Epiphytic Algae on Mosses in the Altindere Valley National Park (Macka-Trabzon/Turkey)
Species composition and abundance of epiphytic algae
on mosses growing in the Altindere Valley National Park were investigated
in March 2008. The epiphytic algae identified in these samples were 27
species in total, 15 of the Bacillariophyta, 7 of the Cyanophyta, 4 of
the Chlorophyta and a single of the Euglenophyta species. The members
of the Bacillariophyta were more frequently found among these epiphytic
algae on mosses. Netrium digitus (Ehrenb.) Itzigs and Rothe var.
curtum (Borge) Willi Krieg. was recorded for the first time in
the desmids flora of Turkey. The epiphytic algal flora on mosses at the
submerged habitat was the richest of the three habitats.
The aim of this study was to investigate the Epiphytic Algae on Mosses
as well as the endemic and rare Algae of Altindere Valley, situated in
the Eastern Black Sea region of the Euro-Siberian floristic area. It is
a part of Trabzon Province popular with tourists because this area is
a national park and includes Sumela (Meryemana) Monastery, which is an
important spiritual tourism site.
Although knowledge of moss flora has been accumulated, there are no published
articles about epiphytic algal flora on mosses in Turkey. Whereas it is
well known that mosses is often covered with epiphytic algae.
In the Altindere Valley National Park, the first study carried out by
Palaba and Anşin (2006). It was reported forest flora in this study.
Baydar and Özdemir (1996) described the moss flora of Altindere Valley
National Park and Uzun and Terzioğlu (2008) studied vascular flora
of forest vegetation. Kara and Şahin (2002) reported epipelic and
epilithic algae of the Altindere River in the Altindere Valley.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The Altindere Valley National Park is one of the most important national
parks in Turkey, due to having the most diverse flora comprising several
vegetation types (forest, sub alpine and alpine) and the historical value
of Sumela (Meryemana) monastery. Situated on a rock face 300 m above the
deep valley, it is an important place for spiritual tourism and a favorite
spot with tourist traveling along the Black Sea coast. The annual average
rainfall is 754 mm and the average temperature is 9.8°. The study
area lies within the Eastern Black Sea Climatic Region according to the
macroclimate types of Turkey. Additionally, the climate type of the study
area is very humid (Cepel, 1995).
The moss samples used in this study were collected from the Altindere
Valley National Park in Trabzon in 23 March 2008 (Fig. 1).
The moss samples were collected from three different habitats. Nine moss
samples from moist soil, five from on the wet rocks along the Altindere
river and two from submerged were collected. A total of sixteen moss samples
were used for this study (Table 1). In making a preparation,
a moss sample was rewetted with distilled water for a few minutes. Algae
were then scraped from the surface of a small piece (about 10 mm2)
of moss with a needle under a binocular microscope.
The moss samples were incised by spatula from their habitats. After the
samples were cleaned, they were preserved in plastic bags. Each plastic
bag has a label providing the information about the habitat of the area.
The moss species have been identified by many researchers (Watson, 1981;
Frey et al., 1995; Cortini- Pedrotti, 2001; Herrnstadt and Heyn,
2004; Smith, 2004; Jimenez, 2006). Vouchers are deposited in the herbarium
of Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Department
of Biology. The taxonomic identification of algae was carried out according
to Krammer and Lange-Bertalot (1986, 1988, 1991a, b).
Twenty-seven species of epiphytic algae were recognized in the moss samples
examined. These algae were 15 species of the Bacillariophyta, 7
species of the Cyanophyta, 4 species of the Chlorophyta
and a single of the Euglenophyta species (Table 2).
Algae were predominantly observed among leaves and stems near the surface
of moss turfs.
||The Study Area (Altindere Valley National Park-Trabzon)
The epiphytic algal flora on mosses at the moist soil habitat was the
poorest of the three habitats. Nine moss samples were examined at this
habitat (Table 1). Bacillariophyta and Cyanophyta were
represented by four species and Hantzschia amphioxys and Lyngbya lagerheimii
were observed in most of the samples. Eunotia praerupta became
rather common in the moss sample of Barbula convoluta. Chlorophyta
and Euglenophyta were represented by only a single species.
On the wet rocks habitats, the epiphytic algae on mosses were generally
poor in quantity and number of species. Five moss samples were examined
at this habitat (Table 1). Bacillariophyta was represented
by 10 species while Cyanophyta was represented by 5 species. The members
of the Chlorophyta and Euglenophyta were never observed in any samples
at this habitat. Diatoma mesodon became rather common in the moss
sample of Plagiomnium rostratum.
At the submerged habitat, on the contrary to the former two habitats,
the epiphytic algae on mosses were rather abundant. Two moss samples were
examined at this habitat (Table 1). A total of 18 species
were recorded, of which 12 belong to Bacillariophyta, 3 to Chlorophyta
and 3 to Cyanophyta. Diatoma mesodon became rather common in the
moss samples of Plagiomnium affine. Netrium digitus (Ehrenberg)
Itzigs and Rothe var. curtum (Borge) Willi Krieg. was recorded
for the first time in the desmids flora of Turkey (L: 90, W: 40 μm)
(Ohtani, 1986). This species was identified in the moss sample of Plagiomnium
|| The moss samples studied
|| The algal species on mosses in the Altindere Valley
|1Abbreviation same as Table
Among the three habitats, submerged was the most favorable habitat for
the epiphytic algae. The epiphytic algal flora on mosses turned out to
be poorer than submerged algal flora in the Altindere Valley National
Park. The same situation was observed in the Antarctic. At the submerged
habitat, the members of the Bacillariophyta are rich in comparison with
those of moist soil and wet rocks habitats. The same situation was observed
in the Antarctic (Ohtani, 1986).
The scarcity of the Cyanophyta shown in the present study is remarkable.
Whereas, Ohtani (1986) reported that the members of the Cyanophyta predominated
in all the samples as in the earlier studies on the algal flora of the
Antarctic region. Especially, the members of the Nostoc were more common
on mosses in the Antarctic (Ohtani, 1986). Because, the species of Nostoc
could colonize favorably in such nutrient-deficient habitats by the ability
to fix atmospheric nitrogen and these algae might play an importance role
in providing moss vegetation with nitrogen source. In the present study,
the Nostoc genera was represented by unidentified one species.
The proportion of the Oscillatoria members was much less than that
of the submerged habitat.
Ohtani (1986) reported two species of Desmids in the Syowa Station
in Antarctic. In the present study, the same result was observed. Lenzenweger
(1996) reported that Netrium digitus var. curtum was associated
with Sphagnum. In the present study, it was confirmed that the availability
of water supply for the moss habitat seemed to largely influence the growth
of the epiphytic algae as well.
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