumption of green tea and the low incidence of prostate and
breast cancers in some Asian countries has been postulated (Chen
et al., 1998). There is also indicated that taking green tea lowers
total cholesterol levels, as well as improving the ratio of good (HDL) cholesterol
to bad (LDL) cholesterol.
Herbal drinks are becoming popular especially among health-conscious consumers
since these beverages are prepared from natural ingredients. Indigenous people
have been using herbs such as Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Chrysanthemum
indicum L. and Aegle marmelos L. for a long time as panacea drinks
(Kruawan and Kangsadalampai, 2006).
Depending on the type of tea used and how it is brewed, the level of anti-oxidants in bottled tea drinks may be comparable to fruits and vegetables. Furthermore, you may still be getting health benefits from other ingredients in the tea besides antioxidants. And as the nutritional drink market continues to expand, this healthcare phenomenon is happening not just in Thailand but around the globe. A plethora of purportedly healthy beverages are growing in popularity among consumers trying to shield themselves against health threats.
In 2011, the fruit juice drink market in Thailand was worth about 10 billion
Baht (about $305 million USD) or about 284 million liters of different quality
fruit juices. The premium market was worth 3.80 billion Baht ($116 million USD)
or about 56 million liters with a growth rate of approximately 5%. The Thai
companies UHT sold 3.0 billion Baht and had a growth rate of 6% while Malee
Sampran Plc had a 22% growth rate (Malee Sampran Public Company,
2011). This is compared to the pasteurized milk product industry which sold
THB 0.80 billion with a growth rate of about 8%.
According to the Euromonitor report concerning the fruit/vegetable juice market
in Thailand, it is stated that Thailand showed positive signs with growth rates
ending with 7% total volume growth in 2012 (EI, 2013b).
In 2012, fruit/vegetable juice continued to make ongoing sales because of the
hot weather most people taking soft drinks to cool down. However, with the continuing
trend of health and wellness, more and more consumers also turned to fruit/vegetable
juice to replace carbonates. In addition, fruit/vegetable juice was found to
be more convenient in everyday life, sustaining demand for the product (EI,
Minute Maid by Coca-Cola led sales of fruit/vegetable juice in 2012 with 23%
retail volume share and gained the most market share at over 1% point. This
was because, its price is affordable at only Bt25 so that consumers in lower
and middle classes can also purchase it. In addition, Minute Maid runs effective
advertisements that use the most famous brand ambassador, Nadech Kugimiya and
the brand itself has a variety of flavours to attract consumers such as Minute
Maid Pulpy, Minute Maid Splash and Minute Maid White Grape Aloe Vera (EI,
2013a). However, Ready-To-Drink (RTD) tea has the potential to gain market
share in Thailand.
In 2006-2008, the fruit juice market in Thailand had an average growth rate
of 10-20% (ACNielsen, 2006) which, according to the beverage
giant Malee, was because that Thai people tended to be more health conscious
which included the life style of working people. The result was the fruit juice
in the medium market had higher volume while the economy market which covered
60% of total fruit juice market declined. This is due to the higer price of
30 Baht per liter which is considered high compared with other beverages. Furthermore,
the market of tea is coming to compete with the fruit juice market in the health
conscious market. In 2009 - 2010, the fruit juice market was under intense competition.
Another Thai beverage company is Tipco which controls nearly half of the 4
billion Baht premium juice market. In 2012, TIPCO spent 200 million Baht on
marketing to increase the average fruit juice consumption in Thailand from only
2 L-1 person year-1, or about only 100 Baht. The company
in 2012 also launched new healthy beverages to attract new customer groups,
hoping to increase their 2011 sale from about 5 billion Baht with the food business
accounting for about 50% and fruit juices the rest (Bangkok
Medium quality fruit juice standard or medium market had 0.58 billion Baht or about 12 million liters. The fruit juice economy market was worth 3 billion Baht or about 117 million liters. Fruit juice in the Super Economy Market sold 1.80 billion Baht or approximately 63 million liters. The remaining sub-market was worth 1.00 billion Baht with about 28 million liters.
According to Deloittes Food and Beverage 2012 study, consumers want choices and the food and beverage industry as a whole is prepared to respond to consumer demand with certain dynamics between manufacturers and retailers being played out to address that. Retailers reward product differentiation and innovation because new products offer the best growth opportunities for them in both, existing and emerging markets.
