Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

A Survey: Occurrence of Post Harvest Rots of Aonla with New Reported Pathogen (Penicillium funiculosum Thom.)



S.M. Yadav, R.K. Patil, Rai Ajay Kumar, L.P. Balai, S. Singh and Ram Niwas
 
ABSTRACT

The weekly survey carried out from first week of October to fourth week of January, 2008-09, revealed that the maximum disease incidence of Penicillium rot was observed to the tune of 4.93, 4.35 and 2.89% at Vegetable Market, Juni Shak Market, Station Road, Anand and Horticulture Farm Shop, A.A.U., Anand, respectively. The disease incidence of various rots (Penicillium, Alternaria, Colletotrichum, Aspergillus, Phomopsis and other rots) were found maximum at Vegetable Market and Juni Shak Market, Anand than the Horticulture Farm Shop, Anand. The pure culture was obtained from surveyed of aonla fruit and sent for identification to Indian Type Culture Collection (I.T.C.C.), Division of Mycology and Plant Pathology, I.A.R.I., New Delhi and was identified as a new recorded the Penicillium funiculosum (ITCC: 7046.08).

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

S.M. Yadav, R.K. Patil, Rai Ajay Kumar, L.P. Balai, S. Singh and Ram Niwas, 2013. A Survey: Occurrence of Post Harvest Rots of Aonla with New Reported Pathogen (Penicillium funiculosum Thom.). Plant Pathology Journal, 12: 124-126.

DOI: 10.3923/ppj.2013.124.126

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ppj.2013.124.126
 
Received: February 13, 2013; Accepted: April 21, 2013; Published: June 24, 2013

INTRODUCTION

The Aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Syn. Phyllanthus emblica L.) is one of the oldest and important arid fruit crop, belonging to family: Euphorbiaceae, sub-family Phyllanthoideae (Firminger, 1947). It is becoming one of the most important non traditional fruits of Indian origin having immense potentiality for cultivation on wasteland. In India, the area under aonla cultivation is about 50,000 hectares in different states like Utter Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan etc. with an annual of production of 2,00,000 metric tonnes (Goyal et al., 2008). Aonla fruit have different nutrients i.e., carbohydrates, proteins, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, vitamin C and B. It is a rich source of vitamin C ranging 400-1300 mg/100 g pulp and vitamin B 300 mg/100 g pulp (Singh, 2006). In India 20-25% of perishables fruits are lost due to post harvest rots (Sharma and Mashkoor Alam, 1998). The post harvest losses are reported that around 35% of produce is lost in storage and transits (Rawal and Saxena, 2005). Aonla fruits are perishable in nature. During harvest, transit and storage, fruits are subjected to minor injuries/wounds resulting in an early and easy invasion by several fungi to cause the post harvest decay. The retailers as well as wholesalers have to bear losses from the post-harvest rots which ultimately reduce the market value.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Survey of fruit rots of aonla in Horticulture orchard, AAU; Vegetable Market, Station Road and Juni Shak Market, Anand. To study the incidence of fungal rots, a weekly survey was carried out at all the locations from first week of October to fourth week of January during 2008-2009. Five samples were selected randomly each containing 100 fruits from all the locations and were examined for the incidence of fungal rots caused due to different pathogens. The percent fruit rot incidence was calculated by following standard formula:

Identification of the pathogen was carried out by studying the cultural and morphological characters. The microphotographs of mycelium and spore structure were taken with the help of digital camera. The pure culture was sent to Indian Type Culture Collection (I.T.C.C.), Division of Mycology and Plant Pathology, I.A.R.I., New Delhi-110 012 for identification.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The pure culture was obtained from surveyed of aonla fruit and sent for identification to Indian Type Culture Collection (I.T.C.C.), Division of Mycology and Plant Pathology, I.A.R.I., New Delhi and was identified as Penicillium funiculosum (ITCC: 7046.08). The weekly survey carried out from first week of October to fourth week of January (2008-09), revealed the presence of Penicillium, Colletotrichum, Alternaria, Phomopsis, Aspergillus, Internal necrosis (Boron deficiency) and other fruit rots (Cladosporium and Phoma) at Horticulture orchard, A.A.U., Anand, Vegetable Market, Station Road and Juni Shak Market, Anand.

The data presented in Table 1 indicated that at Vegetable Market, Station Road, Anand, incidence of Penicillium rot was predominant (4.93%) followed by Aspergillus rot (4.40%). The incidence of Alternaria, Colletotrichum, Phomopsis, other fruit rots and internal necrosis were 2.73, 2.56, 2.55, 2.31 and 1.56%, respectively. The highest incidence of Penicillium (11.00%) and Phomopsis rots (6.40%) were recorded in 4th week of December, while maximum incidence of Aspergillus (11.00%), Colletotrichum (6.20%) and Alternaria rots (6.00%) were recorded in 2nd week of January.

