Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Determination of Suitable Chemical Extraction Methods for Available Iron Content of the Soils from Edirne Province in Turkey



Aydin Adiloglu
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

The aim of this research was to determine the available iron (Fe) content of the soils of Edirne Province and the most suitable chemical extraction method. Eight chemical extraction methods (0.005 M DTPA+0.01 M CaCl2+0.1 M TEA; 0.05 M HCl+0.012 M H2SO4; 1 M NH4OAc (pH: 4.8); 0.01 M EDTA+1 M NH4OAc; 1 M MgCl2; 0.01 M EDTA+1 M (NH4)2CO3; 0.005 M DTPA+1 M NH4HCO3 and 0.001 M EDDHA methods) and six biological indices (dry matter yield, Fe concentration, Fe uptake, relative dry matter yield, relative Fe concentration, relative Fe uptake) were compared. Biological indices were determined with Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown under greenhouse conditions. The highest correlation coefficients (r) were determined to be between 0.005 M DTPA+0.01 M CaCl2+0.1 M TEA method and biological indices and between 0.005 M DTPA+ 1M NH4HCO3 method and biological indices. The correlation coefficients (r) for 0.005 M DTPA+0.01 M CaCl2+0.1 M TEA method were r:0.621**; r:0.823**; r:0.810**; r:0.433**; r:0.558** and r:0.640** and for 0.005 M DTPA+1 M NH4HCO3 method are r:0.618** ; r:0.520**; r:0.679**; r:0.521**; r:0.492** and r:0.641**, (**:p<0.01) respectively. These extraction methods, among all the methods tested were suggested for the determination of available Fe content of Edirne Province soils.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Aydin Adiloglu , 2003. Determination of Suitable Chemical Extraction Methods for Available Iron Content of the Soils from Edirne Province in Turkey. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 6: 505-510.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2003.505.510

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjbs.2003.505.510

Introduction

Although required in very small amounts iron (Fe) is an essential nutrient and plays a major role in plant growth and development. The trend to more intensive crop production with higher yields and heavier use of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilizers increases the need for Fe and other trace elements in agriculture. Soil analyses are helpful in determining whether a soil can supply adequate amounts of Fe for optimal growth or not.

Fe deficiency is one of the most common trace element problems in the world now-a-days. It is frequent in high pH, high lime, low organic matter content and sandy soils (Lindsay and Schwab, 1982). Available Fe is inadequate in about 26.87 % of Turkey’s soils (Eyupolu et al., 1998).

Despite the fact that several Fe extraction methods have been developed none of them was suitable to be a standard one (Loeppert and Inskeep, 1996).

Lindsay and Norvell (1978) and Norvell (1984) suggested DTPA (pH: 7.3) method for the determination of available Fe content with regards to neutral and alkaline soils.

The 0.001 M EDDHA method was suggested for the determination of available Fe content in USA. Because this method has produced the highest correlation with biological indices (Johnson and Young, 1973).

Hatipoğlu (1981) has determined correlation coefficients (r) between eleven extraction methods and biological indices to find about the available Fe content of the soils from Central South Anatolia. The highest correlation coefficient (r) determined was between 0.001 M EDDHA method and biological indices.

In this research, suitable method for the determination of available Fe content of the soils of Edirne region was investigated.

Materials and Methods

Soil samples were taken at 0-20 cm depth from 25 different cultivated soils in Edirne (Kacar, 1995). Soil pH (Thomas, 1996), lime (Loeppert and Suarez, 1996), CEC (Sumner and Miller, 1996) and texture (Gee and Bauder, 1986) were determined for each sample.

Some physical and chemical properties of the soil samples are determined (Table 1). The pH values of soil samples ranged from 6.29 to 7.94; CaCO3 contents were between 0.00 and 15.10%; CEC values were between 16.44 and 37.22 cmol kg‾1; texture of soil samples were between clay © and sandy loam (SL).