Manufacturers, likewise, can become more competitive by innovating and launching new products and segments that, for instance, are not easy to replicate via private label alternatives. And in the food service sector, there is an extremely valuable innovation opportunity for the manufacturer because it is a viable alternative to retail.
For consumers, convenience is by far the most important dynamic (Fig.
1) and will continue to be so over the next 5 years and beyond. Health/nutrition
benefits, affordability, taste/freshness, functionality, product availability
and Corporate Responsibility (CR) issues are among other key consumer drivers
Consumers demand convenience and are willing to pay more for it. As their study
habits and lifestyles change, its a tradeoff, many are willing to make,
especially as disposable income rises in many countries. Its all about
time and the consumer would rather buy time than prepare food.
Key consumer trends shaping the industry (Deloitte,
), Sourse: Deloitte global survey of 93 top exectives at leading
food and beverage businesses
Convenience also drives how distribution channels continue to evolve-less so
in retail but with significant changes on the food service side with additional
growth potential migrating to the producer (Deloitte, 2012).
As a result of these various factors, namely due to a wave of health conscious consumers specifically, the Bangkok locals who spend the majority of their time at study and tend to drink popular juice in containers, their current lifestyle demands comfort, convenience and hassle free. Therefore, consumers demand for vegetables and fruit drinks is a business that is continuing to grow with an ever increasing market share. And the market is likely to grow further in the future as consumers become more health conscious. Additionally, the trend is to reduce taking other beverages such as soft drinks and instead use a juice replacement drink which contributes to an ever increasing consumer juice drink growth rate. Throughout the last 3 years, the average growth rate was approximately 11%.
Projections suggest that fruit/vegetable juice is expected to grow by a 5% total volume CAGR. Despite being slower than the review period, it still signifies positive growth as the trend of health and wellness will bring more consumers to this category. However, it needs some marketing stimulation, otherwise it will lose share to RTD tea which is also positioned as a health and wellness drink.
Fountain sales of soft drinks continued to record positive moderate growth of 4% through convenience stores and 3% through on-trade in 2012. The key product of fountain sales in Thailand remained carbonates with some presence of fruit juices and RTD tea, although with much lower volume sales.
In 2012, RTD tea experienced very strong competition amongst several brands.
The opening of new face brand Ishitan in 2011 shook overall shares
in the category. The executive director of Ishitan, Tan Passakornatee was the
founder of Oishi Group PCL. After he sold his shares in the company to Thai
Beverage Public Company Limited, he started his own company with its own brand
Ishitan. The product line and flavours are similar to Oishis offerings.
Within two years, Ishitan penetrated RTD tea to become a major brand with retail
volume share of 19% in 2012, offering strong competition to Oishi (EI,
Current mainstream health is also in the interest of consumers, so cereal beverages which have a high nutritional value start to become popular and accepted by consumers even more. The original cereal drink is widely known as soy milk drink and consumers turn to drink soy milk instead of cow milk. They believe that it is high in protein and antioxidants and currently the industry is developing various flavors for soy milk including black sesame and pandan in an effort to give consumers greater choices.
The recent trend of soy milk and mixed fresh fruit is very popular in Singapore. Also, a group of healthy drinks was launched in India in the form of a franchise which focuses on a group of loved ones and health conscious consumers. For other categories such as beverages, cereals, millet, corn, milk, water germ leaves of wheat and rice milk, etc., are likely to rise.
The important factors that led to this popularity from the results of the study showed that these grains are rich in nutritional value, social trends and consumer behavior changes resulting in the beverage business requiring adaptability including:
||Health drinks: For both today and in the long term,
beverage products which are interesting and nutritional for consumers are
||Eliminating toxins in the body: Consumers would have to choose
a product that will help eliminate toxins from the body or stimulate the
function of vital organs, helping to eliminate toxins, so today it's a new
drink recipe to market, especially drinks with herbal ingredients such as
betel leaf (Piper betel Linn), Yanang (Tiliacora triandra Diels) and paraquat,
||The power of flowers: In non-food products and drinks, the smell
of lavender, hibiscus flowers (Hibiscus) and jasmine are popular aromas
for many years. But for the food and beverage industry, these were new smells.
However, in Thailand, traditional foods and desserts used these flowers
for many years. After researching the nutritional value of the many flowers,
consumers indicated that they enjoy and accept these ingredients in their
food and drink more often
||The beauty of eating or drinking: In addition to cosmetics, the
way to make the body look beautiful is also by food and drink recipes which
make you feel beautiful from the inside out. Drinks with ingredients can
help to nourish the skin marks a beginning of a new trend in beverages and
powdered drinks that help with the development and as a supplement to assist
with the anti-aging and antioxidants in the skin
In an interview with Nitra Nuengchamnong, a scientist at the 8th Annual Medical Center in Phitsanulok at that time, it was revealed that the research subject, Antioxidant activity in herbal drinks produced and consumed in Thailand, samples were collected from herbal sales shops distributed around Thailand including the North, Northeast, Eastern seaboard and the South between November 2005-April 2006 inwhich 224 samples were found to have antioxidant activity of free radicals. Of this sample, 80% were found to have anti-aging and anti-wrinkle free material with the most common being tea followed by powered drink. Drinks made from herbs with antioxidant found that all 30 species divided into three categories:
||Type of tea: This includes black tea, green tea, blue
crush bandits, stevia, bitter cinerea, Roselle, Safflower, quince, Asiatic
and tea Hermit
||Beverages: These included juice and puree, water consumption anchor
Thailand mango juice, water creatures, Makieng, Roselle juice, grape juice,
apple juice, noni juice, strawberry juice, comosa, parviflora and chrysanthemum
||Beverage powder: This includes powdered drink sage leaf and Pandanus
This is consistent with Prat Boonyawongvirot, former Permanent Secretary, Thailands
Ministry of Health, who said herbs are wanted by the world market. It has been
suggested that the global market for herbal products is estimated at over $60
billion USD which includes medicines, health supplements, herbal beauty and
toiletry products (IASC, 2006).
Another study (Kamboj, 2000; Nagpal
and Karki, 2004) also estimated the market to be USD 60 billion growing
at the rate of 7% per annum. A further study (Laird and Pierce,
2002) placed the world market for herbal medicines at USD 19.4 billion for
the year 2005, with Asia representing $5.1 billion USD with Japans share
at $202 billion USD (IASC, 2006).
Thailand exports $30 million U.S. dollars of herbs and herbal extracts abroad yearly and nearly 50% of the older citizens in the United States use these herbal products for their health care. With the introduction of herbal medicine and nutritional supplements, more than 90 species of plants have been introduced into the wellness health care diet including Asiatic black, blue breaking, Fah-Talai-Jone/Andrographis paniculata Wall ex Ness and Green Tea with Amla, etc.
An American study found that these herbs have more than 20 times higher vitamin C than any other fruit, especially oranges. Cancer patients however may need to be careful about eating fruits rather than antioxidants because these fruits especially sweet fruit juices and herbal drinks can accelerate the spread of cancer.
According to research from Dr. Anthony Heaney of UCLA's Jonsson Cancer Center,
cancer cells have a particular liking for refined fructose. In tests, pancreatic
cancer cells quickly fed on refined fructose and used it to divide and proliferate
rapidly within the body (Heaney, 2010). The findings
also reveal that not all sugars are the same, a widely held belief in mainstream
medicine. Tumor cells love both glucose sugar and fructose sugar but fructose
directly causes cancer cells to reproduce and spread in a way that glucose does
not. So the study solidifies the fact that there is a major difference between
high fructose corn syrup, a highly-refined sugar commonly used in processed
American foods and beverages and refined sugar cane. Both can lead to health
problems but high fructose corn syrup is worse in terms of cancer growth.
Thus, communications that help the consumer recognize the worth and value in consumer goods is important which is a key component to successful marketing. However, the communicated information to the consumer needs to be real, verifiable, trusted which creates a market with long-term stability.
Researchers are, therefore, interested in understanding the factors that affect the buying behavior of bottled beverage antioxidants. This is to help and encourage entrepreneurs and suppliers of beverage antioxidants which can lead to personal factors that influence consumption of antioxidants beverages as well as to survey the consumer behavior of beverage consumption and purchasing habits.
Researchers also wish to determine the target audience (segment target positioning) and the effectiveness of using the brand value, integrated marketing communications and brand attitude that affects the Bangkok consumer buying behavior of antioxidant beverages.
It is also hoped that this study will be helpful to the antioxidant beverage
business and help with information about the purchasing behavior of antioxidant
beverage products by the consumer. This could help with these businesses in
their research marketing strategies and product development planning to better
meet the needs of consumers and effectively implement future competitive strategies.
Purchase intention: The consumer buying decision process is a five-stage
purchase decision process which includes problem recognition, information search,
evaluation of alternatives, purchase and post-purchase evaluation (Ratpongporn,
2010). These five steps to acquiring information and knowledge affect perception
which leads to better information and the decision as to the next step, depending
on what is perceived as very important as well as what recognition requires
more knowledge before making a decision or not.
Kotler and Armstrong (2001) described that there are
two types of factors that helps in determining and encouraging consumer purchase
intention including both personal and stimulating factors. They stated that
among the consumer decision making process, understanding consumers sources
of information for the product is crucial because it is the early phase of consumer
behavior and it may influence the rest of the consumer decision making process.
Personal factors include consumer personality in respect to demand, incentive,
attitude, access of information and adaptability.
Gilbert (1991) explains that purchase intention has
6 common points:
||It perceives consumer behavior to be a constant decision making
||The behavior of individual consumer is emphasized
||Behavior is treated as a functional (or utilitarian) concept that can
||A buyer is viewed as an individual who searches, evaluates and stores
||Buyers narrow down the range of information in time and choose from the
alternatives, they developed during the decision process
||Feedback from the final purchase is included in the models to emphasize
the effect of the decision on future purchases
This is consistent with the research of Chen (2007)
which found that consumers are willing to buy when there is consumer awareness
but the reverse is true when there is no product recognition hindering purchase
intention. This is linked to consumer behavior, because consumer behavior is
composed of acquiring, using and disposing of products, services, ideas or experiences
of consumers which is both individual or as a group (Amould
et al., 2005).
Stimulating factors, on the other hand, can be used for planning how to catch
consumers attention and encourage their purchase intentions. This includes
colors and sizes, product comparisons with other products or services, product
positioning (such as shelf location) and originality. Meanwhile, service characteristics,
price perception and service selection behavior have direct effects on re-purchase
intention (Ferrand et al., 2010).
According to Kotler (2000), apart from cultural factors
other factors such as social, personal and psychological factors have influence
on consumers behavior:
||Cultural factors have to do with the culture, subculture or
social class in which a consumer identifies his/herself
||Social factors have to do with the consumers family, reference groups
and the consumers role and status
||Personal factors are the lifecycle status and age of consumers. Also,
the economic situation, occupation, self-concept and consumers personality
||Psychological factors include perception, motivation, learning, attitude
and belief of the consumers
Therefore, the purchase intention is determined by the actuality of the decision and the comparative advantages of brand, quality and the benefits of the product.
According to Mowen and Minor (1998), involvement is
the "perceived personal interest and/or interest of consumers attach to the
acquisition, consumption and disposition of a good, a service or an idea.
Bauer et al. (2006) found a significantly positive
relationship between consumer decision-making and the nature of product involvement.
A study by Kim and Martinez (2013) discussed the increasing
popularity of private Internet sale sites and the importance of shoppers regularly
visiting these sites. Factor analysis results suggested that fashion leadership
consisted of two dimensions; fashion opinion leadership and fashion innovativeness.
The significantly higher levels of visit frequency and purchase intention for
innovative communicators indicated that the targeted group represents a valuable
market segment for online private sale companies to target.
While Bourdeau (2005) noted that the measurement capabilities
of the current service has improved a lot from the past, using just basic satisfaction
measurement capabilities of the service, these models were not enough for determining
the loyalty of existing customers. Important components of the conceptual framework
on which to measure customer loyalty and behavioral intentions such as repeat
purchase intentions and the intention not to change service providers includes
measurable behavioral or action which has five elements, the emphasis is to
tell things like showing the involvement of defending and the reflectivity,
detailed as follows:
||Word-of-Mouth or Advocacy refers to a willingness to support
products and services. Consumers rely on the advocacy of their acquaintances
as a form of risk reduction in services contexts because consumers place
greater emphasis on personal sources of information. Likewise, consumer
advocacy reduces the uncertainty caused by the intangibility and heterogeneity
that accompanies the vast majority of service purchases
||Strength of Preference means to feel strongly about a particular business
which includes the fact that customers like the service better than others
and use it regularly. The consumer must have a passion for the business
and rank it higher than the others.
||Exclusive consideration relates to the size of a consumers consideration
set of potential service providers in a specific industry
||Share of Wallet is a result of service loyalty outcome behaviors
||Identification can occur with both individual service providers (e.g.,
doctor or mechanic), as well as at the brand level, as in the case of a
college sports team. McGill and Iacobucci (1992)
suggests that services, as opposed to goods, provide more incentive for
customers to form a comparative identity because of their interpersonal
Mostafa (2007) study investigates the influence of
various cultural values and psychological factors on the green purchase behavior
of Egyptian consumers. Using a large sample of 1093 consumers, a conceptual
model was developed. The survey results provide reasonable support for the validity
of the proposed model. Specifically, the findings from the structural equation
model confirm the influence of the consumers' natural environment orientation,
ecological knowledge and environmental concern on their attitudes towards green
purchase. Consumers' attitudes toward green purchase, in turn, are also found
to affect their actual green purchase behavior via the mediator role of green
purchase intention. However, one of the other important findings suggests that
the link between intention and actual purchase is weak. In other words, on a
declarative level, more and more consumers in Egypt express their concern over
the ecological situation and declare their willingness to contribute somehow
to the protection of environment by buying green products. However, in reality
this concern may not be manifested consistently.
Brand attitude: Brand attitude refers to the inclination to learn to make the behavior consistent with the manner in satisfaction or dissatisfaction with any one thing. In this sense, attitudes are strongly associated with the consumption or concepts related to product marketing such as service, brand, ownership and learning attitudes. These may be a result of direct experience with the product or receiving information from another person or from mass exposure.
Brand attachment more accurately predicts intentions to perform behaviors that
use significant consumer resources (time, money, reputation). It is also a stronger
predictor of actual consumer behaviors than brand attitude strength (Park
et al., 2010).
And attitudes have changed and there is no manner consistent with behavior
that reflects attitudes. Moreover, in specific circumstances that may cause
consumer behavior that is inconsistent with attitudes. Additionally, attitudes
comprise key elements of 3 parts (Schiffman and Kanuk, 2000)
||Understanding (Cognitive) is the knowledge and awareness gained
by combining direct experience of things and related information which allows
the consumer to connect things. What are the features and cause specific
behaviors to it. Lead to the results of the attitude in any way
||Feelings (Affective) are a mood or feelings of the consumer about the
product or brand, such as things they like or dislike, good or bad, etc
||Behavior or tendency to action (Cognitive) is a trend in the expression
or act in any way that refers to behavior of the actual consumer. This element
expresses the willingness of consumers to buy
The study by Jin and Kang (2011) Purchase intention
of Chinese consumers toward a US apparel brand: a test of a composite behavior
intention model showed that attitude will affect purchase intention.
Research by Park et al. (2010) further stated
that managerially, they (consumers) demonstrate that brand attachment offers
value over brand attitude strength in predicting consumers intentions
to perform difficult behaviors (those they regard as using consumer resources),
actual purchase behaviors, brand purchase share (the share of a brand among
directly competing brands) and need share (the extent to which consumers rely
on a brand to address relevant needs, including those brands in substitutable
The Spanish scientists, Hartman and Apaolaza-Ibanez (2012)
devised a model that they based their research on and implemented this model
when conducting the experiment. The model (Fig. 2) shows how
the scientists think we view and mentally process advertisements. They think
that attitudes towards an ad is influenced by an emotional response, this emotional
response subsequently influences the attitude towards the brand. The research
was conducted on a massive scale. 750 people throughout Spanish towns and villages
were shown fictitious advertisements and given questionnaires and interviews
after seeing the ads.
Brand value: According to Levy et al. (2012),
a store brand's perceived quality was found to be the most important factor
in predicting store brand purchase intention and advertising was found to have
an indirect effect on perceived quality, shaped through extrinsic cues and novelty
lovers' tendency variables. The results show the salience of creating a strong
and sustainable store brand through advertising and innovation.
However, in another study focused on the Chinese consumer, it was found that
vanity has a role in luxury brand purchase intention and thereby shades both
theoretical and managerial understanding of luxury brand consumption. It also
suggests that symbolic value which is highly influential in western conceptualizations
of luxury brand meaning, needs to be re-evaluated in the context of Chinese
consumers (Hung et al., 2011).
Current businesses need to compete in very high brand management with enough
strength and power to help combat the flow of business changes effectively,
whether a change in customer behavior, influenced by competition, technology
or new marketing environments that occur over time.
|| TrustR BrandZ study, commissioned by WPP and conducted annually
by Millward Brown
Any brand that can survive more than 50 years will be recognized in a group
of marketers and marketing communications in general as "strong brands" which
are considered assets which brings a tremendous value to the business
(Fig. 2, 3).
This is consistent with the study of Jin and Suh (2005)
who studied the integrating effect of consumer perception factors in predicting
private brand purchase in a Korean discount store. They found that the
perceived value of consumers and the prospect of buying brand-named items in
Korean retail stores, the strategy of private brand labeling is widely accepted.
However, there are limitations in the foreign market research and it was found
that perceived consumer value has an impact depending on the product. Most of
the direct and indirect impacts on purchasing decisions include product brand
name retailers, such as grocery stores, have a key factor which is the price
and value and when cost is low, the product becomes worth purchasing. To stimulate
consumer demand in products of Korean home appliances, the quality factor and
comparison of quality products with national brand, advertising and warranty
affects the perception of quality and is a critical factor in the selection
of national brand products.
In a study about the 100 most important global brands which was based on a
collection of more than 2 million consumer interviews in 30 countries developed
over 13 years, it was found that trust and value are critical in difficult economic
times (BRANDZ, 2011).
In Fig. 3 and 4, strong brands perform well in TrustR and Value-D. These charts include a selected group of BrandZ leaders. The charts show how highly valued brands are trusted, recommended and strike the right balance between Desire and Price.
Integrated marketing communications: One definition of Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) is the application of consistent brand messaging across both traditional and non-traditional marketing channels and using different promotional methods to reinforce each other.
Scholars, however, have variously defined the concept of IMC with the earliest
definition used by the American Association of Advertising Agencies (4As) (Belch
and Belch, 2004) which defined IMC as "an approach to achieving the objectives
of a marketing campaign through a well-coordinated use of different promotional
methods that are intended to reinforce each other."
Marketing communications is one of the four major elements of the companys
marketing mix. Marketers must know how to use advertising, sales promotion,
direct marketing, public relations and personal selling to communicate the products
existence and value to the target customers (Jyoti, 2010).
Research by Mihart (2012) on the Impact of Integrated
Marketing Communication on Consumer Behaviour: Effects on Consumer Decision-Making
Process, stated that IMC is one of the most controversial areas of research,
with the concept marking a constant progress from the simple coordinating of
promotional tools to a complex strategic process.
||Value-D BrandZ study, commissioned by WPP and conducted annually
by Millward Brown, midpoint: 100, 100; price/desire
In the context of modern marketing, IMC has become a major tool for companies
to achieve their goals. IMC works specifically through all the four classic
elements of the marketing mix: product, price, placement and marketing communications.
Research by Benoit-Moreau and Parguel (2011) studied
the value creation of brand communication environments from empirical studies
in France. It was mentioned that social communication and Corporate Social Responsibility
(CSR) is to communicate that the organization has a responsibility to society
and this is divided into three types:
||Company business must be conducted transparently and certification
of goods and services will help with recognition by society and
||Companies must build brand equity with moral principles which means a
commitment to shareholders and the public which takes into account the impact
on society which is separate. Types of marketing communications, corporate
||Ethical products or services with regard to social responsibility, so
it appears that the brand is associated with different conditions
IMC has today become a key component of Fortune 500 corporations whereas companies such as Coca-Cola and Pepsi have dedicated senior executives with titles such as Senior Vice President, Integrated Marketing Communications and Capabilities-The Coca-Cola Company which oversees global design, marketing communications, media, sponsorships, interactivemarketing and marketing of the Company's Live Positively sustainability platform.
The communication process itself consists of nine elements; sender, receiver,
encoding, decoding, message, media, response, feedback and noise. Marketers
must know how to get through to the target audience in the face of the audiences
tendencies toward selective attention, distortion and recall (Rothwell,
Developing the promotion program involves eight steps. The communicator must
first identify the target audience and its characteristics including the image
it carries of the product. Next the communicator has to define the communication
objective, whether it is to create awareness, knowledge, liking, preference,
conviction or purchase. A message must be designed containing an effective content,
structure, format and source. Then communication channels both personal and
non-personal must be selected. Next, the total promotion budget must be established.
Four common methods are the affordable methods, the percentage-of-sales method,
the competitive-parity method and the objective-and-task method (Jyoti,
Conceptual framework: The study is collecting the theoretical literature and conducting research in the analysis of collected variables related to Brand Value, Brand Attitude and Integrated Marketing Communications which influences Purchase Intention by Bangkok metropolitan consumers of antioxidant beverages. The definition of the conceptual framework is shown as follows in Fig. 5.
Research hypotheses: The following 5 hypotheses are discussed (Fig.
||Brand value affects brand attitude
||Integrated marketing communications affects brand attitude
||Brand value affects purchase intention
||Integrated marketing communications affects purchase intention
||Brand attitude affects purchase intention
|| Conceptual framework
The format of the survey population or unit of analysis will be the population
in Bangkok and its vicinity who has bought antioxidants bottled beverage products.
The proposed sample used in this research will be Bangkok consumers over 15
years of age who have bought a health drink for personal consumption (Hair
et al., 2006).
Data collection: Bangkok consumers over the age of 15 are proposed as
part of the statistical sample and will be queried using quantitative research
methods from a proposed sample of 350 respondents (Hair et
al., 2006). Questionnaires will be constructed as a tool to measure
concept definition and practice. Questionnaires will be constructed as a tool
to measure concept definition and practice using a 7-Point Likert Scale. This
study first conducted Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and subsequently reliability
analysis to measure Cronbachs alphas for this scale items to ensure internal
consistency. Multi-item measures were developed based on Cronbachs alpha
>0.68. This study will then calculate Cronbachs alphas for each construct.
If the value is below 0.50, the study question will be cut off. This is considered
highly reliable. The responses to the questions capturing focal constructs will
use a five-point Liker scale (rating statements 1-7, 1= strongly disagree and
7= strongly agree).
Dependent variable: Purchase intention analysis will use a measurement instrument
or questionnaires utilizing a 7-Point Likert Scale (Likert,
1972) which will be developed and constructed from scales enabling the measurement
of Brand Value, Brand Attitude and Integrated Marketing Communications (Ratpongporn,
2010; Kotler and Armstrong, 2001; Gilbert,
1991; Chen, 2007; Ferrand et
al., 2010; Kotler, 2000; Mowen
and Minor, 1998; Bauer et al., 2006; Kim
and Martinez, 2013; Bourdeau, 2005).
Independent variables: Brand value analysis will use a measurement instrument
or questionnaires utilizing a 7-Point Likert Scale (Likert,
1972) which will be developed and constructed from scales enabling the measurement
of the Brand Awareness, Product Benefits, Brand loyalty, Quality Recognition
and Brand Management Importance (Levy et al., 2012;
Jin and Suh, 2005; Hung et
al., 2011; BRANDZ, 2011).
Brand attitude: Analysis will use a measurement instrument or questionnaires
utilizing a 7-Point Likert Scale (Likert, 1972) which
will be developed and constructed from scales enabling the measurement of Brand
Trust and Brand Evaluation (Park et al., 2010;
Schiffman and Kanuk, 2000; Jin and
Kang, 2011; Hartman and Apaolaza-Ibanez, 2012).
Integrated marketing communications: Analysis will use a measurement
instrument or questionnaires utilizing a 7-Point Likert Scale (Likert,
1972) which will be developed and constructed from scales enabling the measurement
of the Advertising, Salesperson, Promotion, News and Public Relations and Direct
Marketing (Belch and Belch, 2004; Mihart,
2012; Benoit-Moreau and Parguel, 2011; Rothwell,
2004; Jyoti, 2010).
It has been established that both the global and Thai beverage market are experiencing a significant growth phase. Along with this, there is a trend amongst the upwardly mobile, urban consumers to choose products that contribute to their health and wellbeing. As such, antioxidant products such as green tea are gaining inroads into a well-established Thai beverage industry.
It, however, has never been tough to build and sustain a successful food and
beverage business than it is today. Food and beverage companies face an array
of increasingly complex issues and questions and the manner inwhich they choose
to respond will shape the future of the industry for many years to come. With
the ever increasing wave of mostly urban health conscious consumers who spend
ever increasing amounts of time at work, juice in containers tend to be most
popular. As Deloitte (2012) study concluded, consumer
convenience is number one priority by an overwhelming 66% surveyed. Current
lifestyles demand comfort and hassle free conveniences, as consumers do not
have time to seek out health care products.
Study, thus, far expects to show the need for the antioxidant drink market to expand and companies to make more efforts at using marketing communication channels to help send a message to the consumer that they realize the value of the goods which generates growth and market share for each beverage company.