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Fluctuation of Diptera Larvae in Phytotelmata and Relation with Climate Variation in West Sumatra Indonesia



Emantis Rosa, Dahelmi , Siti Salmah and Syamsuardi
 
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ABSTRACT

Research of fluctuations in Diptera’s larvae in Phytotelmata had been conducted at three locations in West Sumatra, Indonesia; Padang, Bukittinggi and Payakumbuh, which aimed to determine the number and fluctuations Diptera larvae in Phytotelmata. The results obtained; the highest number of individual larvae Diptera in Phytotelmata was 7109 Aedes albopictus larvae (49.56%), followed by larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus with 2409 individuals (16.80%). Larvae fluctuated every month and tent to increase in November and December. There was no difference in the number of Diptera larvae individuals inhabiting pandan, taro, and pineapple, but there were significant differences between the three types of Phytotelmata (pandanus, taro and pineapple) with bamboo (p<0.05). Number of individual larvae in Phytotelmata negatively correlated with temperature and rainfall, but positively correlated with humidity (r = 0.44: p<0.05).

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Emantis Rosa, Dahelmi , Siti Salmah and Syamsuardi , 2014. Fluctuation of Diptera Larvae in Phytotelmata and Relation with Climate Variation in West Sumatra Indonesia. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 17: 947-951.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2014.947.951

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjbs.2014.947.951
 
Received: August 29, 2013; Accepted: January 20, 2014; Published: March 29, 2014



INTRODUCTION

Phytotelmata, aquatic habitat in or on plants, include treeholes, pitcher plants, bamboo shoots, and bromeliad bracts (Paradise, 2004). Phytotelmata are inhabited by aquatic insects, mainly Diptera and Coleoptera, and most phytotelmata contain at least one species of mosquito (Culicidae) whose immature stage are usually numerically dominant (Fish, 1983). The most recent summmary of phytotelmata in habitanss included over 20 families of insects (Greeney, 2001).

Insects including Diptera life is largely determined by factors both biotic and abiotic environments. An abiotic factor such as climate is one of the most important factors in the life of insects, because the climate can affect growth, reproduction and abundance of insects (Cammell and Knight, 1992). Besides, climate can also affect mortality directly or indirectly which will lead to changes in the number of insects (Kahono and Amir, 2003). Climate consists of several elements such as temperature, rainfall and humidity that each element has different effects on different regions. Temperature is the most dominant element in the country with temperate climates, while rainfall is a major element of the climate in tropical countries, other elements of the climate in the tropics is the temperature, humidity (Ewusie, 1990; Kahono and Nardjito, 2001). Climate may change from time to time; climate change and disturbance of habitat will affect the insect population that is constantly fluctuating all the time.

Several studies related to insect fluctuations has been done by several researchers, among others: The fauna of tree holes in relation to environmental factors (Kitching, 1969); seasonal population dynamics of the immature stages of Aedes africanus (Theobald) (Diptera; Culicidae) in Zika Forest (Sempala,1983); species richness and altitudinal variation in theaquatic metazoan community in bamboo Phytotelmata from North Sulawesi (Sota and Mogi,1996); distribution of larval mosquitoes among bamboo-stump pools which vary inpersistence and resource input (Sunahara and Mogi, 1997); searching cluster of community composition along multiple: a case study on aquatic invertebrate communities in bamboo stump in West Timor (Sunahara and Mogi, 2004); bromeliad-inhibiting mosquitoes in an urban botanical garden of dengue endemic Rio de Janeiro- are bromeliad productive habitats for the invasive vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Mocellin et al., 2009). But then, how fluctuations of Diptera larvae in Phytotelmata associated with the changes of environmental factors (temperature, rainfall and humidity) in settlements of West Sumatra, so far there has been no information. This study aimed to determine the change in climate factor to fluctuations of Diptera larvae in Phytotelmata in residential areas of West Sumatra, Indonesia.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study area: Study was begun in January until December 2012, at three locations in the city of West Sumatra; Padang, which lies in the (00° 53' 666' - 00° 53' 786" SL and 100° 21' 999' and 100° 2' 968" LE), elevation was in 18 m above the sea level (asl.).

Fig. 1: Study area

Bukittinggi is located on the site (00° 18' 899"- 00° 17' 898" SL and 100° 23' 61"-100° 22' 62" LE), elevation was in 939 m above sea level. Payakumbuh lies in the (00° 12' 935"-00° 12' 935" LS and 100° 37' 901''-100° 37' 899" LE), elevation was in 534 m above sea level. Rainfall, temperature and humidity data were obtained from the Meteorology and Geophysics Agency (MBKG) MinangKabau Airport, 2012 and Sicincin Climatology Station, West Sumatra, 2012 (Fig. 1).

Sampling and method: Determination of plant Phytotelmata for larval sampling referred to Kitching (1971) criteria. Sampling techniques followed to Derraik (2005) method carried out by using a pipette/straw with a size adapted to Phytotelmata. Water that had been taken from the plant, sorted from trashes and dirt, then larvae was separated. Obtained larvae were identified and referred to (Delfinado, 1966; Pennak,1978; Gek et al., 2008, 2010). Diptera larvae found were calculated, dead larvae put in a bottle containing alcohol 70% for identification, live larvae was being kept alive until adulthood to ensure the identification result. Identification was performed in Research Laboratory, Animal Taxonomy, Department of Biology, Mathematics and Science Faculty, University of Andalas. Diptera larvae sampling was done once every two weeks, for one year.

Data analysis: Analysis of the data included the number of individual larvae, larvae fluctuations, differences in the number of individual larvae of Diptera in several Phytotelmata analyzed by one-way ANOVA and advanced Tukey's test using the program SPSS Statistics version 16. Relationship between the number of individual larvae with some climatic factors (rainfall, temperature, and humidity) was analyzed with Spearman's correlation using the program SPSS 16 version.

RESULTS

Number of Diptera larvae on the four types of Phytotelmata is presented in Table 1.

The number of Diptera larvae in pandan ranged from 3-1607, with the total individual was 3488. In taro, larvae ranged from 44-1445, with total 3313. In bamboo, larvae ranges from 14-1697 (2366) and pineapple ranges from 5-2360 individuals (5176). Meanwhile, when we saw from the number of types of each larva, the highest number of individuals found in the larvae of Aedes albopictus, 7109 individuals (49.56%), followed by Culex tritaeniorhynchus larvae with 2409 individuals (16.80%), larvae of Chironomus sp. (15.01%). Individual differences in the number of Diptera larvae in all four types of Phyotelmata can be seen in Table 2.

The number of of Diptera larvae for four types of Phytotelmata is presented in Table 2. The average number of individuals of Diptera larvae in pandan was (442.58±112.04), in taro (477.50±131.82), in bamboo (477.94±36.67), and pineapple (319.92±147, 99). Statistical analysis of the results showed that the number of individual larvae Diptera in pandan no different than taro,but unlike in bamboo, while the number of individual larvae of Diptera in contrast to the panda, pineapple, taro and bamboo (p<0.05).

Fig. 2(a-g): Fluctuations for seven types of diptera larvae in phyototelmata every month, (a) Ae. aegypti, (b) Ae. Albopictus, (c) Culex, (d) Armigers, (e) Tipula sp. (f) Chironomus sp. and (g) Psychoda sp.

Table 1: No.of individual diptera larvae in phytotelmata

Table 2: Total range in the No. of Diptera larvae in Phytotelmata
Description: Subscribe with different signs indicated a significant difference (p<0.05) and the same sign indicated no difference between of them

Fluctuations of Diptera larvae on each month Phytotelmata was seen in Fig. 2. The highest number of of Aedes aegypti larvae in September was found in pandan and bamboo. In October the lowest numbers of individuals were found at pandan, taro and bamboo. Ae. albopictus larvae was highest in December on all types Phytotelmata and the lowest was in March and April. Larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus were highest in September in pandan and the lowest in August. Armigeres subalbatus was highest in December at all kinds of Phytotelmata and lowest was in the month of July. Larvae of Tipula sp. were highest in January and December, and the lowest was in June. Number of larvae Chironomus sp. almost evenly throughout the year, but showed an increase and the highest in December, the lowest in August. Psychoda sp. larvae were highest in March and lowest in January.

Relationships of number of individual Diptera larvae with climate factors included rainfall, temperature, and humidity the study period can be seen in Table 3.

Table 3: Correlation between the numbers of individual larvae with climatic factors
Description: subscribe with different signs indicated a significant difference (p<0.05) and (p<0.01)

Table 3 showed that the number of individuals of Diptera larvae was negatively correlated with rainfall and temperature, but positively correlated with the moisture with a correlation of 0.440 (p<0.05 <0.01).

DISCUSSION

Table 1 showed the number of individuals of Diptera larvae in Phytotelmata were dominated by Aedes albopictus, followed by Culex tritaeniorhynchus larvae. This might be due to incompatibility of breeding places for the life of this type of larva, Aedes albopictus and Culex breeding places were more like the outside of the house, including the pool of water in plants (Delfinado, 1966). Similar results were also reported by Yanoviak et al. (2006), the genus of Culex and Aedes were found together inhabited Phytotelmata bromeliads. Adebote et al. (2008) reported the dominance of the genus Aedes and Culex were in Phytotelmata tree hole. When we referred from the fluctuations of Diptera larvae in Phytotelmata every month for a year, there was a tendency that the number of Diptera larvae was found to increase in November and December, except for Psychoda sp. When we associated with rainfall in November and December, both months was quite high in November (241.3 mm) and in December (281.4 mm). Rainfall above 150 mm in one month and was followed two months later, it said to be the rainy season, but if it was below 150 mm in a month, it was said to be the dry season.

High rainfall will result in increased volumes of standing water being stored in phytotelmata. Sufficient amount of water volume in the breeding places will support breeding Diptera larvae that inhabit in Phytotelmata, we could see from the fluctuations on Diptera larvae in Phytotelmata increased in November and December. Similar results were reported by Paradise (2004) the density of Culex guttipenis larvae were higher in the tree hole with a higher volume of water, in contrast with the low water volume. Jabiol et al. (2009) revealed the number of individual insects in bromeliads Phytotelmata increased with the volume of water. The average of rainfall during the two months of November and December above 150 mm, including the rainy season, the condition was accompanied by an increasing trend in the individual number of Diptera larvae in Phytotelmata. The same facts also happened on the observation of insect communities in pitcher plants, which was increased in the wet season (rainy) and decreased in the dry season (Barrera et al., 1989). Toxorhynchites population was much reduced during the dry season in Kenya (Lounibos, 1979). Other types of larvae vary in numbers, such as Psychoda sp., they increased in March and May.

Rainfall and temperature were negatively correlated with the number of Diptera larvae (Table 3). This result was supported by several researchers, among others, in West Java; Siva Torreias et al. (2010) in Brazil. Humidity factor was positively correlated with the number of individual larvae, it was presumably because of the humidity was still within the range required by the larvae (50.5 to 89.92%) that had an impact on increasing the number of larvae. At the appropriate humidity conditions, the metabolic process was faster and the growth and development were shorter. In the tropical areas, rainfall was the primary factors, whereas the temperature and humidity factors also affected the dynamics of insect life (Ewusie, 1990).

CONCLUSION

Composition of Diptera larvae that inhabited the four types of phytotelmata consist of four families, namely family Chironomidae, Culicidae, Tipulidae and families Psychodidae and seven species of larvae; Chironomus sp., Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Armigeres subalbatus, Tipula sp and Psychoda sp. Number of individual larvae in phytotelmata were highest in Diptera larvae, found in Aedes Albopictus, followed by larvae of Culex Tritaeniorhynchus. Diptera larvae fluctuation tent to increase in November and December. There was no difference in the number of Diptera larvae inhabiting pandanus and taro, and pineapple, but there were significant differences between the three plants (pandan, taro and pineapple) with bamboo (p<0.05). Number of individual larvae in Phytotelmata were negatively correlated with temperature and rainfall, but positively correlated with humidity of (r = 0.4: p<0.05).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Authors would like to thank to our friends; Hasmiwati, Rafdinal, who have provided input, criticism, suggestions, and discussions for the perfection of this study, my children-Chicha and Ivan, laboratory staffs and all of community as well as the various parties who help the implementation of this research, thank you very much.

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