The available Fe contents of the soil samples were determined through eight different chemical extraction methods. These methods are 0.005 M DTPA+0.01M CaCl2 +0.1 M TEA (Lindsay and Norvell, 1978); 0.05 M HCl+0.012 M H2SO4 (Wear and Evans, 1968); 1 M NH4OAc (Olson, 1948); 0.01 M EDTA+1 M NH4OAc (Navrot and Ravikovitch,1968); 1 M MgCl2 (Stewart and Berger, 1965); 0.001 M EDTA+1 M (NH4)CO3 (Trierweiler and Lindsay, 1969); 0.005 M DTPA+1 M NH4HCO3 (Soltanpour, 1991) and 0.001 M EDDHA (Johnson and Young, 1973).

Table 1:Some physical and chemical properties of the soil samples

Table 2:Chemical extraction methods were used for the determination of available Fe contents of the soil samples

Some properties of these extraction methods are given in Table 2.

A greenhouse experiment was designed in a randomised complete block design replicated three times during July and August 2001. Air dried 2.5 kg soil was filled into plastic pots. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was used as a test plant because it is sensitive to Fe deficiency (Martens and Westermann, 1991). Each pot was fertilized with 140 mg kg‾1 N (NH4NO3) and 80 mg kg‾1 P2O5 (KH2PO4), according to average application rates of N and P2O5 to barley in this region. Four different rates of Fe (Fe0:0; Fe1:10; Fe2:20; and Fe3:30 mg kg‾1) were applied to soils as Fe-EDDHA compound. Fifteen plants were left in each pot after germination. The water content of the pots was adjusted to 70% of field capacity during the experimental period. Barley shoots were harvested after 60 days. Harvested shoots were washed once tap water and twice distilled water and dried at 65°C. Dry matter yields were also determined.

Dried and ground plant materials were digested using HNO3+HClO4 (Kacar, 1972). The Fe concentrations of plants were determined with AA-660 Shimadzu Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) (Kacar,1995).

Dry matter yield, Fe concentration, Fe uptake and the relative values of these biological indices were used as biological methods. Relative biological indices were calculated as Fe0 / Femaximum biological indice X 100

Correlation coefficients (r) were measured between available Fe content of the soils according to eight different methods and biological indices (dry matter yield, Fe concentration, Fe uptake, relative dry matter yield, relative Fe concentration and relative Fe uptake) of barley plants. Significance of the correlation coefficients (r) was checked at 1 and 5% levels (Yurtsever, 1984).

The extraction method which displayed the highest correlation coefficient (r) with the biological indices was recommended for the determination of available Fe content of the soils of Edirne Province.This approach for selecting extracting methods has been used before in the determination of suitable methods for many plant nutrients (Aydemir, 1981; Aydemir and Köleli, 1996; Arriechi and Ramirez, 1997; Yildiz and Özkutlu, 1997; Akman and Yildiz, 1999; Özgüven and Katkat, 2001; Elkarim and Usta, 2001).

Results and Discussion

Effect of increasing Fe application rates on barley yiels, Fe concentration and Fe uptake: Dry matter yield of the barley plants was affected by Fe application. Dry matter yield of 18 soil samples of total 25 samples were found to be higher in Fe2 (20 mg kg‾1) dose while it was higher in the rest 7 soil samples in Fe3 (30 mg kg‾1) dose (Table 3). The available Fe content of these 18 soil samples were higher that those of 7 samples (Table 4).

The Fe concentration and Fe uptake of the plants increased with increasing Fe application (Table 3). Fe concentration of plants determined varied between 83 and 161 mg kg‾1 for barley and were sufficient (Pseiter and Robinson, 1986).

In general dry matter yield using Fe2 concentration of the barley plants was determined to be higher for soils 1, 2, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18,19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 and 25 (Table 3). The reason of this result maybe higher available Fe content in this soils.

The effect of Fe application on the biological indices of the barley plants was determined to be significant at 1% level and the results obtained are in agreement with earlier reports (Aydemir, 1981; Elinc, 1997; Baar and Ozgumu, 1999).

The Fe contents of soils according to different extraction methods: Eight extraction methods were used for the determination of available Fe content of the soil samples (Table 4). Available Fe varied widely depending on the extraction method used, reasons for which could be pointed out as the type, concentration, pH, shaking time, soil solution ratio of the extraction solution and variability observed in the physical and chemical properties of the soils used.

Some physical and chemical properties of soils affected the availability of Fe to plants. The causes of low Fe availability are coarse texture, high pH and lime, low CEC and organic matter content in soils (Lindsay and Schwab, 1982; Elinc, 1997).

Available Fe contents of the soils 8, 9, 11, 12, 21 and 23 were lower than the rest of the soils, which may have been induced by the pH values and lime contents of the soils (Table 1). On the other hand available Fe contents of the soils 4, 6, 15 and 17 with low lime and pH levels were higher. Similarly lower available Fe content was determined in the soils 3, 10, 14 and 18 of lower clay content and CEC than the soils 4, 5, 15, 17 and 22 of high clay and CEC values, which demonstrates that available Fe content is influenced by physical and chemical properties of soils (Bloom and Inskeep, 1988; Marschner, 1995).

Higher available Fe contents of soil samples were determined with 0.005 M DTPA+0.01 M CaCl2+0.1 M TEA; 0.005 M DTPA+1 M NH4HCO3 and 0.001 M EDDHA methods in comparison with other extraction methods. On the other hand, the lowest available Fe content of soil samples were determined with 1 M NH4OAc and 1 M MgCl2 methods. These results also show that higher available Fe was determined using methods with chelate+salt ( 0.005 M DTPA+0.01 M CaCl2+0.1 M TEA; 0.005 M DTPA+1 M NH4HCO3; 0.01 M EDTA+1 M NH4OAc and 0.01 M EDTA+1 M (NH4)2CO3 methods) and chelate alone (0.001 M EDDHA) in comparison to the methods using salt (1 M NH4OAc and 1 M MgCl2 methods) and acid (0.05 M HCl+0.012 M H2SO4 method). Mean available Fe content of the soils were determined to be 3.77; 2.09; 1.19; 3.62; 1.67; 2.21; 3.58 and 3.14mg kg‾1, using the methods 0.005 M DTPA+0.01 M CaCl2+0.1 M TEA; 0.05 M HCl+0.012 M H2SO4; 1 M NH4OAc; 0.01 M EDTA+1 M NH4OAc; 1 M MgCl2; 0.01 M EDTA+1 M (NH4)2CO3; 0.005 M DTPA+1 M NH4HCO3 and 0.001 M EDDHA, respectively. The acid and salt methods of HCl + H2SO4, MgCl2 and NH4OAc, which gave the lowest available Fe, are not recommended for the determination of Fe content in neutral and alkaline soils. The use of chelate and chelate+salt methods are suggested in these types of soil (Kacar, 1995).

The relationships between chemical extraction methods and biological indices: Significant correlation coefficients were observed between all chemical extraction methods, except 1 M NH4OAc method and the biological indices (dry matter yield, Fe concentration, Fe uptake, relative dry matter yield, relative Fe concentration, relative Fe uptake) at 1% level (Table 5). The highest correlation coefficients (r) were determined between 0.005 M DTPA+0.01 M CaCl2+0.1 M TEA and 0.005 M DTPA+1M NH4HCO3 methods and biological indices. The results obtained from 0.001 M EDDHA method followed the above methods regarding the correlation coefficients (r).

According to the results the order of significance for the extraction methods are as follows: 0.005 M DTPA+0.01 M CaCl2+0.1 M TEA> 0.005 M DTPA+1 M NH4HCO3> 0.001 M EDDHA> 0.01 M EDTA+1 M NH4OAc> 0.01 M EDTA+1 M (NH4)2CO3> 0.05 M HCl+0.012 M H2SO4> 1 M MgCl2> 1 M NH4OAc.

The available Fe content of the soil samples were determined to be either insufficient or moderately sufficient according to different extraction methods.

Table 3:The effect of Fe application on biological indices of barley
*: Significant differences between biological indices at p< 1 % level indicated by different letters

Table 4:Fe content in soils obtained by chemical extraction methods

Table 5: The correlation coefficients (r) for the relationship between chemical extraction methods and biological indices
*: P< 0.05 **: P < 0.01

It supports earlier researchs in this region (Salam et al., 1997; Eyupolu et al., 1998).

Chemical properties of the soils showed that they were neutral to slightly alkaline and contained medium level of lime (Table 1). Use of acid (HCl+H2SO4) and salt (NH4OAc, MgCl2) extraction methods were inadequate in the determination of available Fe content and chelate (EDDHA) and chelate+salt mix (DTPA+NH4HCO3; DTPA+CaCl2+TEA; EDTA+NH4OAc and EDTA+(NH4)2CO3 methods) were determined to be more suitable in the determination of available Fe content for such soils (Kacar, 1995), supporting which in the present work, highest correlation coefficients (r) were obtained from the chelate and chelate + salt mix methods (Table 5). As a result, when considered the chemical properties of the soils studied chelate and chelate + salt mix methods can be used with satisfaction in determination of available Fe contents of the Edirne region soils.

The 0.005 M DTPA+0.01 M CaCl2+0.1 M TEA; 0.005 M DTPA+1 M NH4HCO3 and 0.001 M EDDHA methods, among the others, can be used confidently to determine the available Fe content of the soils of Edirne region because the highest correlation coefficients (r) were determined when these methods were used (Table 5). These methods were also suggested for various regions (Aydemir, 1981; Haddad et al., 1993; Elinc, 1997). The 0.005 M DTPA+0.01 M CaCl2+0.1 M TEA method can be used in the determination of available Fe content in this region and zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) contents can be determined in addition and this characteristic of method therefore is to be taken into consideration when selecting a method.

Consequently all of the following methods i.e. 0.005 M DTPA+0.01 M CaCl2+0.1 M TEA; 0.005 M DTPA+1 M NH4HCO3 and 0.001 M EDDHA can be recommended in the determination of available Fe content of Edirne region soils because of the highest correlation coefficients (r) determined. On the other hand, these methods are suitable to certain physical and chemical properties of the soils in this region.

REFERENCES
1:  Akman, I. and N. Yildiz, 1994. Evaluation of potassium status of Daphan Plain soils and suitability of different chemical methods used to determine plant available soil potassium of this soils. J. Fac. Agric. Ataturk Univ., 30: 15-24.

2:  Arriechi, E. and R. Ramrirez, 1997. Soil test for available zinc in acid soils of Venezuela. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 28: 1471-1480.

3:  Aydemir, O., 1981. Comparison of various chemical extraction methods in predicting plant available soil iron. Turkish J. Doa., 5: 213-220.

4:  Aydemir, O. and N. Koleli, 1996. Comparison of chemical extraction methods for plant available soil zinc in Harran plain soils. Turkish J. Agric. For., 20: 91-98.

5:  Baar, H. and A. Ozgumu, 1999. Effects of various iron fertilizers and rates on some micro nutrients contents of peach trees. Turk. J. Agric. For., 23: 273-282.
Direct Link  |  

6:  Bloom, P.R. and W.P. Inskeep, 1988. Factors affecting bicarbonate chemistry and iron chlorosis in soils. J. Plant Nutr., 9: 215-228.

7:  Elkarim, A.K.H.A. and S. Usta, 2001. Evaluation of some chemical extraction methods used as indices of soil nitrogen availability in Polatli State farm soils in Ankara province. Turkish J. Agric. For., 25: 337-345.

8:  Eyupolu, F., N. Kurucu and S. Talaz, 1998. Plant Available Trace Element (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn) Status of Turkish Soils. Soil Fertilizer Res. Inst. Publ., Turkey, pp: 72.

9:  Haddad, K.S. and J.C. Evans, 1993. Assesment of chemical methods for extracting zinc, manganese, copper and iron from New South Wales soils. Comm. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 24: 29-44.

10:  Hatipolu, F., 1981. The available Fe status of apple grown in central South Anatolia soils and evaluation of chemical extraction methods used to determine plant available fe contents in these soils. Ankara Univ., Agric. Fac. Publ., 787: 67-67.

11:  Johnson, G.V. and R.A. Young, 1973. Evaluation of EDDHA as an extraction and analytical reagent for assesing the iron status of soils. Soil Sci., 115: 11-17.

12:  Kacar, B., 1972. Chemical analyses of plant and soil, II. Plant analyses. Ankara Univ., Agric. Fac. Publ., 453: 646-646.

13:  Kacar, B., 1995. Chemical analyses of plant and soil, III. Soil analyses. Ankara Univ., Agric. Fac. Res. Dev. Publ., 3: 706-706.

14:  Lindsay, W.L. and W.A. Norvell, 1978. Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese and copper. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 42: 421-428.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

15:  Lindsay, W.L. and A.P. Schwab, 1982. The chemistry of iron in soils and its availability to plants. J. Plant Nutr., 5: 821-840.

16:  Marschner, M., 1995. Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. 2nd Edn., Academic Press, London, New York, ISBN-10: 0124735436, pp: 200-255.

17:  Martens, D.C. and D.T. Westermann, 1991. Fertilizer Applications for Correcting Micronutrient Deficiencies: Micronutrients in Agriculture. 2nd Edn., Soil Sci. Soc. of Agronomy, SSSA Book Series No: 4, Madison, pp: 549-592.

18:  Navrot, J. and S. Ravikovitch, 1968. Zinc availability in calcareous soils. II: Relation between available zinc and response to zinc fertilization. Soil Sci., 105: 184-189.

19:  Norvell, W.A., 1984. Comparison of chelating agents as extractants for metals in diverse soil materials. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 48: 1285-1292.
Direct Link  |  

20:  Olson, R.V., 1948. Iron solubility in soils as affected by pH and free iron oxide content. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc., 12: 153-157.

21:  Ozguven, N. and A.V. Katkat, 2001. The plant available zinc status of the soils of Bursa and the methods used for the determination of zinc contents of these soils. J. Fac. Agric. Uluda Univ., 15: 177-190.

22:  Pseiter, B.J. and J.B. Robinson, 1986. Plant Analyses. Melbourne, Inc., Sydney.

23:  Stewart, J.A. and K.C. Berger, 1965. Estimation of available soil zinc using magnesium chloride as extraction. Soil Sci., 100: 244-250.

24:  Trierweiler, F.J. and W.L. Lindsay, 1969. EDTA-Ammonium carbonate soil test for zinc. Soil Sci. Am. Proc., 33: 49-54.

25:  Wear, J.I. and C.E. Evans, 1968. Relationship of zinc uptake by corn and sorghum to soil zinc measured by three extractions. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc., 32: 543-546.

26:  Yildiz, N. and F. Ozkutlu, 1997. Evaluation of chemical used to determine plant available soil nitrogen of some Ordu Soils. J. Fac. Agric. Ataturk Univ. Methods, 28: 565-575.

27:  Yurtsever, N., 1984. Experimental Statistical Methods. General Directorate Rural Service Publ., 121: 624-624.

28:  Elinc, F., 1997. Plant available Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and B status of vertisol and non-calcareous soils in meric basin. Proceedings of the Thrace I Soil and Fertilizer Symposium, Oct. 20-22, Tekirda, pp: 119-126.

29:  Thomas, G.W., 1996. Soil pH and Soil Acidity. In: Methods of Soil Analysis: Chemical Methods, Part 3, Sparks, D.L. (Ed.). SSSA/ASA Inc., Madison, WI., pp: 475-490.

30:  Sumner, M.E. and W.P., Miller, 1996. Cation Exchange Capacity and Exchange Coefficients. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3, Chemical Methods, Sparks, D.L. (Ed.). Soil Science Society of America Inc, American Society of Agronomy, Inc., Madison, WI., 1201-1229.

31:  Soltanpur, P.N., 1991. Determination of Nutrient Availability and Elementel Toxicity by AB- DTPA Soil Test and ICPS Springer-Verlag, New York, USA., pp: 165-190.

32:  Gee, G.W. and J.W. Bauder, 1986. Particle Size Analysis. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1, Physical and Mineralogical Methods, Klute, A. (Ed.). 2nd Edn., American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI., pp: 383-411.

33:  Loeppert, R.H. and W.P. Iskeep, 1996. Iron Methods of Soil Analysis Part 3 Chemical Methods. SSSA and ASA, Madison, pp : 639-664.

34:  Loeppert, R.H. and D.L. Suarez, 1996. Carbonate and Gypsium. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3, Chemical Methods, Bartels, J.M. (Ed.). SSSA and ASA, Madison, WI., pp: 437-474.

35:  Salam, M.T., H.H. Tok, A. Adilolu, A.R. Demirkiran and K. Belliturk, 1997. An investigation on available Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn contents of soil samples collected from thrace region. Proceedings of the Thrace I Soil and Fertilizer Symposium, Oct. 20-22, Tekirda, pp: 248-252.

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved