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A Check List of Angiosperm Flora of Farasan Islands, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia



M. Atiqur Rahman, Mansour S. Al-Said, Jaber S. Mossa, Mohammed A. Al-Yahya and M.A. Fahad Al-Hemaid
 
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ABSTRACT

Determination of the specimens of angiosperms collected from the Islands resulted in 21 new records for the Farasan group. A check list is prepared with 133 species in 98 genera belonging to 51 families incorporating the previous records. Current nomenclature of each taxon was provided with important synonyms and arabic names. The habit and nature of world-wide distribution of each species are also given.

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  How to cite this article:

M. Atiqur Rahman, Mansour S. Al-Said, Jaber S. Mossa, Mohammed A. Al-Yahya and M.A. Fahad Al-Hemaid, 2002. A Check List of Angiosperm Flora of Farasan Islands, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 5: 1162-1166.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2002.1162.1166

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjbs.2002.1162.1166

Introduction

The Red Sea Islands, commonly known as Farasan Islands, are located at the southern part of the Red Sea in a geographic position between 16° 20 to 17° 20 N latitude and 41° 24 to 42° 26 E longitude at an elevation of 0° to 70 m. The islands belong to Jizan district of Saudi Arabia, about 45 km off the Jizan port and cover an overall area of about 600 sq. km. The Farasan Islands are composed of some large and a number of small coral islands of which the prominent islands are: the Farasan Al-Kabir, Sajid, Qummah, Zifaf, Ad-Disan and Dumuq. The first three are the permanently inhabited islands with a population of about 4500 and the remaining serve as places of rest for local fishermen (Alwelaie et al. (1993)).

There are a number of published reports on the geology and vegetation of the Farasan archipelago (Fig. 1) made by several workers, such as, Dabbagh et al. (1984), Collenette (1985), Abulfatih (1992), Alwelaie et al. (1993), Hussain and Khoja (1993) and Hassan and Al-Hemaid (1996).

Fig. 1:Map of Farasan Islands

According to Dabbagh et al. (1984), the islands were uplifted during the Miocene Era and that the tectonic of the Pleistocene had resulted due to the widening of the Red Sea and thus implying the existence of a previous single land mass. Alwelaie et al. (1993) concluded that the islands merely separate the continents of Asia and Africa and thus implying two separate continents. Hassan and Al-Hemaid (1996) studied the vegetation of the Farasan on the basis of plant migration and concluded that the species appeared to belong to the main Arabian Peninsula flora which was mostly African origin and that the Farasan islands lie some 200 km off the East African coast and about 60-65 km off the western Arabian Peninsula.

Alwelaie et al. (1993) recorded 59 species and 50 genera in 33 families from Farasan Islands of which 12 species and 11 genera were in 5 monocot families. Hassan and Al-Hemaid (1996) listed 44 species and 41 genera in 22 families from Farasan Al-Kabir of which 8 species from 6 families were new records for the islands. Later Collenette (1999) in her wild flowers of Saudi Arabia listed 61 species and 53 genera in 29 families (including 6 species in 4 monocot families) from Farasan group of which 43 species in 23 families were new records for islands.

Material and Methods

Study area: The Farasan is the largest island of the Farasan archipelago, situated in a geographi-cal location of 16° 42 N latitude and 42° 06 E longitude at an elevation of 0 to 30 m but reaching up to 70 m with some hills formed by coral rocks This island covers an area of about 369 km2 (perimeter 215 km) and is about 66 km long and 6-8 km wide and connected to the Sajid island by a 300 m long bridge. The Sajid is the second largest island and covers an area of about 109 km2 (perimeter 98 km).

The Farasan and Sajid Islands together form a largest area of the Farasan group of coral island with some soil formation which influences the development of vegetation. The rest of the islands consists of flat or broken fossil coral surfaces, often with large or small fossil coral sinkholes (Alwelaie, 1993).

Method: Very recently, visit was made to the Islands in March 2002 from College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh and a thorough survey of the vegetation was done. The specimens so far we came across were collected. All collections were preserved at the herbarium of the College of Pharmacy, KSU.

There had been several trips to the islands also during 1984, 1985 and 2000 and the collections were available at the herbarium of the College of Pharmacy, KSU.

A critical examination of all the specimens has been made for identification at the herbarium of the College of Pharmacy with the consultation of the National herbarium of Saudi Arabia (RIY).

Specimens were being recognized here to represent the flora of Farasan Islands and a checklist was prepared with these species. In the check list, current nomenclature of each taxon is provided along with common synonyms, Arabic names, so far known and citing the author with year of first record from the Islands. The habit of the plants and their nature of world-wide distribution, viz. cosmopolitan, pantropical, tropical etc., are also indicated.

The families were arranged according to the system of Cronquist (1981) modified by Kubitzki (1990) and appeared in Mabberley (1997). The genera and species in each family were arranged alphabetically.

The species marked with an asterisk (*) indicates the new record for the Islands.

Results and Discussion

The mangrove formation in the coasts of both Farasan and Zifaf Islands were with Rhizophora mucronata and Avicennia marima (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2:Mangrove formation with Rhizophora mucranata Lam.

Fig. 3:Euphorbia fractiflexa Carter and Wood

Fig. 4:Desmidorchis retrospiciens (Forssk) Ehrb.

Fig. 5:Limonium axillare (Forssk) Kuntz

The most dominant species throughout Farasan and Sajid islands were Limonium axillarie (Fig. 5) Suaeda monoica, Zygophyllum album, Z. coccineum, Halopeplis perfoliata, Capparis spinosa and C. cartilagnea etc.

Near the beaches, the common species were Atriplex ferinosa, Suaeda monoica, Halopeplis perfoliata, Portulaca oleracea etc. In most of the abandoned fields there were bushy thickets of Indigofera caerulea, I. oblongifolia, I. spinosa, I. semitrijuga, Astragallus sp. etc. Commiphora opobalsamum, Maytenus parviflora, M. somalensis etc. formed thickets in many scattered places. Some scattered clumps were also formed in both Farasan and Sajid islands by Euphorbia fractiflexa (Fig. 3) and Desmidorchis retrospiciens (Fig. 4).

Grasses and sedges were a few and Aeluropus lagopoides among them was more common.

Determination of the specimens and survey of literature showed that 21 species under 19 genera belonging to 15 families were not previously recorded in any work and hence these were the new records for Red Sea Islands. All these species appeared to be the part of main Arabian Peninsula flora, most of which were the elements of Africa.

A total of 133 species and 98 genera in 51 families (including 21 species and 18 genera from 6 monocot families) were determined.

Ckeck list
Dicotyledonae

Memispermaceae: Cocculus pendulus (Forster) Diels; Epibatrium pendulum Forster; Alwelaie et al. (1993); a woody climber; pantropical.
Arabic name: Labakh Al-Jabar; Kathan

Caryophyllaceae: Polycarpaea spicata Wight and Arn.; Polycarpaea staticiformis Hochst. and Steudel; Alwelaie et al. (1993); a small erect annual herb; pantropical
Arabic name: Rikhat Muker

Aizoaceae: * Trianthema portulacastrum L.; T. monogyna L.; a prostrate annual herb; pantropical
Arabic name: Laani
T. sheilae
Miller; Collenette (1999); bushy annual or perennial herb; warm temperate
Arabic name: not known

Amaranthaceae: Aerva javanica (Burm.f.) Juss.ex Schultes; Iresine javanica Burm.f.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); a perennial herb or subshrub; tropical.
Arabic name: Arwa, Ra, Tarfa, Tuwwaym
* Amaranthus viridis L.; an erect annual herb; both tropical and temperate
Arabic name: Shadakh, Sinder, Santeen, Shaeb, Da’ad
Nothosaerva brachiata
(L.) Wight; Achyranthus brachiata L.; Collenette (1999); annual herb; tropical.
Arabic name: not known

Chenopodiaceae: Atriplex farinosa Forssk.; A. hastate Forssk.: Alwelaie et al. (1993); a perennial herb; pentropical.
Arabic name: Osfai, Waadah, Ralle
A. halimus
L.; Collenette (1999); a perennial shrub; pentropical.
Arabic name: Qataf.
Cornulaca ehrenbergii
Asch.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); shrub; pantropical.
Arabic name: Hade
Halopeplis perfoliata
(Forssk.) Bunge. ex Schweinf.; Salicornia perfoliata Forssk.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); a perennial succulent shrub; tropical.
Arabic name: Khurrayz, Melah-Ratrite
Suaeda aegyptica
(Hasselq.) Zohar; Chenopodium aegypticum Hasselq.; Collenette (1999); annual succulent herb; tropical.
Arabic name: Mulleih, Suwwad, Hatlas, Qulman, Khareiza
S. fruticosa
Forssk. Ex Gmel.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); perennial shrub; pantropical.
Arabic name: Suwaidaa, Hembth
S. monoica
Forssk. ex Gmelin; Alwelaie et al. (1993); a large shrub; pan-tropical (warm temperate).
Arabic name: Asal, Sawad, Homide
* S. vermiculata Forssk. ex Gmelin; perennial succulent shrub; pantropical.
Arabic name: Suwwad, Tahma

Portulacaceae: * Portulaca oleracea L.; prostrate annual herb; pantropical.
Arabic name: Rijla, Baqla

Plumbaginaceae
Limonium axillare (Forssk.) Kuntze; Statice axillaries Forssk Alwelaie et al. (1993); small shrub; tropical and pantropical.
Arabic name: Qataf, Shalel
L. cylindrifolium
(Forssk.) Verdc.; Statice cylindrifolium Forssk.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); a perennial herb; pantropical.
Arabic name: ksbe

Cucurbitaceae: * Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.; Cucumis colocynthis L. a herbaceous prostrate vine; tropical and pantropical.
Arabic name: Sharee, Handhal
Cucumis melo
L. var. agrestis Naud.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); a perennial trailing herb; cold temperate.
Arabic name: Sharee , Kharsh, Shammam
Cucumis prophetarum
L.; C. mascatensis Gand.; Collenette (1999); a perennial trailing herb; tropical
Arabic name: Sharee, Aldheeb, Dheeb

Tiliaceae: Corchorus depressus (L.) Stocks; Alwelaie et al. (1993); a prostrate perennial herb; tropical.
Arabic name: Sateeh, Wekat
Grewia tenax
(Forssk.) Fiori; Chadara tenax Forssk.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); a scrambling to erect shrub; tropical.
Arabic name: Khaddar, Shohat

Malvaceae: Abutilon figarianum Webb; Collenette (1999); perennial undershrub; tropical
Arabic name: Rine
* A. muticum (Del. ex DC) Sweet: A. asiaticum Guill. & Perr.; perennial herb; pantropical
Arabic name: Akran
A. pannosum
(Forst.f.) Schlecht.; Sida pannosa Forst.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); perennial herb; pantropical.
Arabic name: Gargad, Gargadan
Fioria dictyocarpa
(Hochst.) Mattei; Pavonia dictyocarpa Hochst.; Collenette (1999); an erect woody herb; warm temperate.
Arabic name: not known
* Gossypium hirsutum L.; annual to perennial; cultivated; tropical
Pavonia arabica Hochst. ex Steud.; Collenette (1999); perennial herb; pantropical.
Arabic name: not known

Moraceae: Ficus cordata ssp. salicifolia (Vahl) Berg; F. salicifolia Vahl; Alwelaie et al. (1993); a small tree; tropical and warm temperate.
Arabic name: Hamate, Tha’ab
F. glumosa Del.; Collenette (1999); a branched shrub or small tree; tropical.
Arabic name: Athab
F. populifolia
Vahl; Urostigma populifolia (Vahl) Miq.; Collenette (1985); a small tree; both tropical and warm temperate.
Arabic name: Vudah, Mudah

Urticaceae: Forsskaolea viridis Ehrenb.; Collenette (1999); an annual herb; tropical.
Arabic name: Lassage

Euphobiaceae: Dalechampia scandens var. cordofana (Hocst. Ex Webb) Muell.; Collenette (1999); twining herb; tropical.
Arabic name: not known
Euphorbia fractiflexa Carter and Wood.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); a spiny leafless succulent; warm temperate.
Arabic name: Halibe, Alboom, Harmale
Flueggea leucopyrus
Willd.; Phyllanthus leucophylla (Willd.) Koening ex Roxb.; Collenette (1999); a dioecious shrub; pentropical.
Arabic name: * F. virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.) Voigt.; Phyllanthus virosus Roxb. ex Willd.; F. microcarpa Blume; a dioecious shrub or small tree;sub-tropical.
Arabic name:not known
* Jatropha glauca Vahl; Croton lobatum sensu Forssk non L.; J. lobata (Forssk.) Muell.; shrub, sub-tropical.
Arabic name: Medjersche, Obab
Microcooca mercuralis (L.) Benth.; Tragia mercurialis L.; Collenette (1999); annual erect herb; tropical.
Arabic name: not known
* Phyllanthus maderaspatensis L.; a monoecious annual or perennial herb; tropical
Arabic name: not known
* P. rotundifolius Klein ex Willd.; a monoecious annual herb; sub-tropical.
Arabic name: Araq Qaat, Haleeb.

Ericaceae: * Erica arborea L.; a small tree; both tropical and warm temperate.
Arabic name: Shandhaf, Khulanj Shajri

Residaceae: Ochradenus baccatus Del.; Hassan & Al-Hemaid (1996); dioecious or polygamous
shrub; warm temperate
Arabic name: Qardha

Capparidaceae: * Cadaba longifolia DC.; a large shrub; tropical.
Arabic name: Ghassa, Matlawi
C. rotundifolia
Forssk.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); a large shrub; tropical and warm temperate.
Arabic name: Gutbe, Qadhab
Capparis cartilaginea
Decne; C. sinaica Veill.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); a spiny shrub; warm temperate.
Arabic name: Shafallah, Laasf
C. deciduas
(Forssk.) Edgew.; Sodada decidua Forssk.; Capparis aphylla Roth; Alwelaie et al. (1993); a large shrub; tropical
Arabic name: Tandhab, Sodad
* C. spinosa var. mucronifolia (Boiss) Hedge and Lamond; C. aegyptica Lam.; spiny shrub; warm temperate.
Arabic name: Shafallah, Kabar, Lasaf
Cleome brachycarpa Vahl ex DC.; C. brevisiliqua Schultes,f.; C. vahliana Fresen; Alwelaie et al. (1993); perennial herbaceous shrub; tropical.
Arabic name: Zefrah
C. noeana
Boiss; Collenette (1999); perennial herb; warm temperate.
Arabic name: not known
Maerua oblongifolia (Forssk.) A.Rich; Capparis oblongifolia Forssk.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); a scandant shrub; tropical.
Arabic name: Sarh

Salvadoraceae: Salvadora persica L.; S. wightiana Planch. ex Thwaites; Alwelaie et al. (1993); a branched shrub; warm temperate.
Arabic name: Araake, Siwak, Miswak

Saxifragaceae: Vahlia digyna (Retz.) Kuntz.; Collenette (1999); herb; warm temperate.
Arabic name: not known

Mimosaceae: Acacia ehrenbergiana Hayne; Mimosa flava Forssk.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); small tree; warm temperate.
Arabic name: Salam
A. tortilis
(Forssk.) Hayne; Mimosa tortilis Forssk.; Hassan and Al-Hemaid (1996); a large shrub; warm temperate.
Arabic name: Samar
Prosopis juliflora
(SW) DC.; Mimosa juliflora SW; Collenette (1999); Arabic name: Prosopis

Caesalpiniaceae: Arabic name: Sanna Makki
S. holosericea (Fresen) Greuter; Cassia holosericea Farsen; Alwelaie et al. (1993); herbaceous shrub; tropical and subtropical.
Arabic name: Ashrake

Fabaceae: Alysicarpus glumaceus (Vahl) DC; Hedysarum glumaceus Vahl; Collenette (1999); a branched herb; tropical.
Arabic name: not known
Argyrolobium sp.; Collenette (1999); a perennial shrublet.
Arabic name: not known
* Astragallus sp.; a bushy shrub Arabic name: not known Indigofera caerulea Roxb.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); a bushy shrublet; tropical
Arabic name: Nelah
I. linifolia
(L.f.) Retz.; Hedysarum linifolium L.f.; Collenette (1999); prostrate annual herb; tropical and subtropical.
Arabic name: not known
I. oblongifolia ; I. Pauciflora Del.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); a robust shrublet; tropical.
Arabic name: Dasam, Hasa’r
I. spinosa
Forssk.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); much branched spiny shrub; tropical.
Arabic name: Subrg, Qataf, Hil, Qasar
I. semitrijuga
Forrsk.; I. somalensis Vatke; Collenette (1999); semi-prostate herb; warm temperate.
Arabic name: not known
Rhynchosia minima (L.) DC.; Dolichos minimus L. Alwelaie et al. (1993); perennial herb; tropical and subtropical
Arabic name: not known
Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers.; Cracca purpurea L.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); perennial herb; tropical.
Arabic name: Barsime aljable
Taverniera cuneifolia (Roth) Arn.; Hedysarum cuneifolium Roth; Collenette (1999); shrub; tropical.
Arabic name: not known
T. lappacea (Forssk.) DC.; Hedysarum lappaceum Forssk.; Collenette (1999); a subshrub; troical and subtropical.
Arabic name: Hab-Al-adkir.

Lythraceae: Ammania baccifera L.; A. aegyptiaca Willd.; Collenette (1999); annual branched herb; cosmopolitan.
Arabic name: not known.

Rhizophoraceae: Rhizophora mucronata Lam.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); tree, tropical costal (mangrove).
Arabic name: Qandal.

Celastraceae: * Maytenus parviflora (Vahl) Sebsebe; Celastrus parviflorus Vahl.; a spiny shrub; warm temperate.
Arabic name: not known

* M. senegalensis (Lam.) Exell; Celastrus senegalensis Lam.; large shrub or small tree; tropical and subtropical.
Arabic name: not known
M. somalensis (Loes.) Cufod.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); small tree, subtropical.
Arabic name: not known.

Rhamnaceae: Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Wild.; Rhamnus spina-christi L.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); tree.
Arabic name: Sider.

Vitaceae: Cissus quadriangularis L.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); climbing herb; tropical.
Arabic name: Sala.

Polygalaceae: Polygala erioptera DC.; P. thurmanniana Chodat: Collenette (1999); perennial herb; tropical and subtropical.
Arabic name: not known
Polygala sp.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); perennial herb.
Arabic name: not known.

Burseraceae: Commiphora erythraea (Ehrenb.) Engler; Alwelaie et al. (1993); tree; Tropical and subtropical.
Arabic name: not known
C. opobalsamum (L.) Engler; Amyris opobalsamum L.; A. gileadensis Roxb.; C. gileadensis (Roxb.) Christensen; Alwelaie et al. (1993); small tree; warm temperate.
Arabic name: Allege, Bisham, Balsam, Risha’a.

Zygophyllaceae: * Zygophyllum album L.f.; perennial shrub; warm temperate.
Arabic name: Bolble, Ratreet
Z. coccineum
L.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); perennial shrublet; warm temperate.
Arabic name: Batbat, Harme, Ratreet,
Z. simplex
L.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); annual much branched herb; subtropical.
Arabic name: Hirme, Qarmal

Periplocaceae: Leptadenia pyrotechnica (Forssk.) Decne; Hassan and Al-Hemaid (1996); leafless shrub, tropical.
Arabic name: Markh

Asclepiadaceae: Calotropis procera (Ait.) Ait.f.; Asclepias procera Ait; Hassan and Al-Hemaid (1996); a large branched shrub; tropical. Arabic name: Ushaar
C. edulis
(Edgew.) Benth.ex Hook.f.; Boucerosia edulis Edgew.; Cryptolluma edulis (Edgew.) Plowes; Collenette (1999); rounded angle succulent; warm temperate.
Arabic name: Asnab, Daghabees, Gadmal
Desmidorchis retrospiciens
(Forssk.) Ehrenb.; Caralluma retrospeciens Forssk.; C. resueliana (Courb.ex Brongn.) Cufod.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); 4-angled succulent, tropical and warm temperate.
Arabic name: Galthy
Glossonema
sp. aff. boveanum (Decne) Decne; Collenette (1999); perennial branched herb; tropical and warm temperate.
Arabic name: Kabesh
Pentatropis spiralis
(Forssk.) Decne; Asclepias spiralis Forssk.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); a woody twiner; tropical.
Arabic name: not known.

Solanaceae: Solanum surratense Burm.f.; Collenette (1999); leafy herb; subtropical.
Arabic name: Bgyme.

Convolvulaceae: Convolvulus glomeratus Choisy; C. arabicus Hochst ex Hall.f.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); perennial prostrate herb; subtropical.
Arabic name: Rakhame
C. pilosellifolia
Desr.; Collenette (1999); perennial prostrate herb; warm temperate.
Arabic name: Khatame
Cuscuta pedicellata
Ledeb.; Collenette (1999); perennial herb over other plants; warm temperate.
Arabic name: not known
Ipomoea hochstetteri House; I. quinquefolia Hall. f.; Collenette (1999); twining herb; subtropical.
Arabic name: not known
* I. sinensis ssp . blepharosepala (Rich) Meeuse; I. Blepharosepala Rich; I. Cardiosepala Bak. and Wright; a tangled trailing herb; subtropical.
Arabic name: not known

Boraginaceae: Heliotropium zeylanicum (Burm.f.) Lam.; Collenette (1999); perennial herb; subtropical.
Arabic name: not known.

Verbenaceae: * Chascanum marrubifolium Fenzl ex Walp.; Bouchea marrubifolia (Fenzl ex Walp.) Scau.; a branched herbaceous undershrub; tropical and subtropical.
Arabic name: not known
Premna resinosa (Hoochst.) Schau.; Holochiloma resinosum Hochst.; Hassan and Al-Hemaid (1996); a much branched shrub; tropical.
Arabic name: Shaqab.

Aviceniaceae: Avicennia marima (Forssk.) Vierh.; Sceura marima Forssk.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); a mangrove tree with pneumatophore; tropical and subtropical.
Arabic name: Shoura- Qarm.

Labiatae: * Ajuga arabica Davis; bushy subshrub; endemic.
Arabic name: Wabaira
Basilicum polystachion
(L.) Moench; Ocimum polystachion L.; Plectranthus parviflorus Willd.; Collenette (1999); a much branched herb; tropical and subtropical.
Arabic name: not known
* Leucas urticifolia (Vahl) R.Br.; Phlomis urticifolia Vahl; herb; subtropical.
Arabic name: Amogdah

Scrophulariaceae Kickxia corallicola Sutton; Alwelaie et al. (1993); a scandent perennial herb; endemic.
Arabic name: not known
Lindenbergia indica (L.) Vatke; Dodartia indica L.; L. abyssinica Hochst.; Collenette (1999); woody based perennial herb; tropical and subtropical.
Arabic name: not known
Striga sp. ; Collenette (1999); herb.
Arabic name: not known.

Orobanchaceae: Cistanche phelypaea (L.) Cout.; Lathraea phelypaea L.; C. tabulosa (Schenk) Hook.f.; Collenette (1999); a succulent perennial; subtropical.
Arabic name: Bassole.

Acanthaceae: Blepharis ciliaris (L.) Burtt; Ruellia ciliaris L.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); much branched perennial herb; tropical.
Arabic name: Naqee, Zughaf
Ecbolium viride
(Forrsk.) Alston; Justicia viridis Forssk.; J. rotundifolia Nees; Collenette (1999); herb, tropical.
Arabic name: Khussair, Madair, Maraidah.

Asteraceae: Launaea intybacea Jacq.) Beauverd; Lactuca intybacea Jacq.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); herb; cosmopolitan.
Arabic name: Bagra
L. procumbens
(Roxb.) Rom. and Raj.; Prenanthes procumbens Roxb.; Collenette (1999); perennial herb; cosmopolitan.
Arabic name: Bagra

Rubiaceae: Kohautia caespitosa Schnitzl.; Hedyotis schimperi Presl. Alwelaie et al. (1993); perennial herb with woody base; tropical.
Arabic name: Takwee.

Monocotyledonae
Palmae: Hyphaene thebaica (L.) Mart.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); small tree, warm temperate.
Arabic name: Dome.

Juncaceae: Juncus rigidus Mey.; Hassan and Al-Hemaid (1996); annual grass, temperate.
Arabic name: Halfa.

Cyperaceae: Cyperus bulbosus Vahl; Collenette (1999); an annual herb; subtropical and warm temperate.
Arabic name: Sade
C. conglumeratus
Rottb.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); an annual herb; subtropical and warm temperate.
Arabic name: Thendh
C. jeminicus
Rottb.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); an annual herb; subtropical.
Arabic name: Sade

Gramineae (Poaceae): Aeluropus lagopoides (L.) Trin. ex Thwaites; Dactylis lagopoides L.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); a perennial rhizomatous grass, sub tropical.
Arabic name: Iqrish, hirraib
Cynodon dactylon
(L.) Pers.; C. occidentalis Willd. ex Steud.; Hassan and Al-Hemaid (1996); a perennial rhizomatous grass; tropical and warm temperate.
Arabic name: Thayyal, Najil
Dichanthium faveolatum
(Delile) Roberty; Andropogon faveolatum Delile; Alwelaie et al. (1993); perennial grass; sub tropical and warm temperate.
Arabic name: not known
Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panzer; Cynosurus retroflexa Vahl; Collenette (1999); annual grass; sub tropical and warm temperate.
Arabic name: Danaib, Dhanab
Drake-Brockmania somalensis
(Hackel) Stapf; Eleusine somalensis Hackel; E. tenella L.; Collenette (1999); annual grass, warm temperate.
Arabic name: not known
Eragrostis lepida (Rich) Hochst. ex steud.; Poa lepida Rich; Collenette (1999); annual grass; temperate (tropics)
Arabic name: not known
Hyparrhenia hirta (L.) Stapf; Andropogon hirtus L.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); perennial grass; sub tropical.
Arabic name: Sakhber
Panicum turgidum
Forssk.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); perennial grass; temperate.
Arabic name: Ithmam, Thamam
Paspalidium desertorum
(Rich) Stapf; Panicum desertorum Rich; P. arabicum Steud.; Collenette (1999); a perennial grass; warm teperate.
Arabic name: not known
Sporobolus helvolus (Trin.) Durand and Schinz; Vilfa helvola Trin.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); perennial grass; tropical and subtropical.
Arabic name: Dafrah
S. ioclados
(Nees ex Trin.) Nees; Hassan and Al-Hemaid (1996).
Arabic name: not known
Tricholaena teneriffae (L.f.) Link; Saccarum teneriffae L.f.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); a perennial grass; subtropical and warm temperate.
Arabic name: Hemhem
Urochondra setulosa
(Trin.) Hubb.; Vilfa setusa Trin.; Alwelaie et al. (1993); a perennial rhizomatous grass; subtropical and warm temperate.
Arabic name: not known.

Asparagaceae: Asparagus flagellaris (Kunth) Jessop; Alwelaie et al. (1993); shrub; warm temperate.
Arabic name: Gab.

Hyacinthaceae: Dipcadi sp.; Collenette (1999); perennial herb.
Arabic name: not known
Aloaceae (Asphodelaceae) Aloe vera var. officinalis (Forssk.) Baker; Alwelaie et al. (1993); a succulent perennial herb; subtropical and warm temperate.
Arabic name: Sabar.

Acknowledgment

The authors are most grateful to the authority of King Saud University for financial support for the trips to the Farasan Islands. Thanks are due to the authority of the National Herbarium of Saudi Arabia for providing facilities to one us (MAR) to study their material.

REFERENCES
1:  Abulfatih, H.A., 1992. Vegetation zonation along an altitudinal gradient between sea level and 3000 meters in southwestern Saudi Arabia. J. King Saud Univ., 4: 57-97.
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2:  Alwelaie, A.N., S.A. Chaudhary and Y. Alwetaid, 1993. Vegetation of some Red Sea Islands of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. J. Arid Environ., 24: 287-296.
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3:  Collenette, S., 1985. An Illustrated Guide to the Flowers of Saudi Arabia. Scorpion Press, UK., ISBN-13: 9780905906454, Pages: 514.

4:  Collenette, S., 1999. Wild Flowers of Saudi Arabia. National Commission for Wildlife Conservation and Development (NCWCD), Riyadh, Pages: 799.

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6:  Dabbagh, A.I., H. Hotzl and H. Schnier, 1984. Farasan Island. In: Quaternary Periods in Saudi Arabia, Jado, A. and I. Zotl (Eds.). Vol. 2, Springer-Veriag, New York.

7:  Hassan, H.M. and F.M. Al-Hemaid, 1996. Composition, origin and migration trends of perennial vegetation in the Farasan El-Kabir Island (Red Sea), Saudi Arabia. Biol. Sci., 4: 5-15.

8:  Hussain, M.I. and T.M. Khoja, 1993. Intertidal and subtidal blue-green algal mats of open and mangrove areas in the Farasan Archipelago (Saudi Arabia), Red Sea. Bot. Mar., 36: 377-388.
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9:  Kubitzki, K., 1990. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

10:  Mabberley, D.J., 1997. The Plant Book. 2nd Edn., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp: 777-798.

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