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Effect of Different Inorganic Additives on Spawn Run, Cropping Period and Yield Performance of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus Species)



Brajesh Kumar, Gopal Singh, Vinit Pratap Singh, Jaydeep Patil, Prashant Mishra, Debjani Choudhury and Seweta Srivastava
 
ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Due to the ability of Pleurotus species to convert crop residues into food protein, oyster mushrooms are least expensive commercial mushrooms and also easy to grow at various temperature ranges from 20-26°C with 75-85% relative humidity. With respect to these facts the present study was undertaken to assess the influence of different inorganic additives (0.075%) viz., salicylic acid, potassium di-hydrogen orthophosphate, magnesium sulphate, zinc sulphate, potassium chloride, ferrous sulphate and copper sulphate on the yield of two Pleurotus species i.e., P. florida and P. flabellatus. Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out by using seven inorganic additives in wheat straw for cultivation of Pleurotus species (P. florida and P. flabellatus). Observations were recorded and biological efficiency was calculated for cropping period, days for spawn run, days of pin head initiation, number of loab, number of fruiting body, average weight of fruiting body (g/FB) and yield (g kg–1 dry substrate). Results: Data revealed that 0.075% concentration of different inorganic additives was significantly increased the yield compared to control. Maximum yield (g kg–1 dry substrate) was observed in magnesium sulphate 695.00 g followed by potassium di-hydrogen orthophosphate 660.00 g while minimum yield was found in zinc sulphate 505.00 g of P. florida. In case of P. flabellatus maximum yield observed in potassium di-hydrogen orthophosphate was 665.00 g followed by magnesium sulphate 625.00 g while minimum yield was found in zinc sulphate 517.00 g. Conclusion: It was concluded from the above findings that the magnesium sulphate and potassium di-hydrogen orthophosphate were proved as potential inorganic additives followed by zinc sulphate causing significant increase in spawn run, cropping period and yield of the two test species of oyster mushroom viz., P. florida and P. flabellatus. These chemical additives were also very cost effective and having no residual effect on the quality and taste of mushroom.

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Brajesh Kumar, Gopal Singh, Vinit Pratap Singh, Jaydeep Patil, Prashant Mishra, Debjani Choudhury and Seweta Srivastava, 2018. Effect of Different Inorganic Additives on Spawn Run, Cropping Period and Yield Performance of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus Species). Plant Pathology Journal, 17: 19-24.

DOI: 10.3923/ppj.2018.19.24

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ppj.2018.19.24
 
Received: April 13, 2018; Accepted: August 14, 2018; Published: October 31, 2018


Copyright: © 2018. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

INTRODUCTION

Mushrooms are the larger edible fungi which have been defined as “a macrofungus with distinctive fleshy and sub-fleshy fruiting bodies which can be either epigeous or hypogeous and large enough to be seen with naked eye and picked by hand”1. Among commercially cultivated mushrooms Pleurotus species range second after Agaricus commonly known as oyster mushroom or dhingri mushroom is extensively cultivated throughout the world and contributes about 27% of total world production2. Due to its ability to be grown on agricultural waste products, the cultivation of oyster mushroom is becoming popular throughout the world3 and transforms the lignocellulosic biomass into nutritive food with high quality flavour. Pleurotus can be easily cultivated by simple method on number of base materials which do not need composting4. Along with the highest protein content, it has many other constituents like Vitamin B1 and B2 and low calorie levels. In addition, they are reported to be low in fat (2-3% by dry weight), a good source of essential amino acids and contain 5-9% fiber5. Pleurotus species have extensive enzyme systems capable of utilizing complex organic compounds that occur as agricultural wastes and industrial by-products6. Pleurotus spp. is also reported to have antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and immune modulation activities7,8.

Pleurotus spp., has been reported to be capable of utilizing the largest variety of wastes with its fast mycelial growth and multilateral enzyme system capable of degrading nearly all types of wastes9. With respect to these facts the present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of various inorganic additives (0.075%) viz. salicylic acid, potassium di-hydrogen orthophosphate, magnesium sulphate, zinc sulphate, potassium chloride, ferrous sulphate and copper sulphate on the yield of two Pleurotus species i.e., P. florida and P. flabellatus.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The experiments were conducted during the year 2015 in Mushroom Laboratory Department of Plant Pathology, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India which is situated on the western side of the Delhi-Dehradun high way NH-58 at a distance of 10.0 km away in the north of Meerut City. During the experiment the effect of seven chemical additives were evaluated for the growth and production of milky mushroom. All the chemicals were provided by the Laboratory of Agricultural Chemistry, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut. Grading of all the chemicals were mentioned in Table 1.

Table 1: Grading of chemicals

The experiment was carried out by using seven inorganic additives in wheat straw for cultivation of Pleurotus species (P. florida and P. flabellatus). The commonly used substrate for these experiments was bright, good quality wheat straw which was soaked in a water tank chemically treated with carbendazim 8 g and formalin 120 mL/100 L of water for overnight, so as to make it soft. The tank was covered with polythene sheet to prevent the evaporation of formalin. The sterilized substrate (dry weight bases) was dipped in water solution of salicylic acid (0.075%), potassium di-hydrogen orthophosphate (0.075%), magnesium sulphate (0.075%), zinc sulphate (0.075%), potassium chloride (0.075%), ferrous sulphate (0.075%) and copper sulphate (0.075%) for half an hour. Thereafter, straw was spread on cemented floor treated with 4% formalin for 2 h to drain out excess of water. Then ready to mix with spawn at 6% of the dry weight of substrate and after spawning this mixture was filled in polythene bags at the rate 1.0 kg/bag. The upper portion of the polythene bags was folded and stapled. Thereafter, 8-10 small holes were made on polythene bags, with the help of nail, to permit proper aeration during spawn run. These bags were placed in the mushroom crop room at relative humidity of 75-85% and temperature maintained 25±2°C. After the full spawn run in the straw, it became compact mass which was also sticking to the polythene bag after 2-3 weeks. The polythene was removed from the mass of compact wheat straw (stack). Observations were recorded for cropping period, days for spawn run, days of pin head initiation, number of loab, number of fruiting body, average weight of fruiting body (g/FB) and yield (g kg1 dry substrate).

Biological efficiency was calculated at 1 kg dry weight of wheat straw substrate per bag using the following formula:

Statistical analysis: Data with appropriate transformations were analyzed with the help of one way analysis of variance table wherever required. The F-value was tested and critical difference (CD) was calculated at 5% of significance under the programme of OPSTAT for comparing treatment means10,11.

In order to compare the means of various entries, calculating the critical difference (CD) by the following formula:

where, SE is standard error of the difference of the treatment means to be compared and:

RESULTS

It was evident from the data presented in Table 2 and 3 that different inorganic additives viz., salicylic acid (0.075%), potassium di-hydrogen orthophosphate (0.075%), magnesium sulphate (0.075%), zinc sulphate (0.075%), potassium chloride (0.075%), ferrous sulphate (0.075%) and copper sulphate (0.075%) significantly increased the yield. Maximum yield was observed in magnesium sulphate (695.00 g kg1 dry substrate) followed by potassium di-hydrogen orthophosphate (660.00 g kg1 dry substrate) while minimum yield was found in zinc sulphate (505.00 g kg1 dry substrate) of P. florida. In case of P. flabellatus maximum yield was observed in potassium di-hydrogen orthophosphate (665.00 g kg1 dry substrate) followed by magnesium sulphate (625.00 g kg1 dry substrate) while minimum yield was found in zinc sulphate (517.00 g kg1 dry substrate). Maximum number of fruiting body was found in magnesium sulphate (117.50) followed by potassium di- hydrogen orthophosphate (109.25) while minimum number of fruiting body was observed in zinc sulphate (50.75) of P. florida.

In case of P. flabellatus maximum number of fruiting body was observed in potassium di-hydrogen orthophosphate (148.25) followed by magnesium sulphate (131.50) while minimum number of fruiting body was observed in zinc sulphate (63.50). Maximum average weight of fruiting bodies (9.95 and 8.14 g) was observed in zinc sulphate for both species P. florida and P. flabellatus, respectively followed by control (8.99 and 6.77 g) in both species P. florida and P. flabellatus, respectively. Minimum weight of fruiting bodies (5.91 and 4.48 g) was found in magnesium sulphate and potassium di-hydrogen orthophosphate of P. florida and P. flabellatus, respectively. Period of spawn run 14 days was recorded in magnesium sulphate followed by 15 days in potassium di-hydrogen orthophosphate of P. florida and in case of P. flabellatus period of spawn run 15 days was recorded in potassium di-hydrogen orthophosphate and 16 days in magnesium sulphate which was minimum than zinc sulphate (20-20 days) in both species P. florida and P. flabellatus, respectively. Similarly result with the findings of Kumar et al.12 reported that, minimum time was observed for spawn run in P. sajor caju (16.33 days), P. fossulatus (16.66 days) and P. sapidus (15.00 days) supplemented with ferrous sulphate followed by magnesium sulphate (18.00, 16.66 and 16.00 days), respectively. Maximum numbers of fruiting bodies were harvested from P. sajor cajsu (79.95) supplemented with ZnSO4, P. florida (77.03) supplemented with salicylic acid, P. flabellatus (76.12) supplemented with CuSO4, P. fossulatus (79.91) supplemented with MnSO4 and P. sapidus (80.62) supplemented with K2SO4. Yield was harvested significantly well in all the five species, P. sajor caju (602.90 g kg1), P. florida (592.10 g kg1), P. flabellatus (566.55 g kg1), P. fossulatus (604.00 g kg1) and P. sapidus (612.12 g kg1) supplemented with ferrous sulphate.

Data also revealed that minimum days for cropping period was observed in magnesium sulphate (52.50 days) followed by potassium di-hydrogen orthophosphate (53.25 days) while maximum days for cropping period was found in zinc sulphate (62.00 days) of P. florida. In case of P. flabellatus minimum days for cropping period was observed in potassium di-hydrogen orthophosphate (53.50 days) followed by magnesium sulphate (56.50 days) while maximum days for cropping period was found control and zinc sulphate (63.25 and 64.00 days), respectively. The results were in line with the Bhadana13 reported that maximum yield and number of sporophores of P. florida were observed in calcium sulphate which is significantly superior than the control followed with calcium carbonate which is significantly at par magnesium sulphate. Maximum yield and number of sporophores of P. djamor were observed in calcium sulphate which was significantly superior to the control followed with calcium carbonate which was significant at magnesium sulphate. Minimum yield obtained in P. florida on ferrous sulphate and followed in zinc sulphate and sporophore in ferrous sulphate. Minimum days for first harvesting was recorded in magnesium sulphate (23.00 days) followed by potassium di-hydrogen orthophosphate (24.75 days) while maximum days found in zinc sulphate (31.25 days) of P. florida. In case of P. flabellatus minimum days for first harvesting was recorded in potassium di-hydrogen orthophosphate (24.00 days) followed by magnesium sulphate (25.00 days) while maximum days for first harvesting was observed in control and zinc sulphate (30.00 and 30.00 days), respectively.

Table 2: Effect of different inorganic additives on spawn run, cropping period and yield of Pleurotus florida
DFSR: Days for spawn run, DFFH: Days for first harvesting, DFCP: Days for cropping period, NOFB: Number of fruiting body, NOL: Number of loab

Table 3: Effect of different inorganic additives on spawn run, cropping period and yield of Pleurotus flabellatus
DFSR: Days for spawn run, DFFH: Days for first harvesting, DFCP: Days for cropping period, NOFB: Number of fruiting body, NOL: Number of loab

In case of P. florida maximum number of loab, pileus length, pileus width and stipe length (30.50, 11.9, 9.1 and 4.8 cm) was recorded in magnesium sulphate while minimum number of loab, pileus length, pileus width and stipe length (20.50, 7.4, 6 and 3.6 cm) was recorded in zinc sulphate, while in case of P. flabellatus maximum number of loab, pileus length, pileus width and stipe length (33.50, 7.95, 5.95 and 3.35 cm) was recorded in potassium di-hydrogen orthophosphate while minimum number of loab, pileus length, pileus width and stipe length (20.25, 5.65, 4.10 and 2.80 cm) was recorded in zinc sulphate.

DISCUSSION

Maximum yield of both the species of Pleurotus were observed in magnesium sulphate and in potassium di-hydrogen orthophosphate while minimum yield was found in zinc sulphate and the results were almost in accordance with the findings of various scientists14,15, who studied the growth requirements of Pleurotus tuber-regium16. The most suitable culture medium for the growth of P. ostreatus consisted of various nutrient sources, including magnesium sulphate (0.1%) was revealed by many experiments17. Maximum radial growth was observed in ferrous sulphate and copper sulphate supplemented medium in P. sajor caju, P. florida, P. flabellatus, P. fossulatus and P. sapidus after 6th day 12.

It was also noticed earlier, that maximum yield of P. sajor caju was observed in magnesium sulphate followed by ferrous sulphate18. The minimum reported time for spawn run in P. sajor caju (16 days), P. fossulatus (17 days) and P. sapidus (15 day) supplemented with ferrous sulphate followed by magnesium sulphate (18, 17 and 16 days), respectively12. It was also found by various scientists that supplementation with nitrogen can increase crop productivity, but to a certain level, as high nitrogen values could inhibit fruiting of mushrooms Pleurotus sp., “Florida”19. It was also accounted by many scientists that the yield and the quality of oyster mushroom depend on the chemical and nutritional content of substrates20-22. Kumar et al.12 was observed that maximum average weight per fruit body was recorded significantly well in magnesium sulphate and ferrous sulphate supplemented treatment from most of the tested oyster species, respectively. The significant effect of various source of carbon (brown sugar, fructose, lactose, glucose, sucrose, starch and maltose), nitrogen (wheat bran, yeast cream, beef cream, peptone, (NH4)2SO4, NH4Cl and (NH4)2CO3) and inorganic salts K2SO4, MgSO4, CaSO4, MnSO4 and FeSO4 on the mycelial growth of P. ostreatus was also studied previously. The mycelial growth was more pronounced with MgSO4 as the inorganic salts source15.

CONCLUSION

The addition of chemical additives to substrate significantly increased the mycelia extension, density and yield of oyster mushroom. In view of the presented results, it can be concluded that the yield, yield contributing characteristics and biological efficiency in the supplemented sets increased as compared to the unsupplemented control. So, accordingly magnesium sulphate and potassium di-hydrogen orthophosphate were proved as potential inorganic additives followed by zinc sulphate causing significant increase in spawn run, cropping period and yield of the two test species of oyster mushroom viz., P. florida and P. flabellatus. So, addition of these inorganic additives in the substrate will result significant increment in the yield of oyster mushroom which was the salient finding of the present study because these additives were cost effective and having no any residual effect on the quality and taste of mushroom.

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