The data presented in Table 2 revealed that during 2008-09 at Juni Shak Market, Anand, maximum incidence of Penicillium rot (4.35%) was observed, followed by Aspergillus (3.89%) and Colletotrichum rots (2.41%). The incidence of Alternaria, Phomopsis, Internal necrosis and other fruit rots were 2.17, 1.72, 1.24 and 2.03%, respectively. The highest incidence of Penicillium (11.30%), Colletotrichum (6.5%), Alternaria (5.30%) and Phomopsis rots (4.50%) were recorded in 4th week of December, while Aspergillus (10.50%) and internal necrosis (2.5%) rots were recorded in 1st week of January.

The data presented in Table 3 revealed that during 2008-09 at Horticulture Farm Shop, A.A.U., Anand, highest incidence of Penicillium rot (2.89%) was observed followed by Aspergillus (2.73%) and Colletotrichum rots (2.35%). The incidence of Alternaria, Phomopsis, Internal necrosis and other fruit rots were 2.10, 1.51, 0.90 and 1.32%, respectively. The highest incidence of Penicillium (6.20%) and Colletotrichum rots (4.60%) were observed in 4th week of December, while maximum incidence of Aspergillus (6.00%) and Alternaria rots (4.20%) were recorded in 1st week of January and Phomopsis rot (3.40%) was recorded in 2nd week of January.

Disease incidence of various rots were found maximum at Vegetable Market, Station Road, Anand followed by Juni Shak Market, Anand and minimum disease incidence of the rots were observed at Horticulture Farm Shop, Anand. Thus, at all the locations Penicillium rot was found predominant over all other rots. The incidence of different fruit rots found more in the markets rather than Horticulture Farm Shop. The major reason behind this is the fruits are injured during picking, packaging and transportation, which make major avenues for infection by the various pathogens.

Rathod and Patel (2004) surveyed the occurrence of post harvest diseases of aonla fruits (Gujarat Aonla-1) at Juni Shak Market, Anand and Horticulture Farm Shop, Anand, during 2002-03 and 2003-04 and revealed the presence of five rots i.e., Penicillium (5.39 and 3.17%), Colletotrichum (3.25 and 2.21%), Alternaria (2.63 and 1.58%), Aspergillus (1.65 and 0.84%) and Cladosporium rots (0.85 and 0.69%), respectively.

Table 1: Incidence of aonla fruit rots at vegetable Market, Station Road, Anand

Table 2: Incidence of aonla fruit rots at Juni Shak Market, Anand

Table 3: Incidence of aonla fruit rots at Horticulture Farm Shop, AAU, Anand

Further Choubey (2007) carried out survey on incidence of post harvest diseases of aonla fruits (Gujarat Aonla-1) at Super Market Station Road, Anand and Horticulture Farm Shop, Anand, during 2006-07, he noted the presence of five rots i.e., Penicillium (5.92 and 2.9%), Colletotrichum (3.12 and 2.22%), Aspergillus (3.02 and 2.06%), Alternaria (2.72 and 1.64%) and Phomopsis (2.20 and 1.32%), respectively.

CONCLUSION

The isolated culture of pathogen was sent for identification to Indian Type Culture Collection (I.T.C.C.), I.A.R.I., New Delhi-110012 and was identified as a new pathogen (Penicillium funiculosum) (ID No: 7046.08). The weekly survey carried out from first week of October to fourth week of January, 2008-09, revealed that the maximum incidence of Penicillium rot (4.93, 4.35 and 2.89%) and Aspergillus rot (4.40, 3.89 and 2.73%) were observed at Vegetable Market, Juni Shak Market, Station Road, Anand and Horticulture Farm Shop, AAU, Anand, respectively.

REFERENCES
Choubey, S., 2007. Phomopsis fruit rot of aonla and its management. M.Sc. (Agri.) Thesis, Anand Agriculture Univeresity, Anand.

Firminger, T.A., 1947. Firminger's Manual of Gardening for India. Thacke Spink Co. Ltd., Calcutta.

Goyal, R.K., R.T. Patil, A.R.P. Kingsly, H. Walia and P. Kumar, 2008. Status of post harvest technology of Aonla in India-A review. Am. J. Food Technol., 3: 13-23.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Rathod, R.S. and J.G. Patel, 2004. Effect of pre and post inoculation treatment on post harvest rots of aonla fruits. J. Myco. Plant Pathol., 35: 525-525.

Rawal, R.D. and A.K. Saxena, 2005. Management of post harvest diseases of tropical fruits with reference to India. Proceedings of the 2nd Global Conference, Plant Health-Global Wealth, November 25-29, 2005, Udaipur, India, pp: 1-33.

Sharma, N. and M. Mashkoor Alam, 1998. Post Harvest Diseases of Horticultural Perishables. International Books Distributing Co., Lucknow, pp: 226-253.

Singh, B.P., 2006. Scintific storage of nutritious aonla. Phal-Phool, (Sept-Oct.): 8-10.

©  2019 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved