Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article

Effect of Replacement of Fish Meal by Soybean and Sunflower Meal in the Diet of Cyprinus carpio Fingerlings

Muhammad Nasim Khan, Mussarat Parveen , Abdul Rab , Muhammad Afzal , Lubna Sahar , Muhammad Ramzan Ali and S.M.H.M. Naqvi
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail

An 8 week experiment was conducted in glass aquaria to replace fish meal by soybean meal and sunflower meal in the diet of Cyprinus carpio. For that purpose fingerlings of approximately equal weight and length were distributed randomly in aquaria and fed on selective feeds based with fish meal (F1), soybean meal (F2), sunflower meal (F3) and aquarium feed (F4). The results of the trial showed that the total weight gain in gram was 28.06, 15.60, 20.15, 29.17 for F1, F2, F3 and F4 respectively. FCR was 2.40,4.09,3.17,2.16 and SGR was 0.904, 0.507,0.668,1.059 for F1, F2, F3 and F4, respectively. According to the data obtained aquarium feed was better than other feeds but statistical analysis for cost effectiveness (p<0.05) showed that aquarium feed was not suitable to use and fish meal was non replaceable but can be supplemented with sunflower and soybean meals to produce a cost effective feed. While among soybean and sunflower meals the latter was proved to be more effective.

Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

Muhammad Nasim Khan, Mussarat Parveen , Abdul Rab , Muhammad Afzal , Lubna Sahar , Muhammad Ramzan Ali and S.M.H.M. Naqvi , 2003. Effect of Replacement of Fish Meal by Soybean and Sunflower Meal in the Diet of Cyprinus carpio Fingerlings. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 6: 601-604.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2003.601.604



The protein component of the aquaculture diet is the single most expensive portion and important dietary nutrient. Fish meal remains the major dietary protein source ranging between 20-60% of the fish feed (Kaushik, 1989; Tacon and Jackson, 1985) but escalating cost, uncertainty in availability and lesser quantity has necessitated the use of other animal and plant protein sources to reduce the feed cost without compromising growth. Therefore, efforts are now being directed in different parts of the world to find alternate protein sources of good quality, which ideally are less expensive and readily available as substitutes for the expensive fish meal component in the practical diets. In this respect due to low cost and market availability soybean has been identified universally as most attractive vegetable protein source for animal feeds (Lim and Akiyama, 1989).

Wong et al. (1996), prepared a successful diet containing soybean residue with beef-liver mixture for common carp. Defatted soybean meal has universal acceptance both qualitatively and quantitatively. Soybean meal has a favorable amino acid profile as compared to other plant protein sources, is consistently available, cost effective and is reported to be palatable to most species of fish (Akiyama, 1988).

Studies on utilization of soybean meal in fish feeds have begun recently. Most of the work pertains to Trout, Salmon, Channel catfish and Tilapia, by several workers. Successful use of soybean and its products in fish feeds for the purpose of partial replacement of protein in diets of Indian fishes have been demonstrated by Chakrabarthy et al. (1973); Bhat et al. (1986); Keshabvappa, (1990) and Devaraj, (1991). Xie et al. (2001) tried a substitution experiment on gibel carp by using soybean cake, potato protein concentrate, peanut cake, cotton seed cake and rapeseed cake.

Little or no information is available on the utilization of sunflower meal in fish diet. Rab (1993) reported the partial utilization of sunflower meal in Trout feed with considerable success and better growth rate. The current experiment was conducted to determine the effect of replacement of fish meal on growth of common carp and to find out the nutritive value of soybean and sunflower meal in the feed, in order to minimize the dependence upon fishmeal as protein source and to reduce the cost of feed.

Materials and Methods

An eight week trial was conducted in the wet labs of Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute, National Agricultural Research Center (NARC) Islamabad.

Table 1(a): Experimental feed compositions for Cyprinus carpio

Table 1(b): Proximate analysis of the experimental feeds for Cyprinus carpio

In that 200 fingerlings of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were collected by drag net from Mein Hart Dam and the Fishponds at Aquaculture and Fisheries (NARC), Islamabad. The fish was kept in the cemented raceways and acclimatized for fifteen days on the feed supplement containing rice bran and rapeseed, in order to habituate them for artificial feeding.

Eight glass aquaria (2`x1.5`x1`) were filled with 40 L of water and aerated properly through an air pump model SSP-40 GJ-L. Out of 200 fish, 80 fingerlings of approximately same weight and length were selected and distributed randomly among the aquaria.

Three iso-nitrogenous feeds were formulated, using Pearson method, with 26% crude protein level. Fishmeal based diet was designated as F1, soybean meal diet as F2, sunflower meal as F3 where as aquarium feed (used for ornamental fish feeding) was designated as F4. The level of ingredients in each test diet was calculated on the bases of level of replacement of fishmeal (Table 1a). The dry ingredients of the feed were grinded with the help of electric grinder, weighed and mixed together in the required quantity. Mineral premix, vitamin powder and required quantity of soybean oil were also added to the feed mixture. Proximate analysis of the experimental feeds was also done for comparison (Table 1b).

Water quality parameters viz. pH, Dissolved Oxygen content, CO2, total alkalinity, total hardness and temperature were also analyzed weekly through Hatch Kit.

Final weights of the stock were taken at the end of the experiment. From the data, Food Consumption Ratio (FCR) and Specific Growth Rate (SGR) were calculated. The data was then subjected to statistical analysis (ANOVA, DMR Test, Regression analysis), using MSTAT, for growth comparisons and calculation of cost effectiveness of the four test diets.

Results and Discussion

The results obtained for weight gain showed that fish fed on fish meal (F1) and aquarium feed (F4) both gained 2.82 g weight in the period of eight weeks, while Sunflower meal fed fish (F3) gained 2.01 g and Soybean fed (F2) gained 1.56 grams respectively (Table 2).

Statistical analysis for growth showed that specific growth rate of F4 was highly significant as compared with F1, because of the lesser FCR of F4 (Table 3, Fig. 1). F2 and F3 showed less significant results for growth. This may be because F1 and F2 had animal protein source as compared to F2 and F3 having plant protein source (Mc Coy, 1990 and Keshabvappa et al., 1990).

Table 2: Weight Gain of Cyprinus carpio with different treatments

Table 3: Statistical Results for comparison of Growth in different treatments

Table 4: Analysis in terms of Cost and Profit for different treatments

Table 5:Physico-chemical factors of water in Treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4

Fig. 1:
Growth performance of Cyprinus carpio for different treatments

Fig. 2:
Relationship between profit and cost of Cyprinus carpio for different treatments

Sunflower meal was proved better than the soybean meal, which may be because of low sulpher content (NRC, 1974), amino acid imbalance (Andrews and Page, 1974), anti nutritional factors other than trypsin inhibitors present in soybean meal (Wilson and Poe, 1985), low energy content (Viola et al., 1982) or lack of Phosphorus (Kim and Oh, 1985). Which may make it unpalatable and cause growth reductions may reduce or delay feed intake (Tacon et al., 1983). The better performance of Sunflower meal may be due to the absence of some of these growth inhibitors.

Contrary to the interpretation that aquarium feed is better than fish meal, when statistical analysis for cost effectiveness was done, aquarium feed proved highly non significant. In this analysis fishmeal came out to be highly significant while Soybean meal was also non-significant and Sunflower meal was significant (Table 4, Fig. 2).

Results of water quality parameters like temperature, pH, alkalinity, salinity, dissolved Oxygen, dissolved CO2, NH3 and nitrates are presented in Table 5. Since the difference between the physico-chemical factors of all aquaria was non-significant they were not supposed to affect the growth rate.

The experiment concludes that the fishmeal could not be replaced totally with plant products; however, partial replacement can be done using sunflower meal to reduce the cost without affecting growth rate.

1:  Akiyama, D.M., 1988. Soybean Utilization in Fish Feeds. Korean Feed Association Conference, Seoul, Korea.

2:  Andrews, S.W. and J.W. Page, 1974. Growth factor in the fish meal component of cat fish diet. J. Nutr., 104: 1091-1096.

3:  Bhat, G.K., H.P.C. Shetty and M.C. Nandeesha, 1986. Formulation and evaluation of pelleted fish feed based on soybean meal and sqiullr meal. Proceedings of the 1st Asian Fisheries Forom, May 26-31, Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, Philippine, pp: 539-542.

4:  Chakrabarthy, R.D., P.R. Sen, D.K. Chatterjee and C.V. Kowtal, 1973. Observations on the relative usefulness of different feeds for carp spawn and fry. J. Inland Fish. Soc. India, 5: 182-188.

5:  Devaraj, K.V. and D. Seenappa, 1991. Effects of feeding levels on food utilization and growth of Catla fry. Proceedings of the 4th Asian Fish Nulrition Workshop, (AFNW`91), Asian Fisheries Society, Special Publication 5. Manila Philippines, pp: 49-57.

6:  Kaushik, S.J., 1989. Progress in fish nutrition. Proceedings of the Fish Nutrition Symposium, (FNS`98), China, pp: 181-208.

7:  Keshabvappa, G.Y., K.V. Devaraj, Y. Basavaraju and D. Seenappa, 1990. Survival and growth of common carp spawn fed on soybean flour. J. Aquac.Top., 5: 131-134.

8:  Kim, I.B. and J.K. Oh, 1985. The effect of phosphorous supplementation to 40% soybean meal substituted for common carp. Bull. Kor. Fish. Soc., 18: 491-495.

9:  Lim, C. and D.M. Akiyama, 1989. Full-fat-soybean meal utilization by fish. Proceedings of the Aquaculture and Feed Workshop, Sept. 17-30, People's Republic of China, pp: 433-433.

10:  McCoy, H., 1990. Fish meal. The Critical Ingredient in Aquaculture Feeds. Aquaculture. Mag., Mar/April, pp: 43-50.

11:  National Rcsearch Council, 1974. Nutrient Requirements of Warm Water Fishes. National Acedemic Press, Washinglion DC., pp: 11-78.

12:  Rab, A., 1993. Feed formulation for rainbow trout at Madyan, Swat ( NWFP). Report submitted to Technical Committee on Fisheries. PARC., pp: 1-10.

13:  Tacon, A.G.J. and C.B. Cowey, 1983. Protein and Amino Acid Requirements. In: Fish Energetics: New Perspectives Croon Helm, Tytler, P. and P. Calow (Eds.). Beckenham, UK., pp: 155.

14:  Tacon, A.G.J. and A.J. Jackson, 1985. Nutrition and Feeding in Fish. National Academic Press, New York, pp: 119-145.

15:  Viola, S., S. Mokady, U. Rappaport and Y. Arieli, 1982. Partial and complete replacement of fishmeal by soybean meal in feeds for intensive culture of carp. Aquaculture, 26: 223-236.
CrossRef  |  

16:  Wilson, R.P. and J.E. Halver, 1985. Protein and amino aicd requirements of fishes. Ann. Rev. Nutr., 6: 225-244.

17:  Wong, M.H., L.Y. Tang, F.S.L. Kwok, 1996. The use of enzyme-digested soybean residue for feeding common carp. Biomed. Environ. Sci., 9: 418-423.
PubMed  |  

18:  Xie, S., X. Zhu, Y. Cui and Y. Yang, 2001. Utilization of several plant proteins by gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). J. Applied Ichthyol., 17: 70-76.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved