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Identification of Bacterial Species with Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulfur Bioremediation Pathways in Wastewater Treatment Plants



Laura Rodrigues Araújo and Aulus Estevão Anjos de Deus Barbosa
 
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ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Contamination of water bodies is one of the most impacting anthropogenic activities to the environment, therefore, it is important to understand the biological processes that allow the wastewater bioremediation. The objective of this study was to identify the main bacterial genera present in sewage treatment plants and of which are these species have genes that participate in the degradation or accumulation pathways of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur. Materials and Methods: Genomes of 158 bacteria species, isolated from sewage treatment plants, were analyzed in search of the following pathways: nitrification, denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction, phosphorus accumulation, assimilatory sulfate reduction and dissimilatory sulfate reduction and oxidation. Results: Seventy-nine bacteria species had at least one of the complete pathways, of which 11 had 3 or more complete pathways: Acidovorax caeni, Acidovorax delafieldii, Acidovorax temperans, Burkholderia vietnamiensis, Comamonas thiooxydans, Nitrobacter vulgaris, Nitrobacter winogradskyi, Paracoccus denitrificans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Thiothrixnivea. Paracoccus denitrificans stands out for having the largest number of complete pathways, possessing the genes of denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction, assimilatory sulfate reduction and phosphorus accumulation processes. Conclusion: Therefore, the conclusion of this study can be used to improve the optimization of wastewater treatment processes, indicating bacteria that are more adapted for bioremediation: Paracoccus denitrificans, Thiothrixnivea and Nitrospiranitrosa.

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Laura Rodrigues Araújo and Aulus Estevão Anjos de Deus Barbosa, 2021. Identification of Bacterial Species with Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulfur Bioremediation Pathways in Wastewater Treatment Plants. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 14: 1-12.

DOI: 10.3923/jest.2021.1.12

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jest.2021.1.12
 
Copyright: © 2021. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

INTRODUCTION

Inadequate disposal of domestic sewage in water bodies can be harmful to the environment, since it has many nutrients and a rich microbial community1,2. Depending on the concentrations, these nutrients can become pollutants, such as nitrogen, phosphorous3 and sulfur. Because they can induce eutrophication and become a risk to aquatic communities and human life. However, Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) and Sulfur (S) are essential elements for all living organisms4, therefore, their excess should be treated in domestic sewage.

The fundamental reasons for treating wastewater are to prevent water source contamination and to protect public health by safeguarding water supplies against the spread of diseases5,6. Municipal wastewater is mainly comprised of water (99.9%), together with relatively small concentrations of suspended and dissolved organic and inorganic solids7. Different physical and chemical processes, such as adsorption, incineration, coagulation, precipitation and chemical oxidation, can be applied to treat wastewater6. Nevertheless, there are advantages in biological processes such as a reduction in sludge production, low operating cost and suitability for simultaneous removal of different compounds.

All biological treatment processes take advantage of the bacteria's ability to use various wastewater constituents as a source of energy for microbial metabolism and as building blocks for cell synthesis. The use of living organisms, primarily microorganisms, to degrade the environmental contaminants into less toxic forms or the process whereby organic wastes are biologically degraded, under controlled conditions, is called bioremediation7. The major microorganisms found in wastewater influents are viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and nematodes5,7. However, bacteria are typically considered to be the most significant organisms consuming the organic matter in wastewater5.

New genomic, metabolic and nutritional information from bacteria in biological treatment systems could help in understanding symbiotic relationships in sewage treatment plants8-10. In addition, several aspects related to microbial communities should be considered, such as the diversity and interaction between bacteria and the environment11-13.

High throughput metagenomic sequencing enables the study of the taxonomic and functional diversity of a microbial population3,14. Comparative studies of prokaryotic genomes have revealed their complex structure and organization as well as the enormous diversity between these organisms, even among isolates of the same species15. Recent works highlight that there are about 1,700-3,600 species of bacteria in wastewater treatment plants16,17.

With an enhanced understanding of the bioremediation metabolic processes, effluent treatment plants can be enriched with specific microorganisms that enable the development of genetically modified organisms, in turn increases the efficiency of sewage treatment. Moreover, the objective of this study was to identify the main genera of bacteria present in sewage treatment plants and of which are these species have genes that participate in the degradation or accumulation pathways of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur. In addition, phylogenetic analyses were performed on the bacteria under this study.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Identification of the most abundant bacterial generain water treatment plants: Identification of the dominant bacterial genera in wastewater treatment plants was observed. This study considered the genera and species identified among the most abundant and isolated in more than one study. Thousands of bacterial genera were identified in each of the works, however, in all these papers a list of the most abundant species was published. These lists were crossed to identify the most abundant species, even at different treatment plants. Bacterial genomes appearing at least two of these lists were analyzed. This study was conducted in the Bioinformatics and Molecular Analysis Laboratory, “Universidade Federal de Uberlândia”, Brazil, from February-August, 2019.

The full genome of these species were downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information database and all of them were bacterial species isolated and sequenced from wastewater treatment plants, activated sludge, or sewage. Downloaded genomes were used to fabricate a database for subsequent analyses.

Identification of genes involved in nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur metabolic pathways: Protein sequences of key genes in the metabolic pathways of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur were downloaded from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database (KEGG). Genes of the following pathways were analyzed: Nitrification, denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction, phosphorus accumulation18, assimilatory sulfate reduction and dissimilatory sulfate reduction and oxidation. Query protein sequences are listed in Table 1. Protein sequences19 of these genes were compared with the genome database using command line t Blastn and an e-value cutoff of 1×1020. Venn diagrams were constructed with data generated in the blast to represent the relationships between the bacteria species that have nitrogen, phosphorus, and/or sulfur pathways genes.

Table 1: Query genes for each bioremediation pathway
Gene name
Gene
KEGG entry
Nitrification
Ammonia monooxygenase subunit C
AmoC
NE2064
Ammonia monooxygenase subunit A
AmoA
NE0944
Ammonia monooxygenase subunit B
AmoB
NE0943
Hydroxylamine dehydrogenase
Hao
NE2339
Noc_0892
Nitrate reductase/nitrite oxidoreductase, alpha subunit
NxrA
NIDE3237
N297_4001
Nitrate reductase/nitrite oxidoreductase, beta subunit
NxrB
b1225
SCV20265_1123
Denitrification
Nitrate reductase gamma subunit
NarI
N296_3998
Nitrate reductase/nitrite oxidoreductase, alpha subunit
NarG
BN889_04303
AK36_5148
Nitrate reductase/nitrite oxidoreductase, beta subunit
NarH
b1225
UIB01_03910
Periplasmic nitrate reductase
NapA
b2206
UIB01_15470
Cytochrome c-type protein
NapB
PA14_49260 CAP2UW1_3909
Nitrite reductase
NirK
BMA10229_0703
Neut_1403
Nitrite reductase/ hydroxylamine reductase
NirS
PSE_0898
Nitric oxide reductase subunit B
NorB
NE2004
BMA0633
Nitric oxide reductase subunit C
NorC
Neut_0521
Nitrous-oxide reductase
NosZ
PA14_20200
DNRA
Nitrite reductase (NADH) large subunit
NirB
b3365
PSEEN1418
Nitrite reductase (NADH) small subunit
NirD
Ent638_3794
Pden_4451
Nitrite reductase (cytochrome c-552)
NrfA
b4070
Cj1357c
Cytochrome c nitrite reductase small subunit
NrfH
HCBAA847_0636
Cj1358c
Desgi_2941
Assimilatory sulfate reduction
3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthase
PAPSS
sce5751
Sulfate adenylyltransferase
Sat
Tbd_0210
UZ73_02605
Sulfate adenylyltransferase subunit 1
CysN
b2751
ECL_04101
KPN_03113
Sulfate adenylyltransferase subunit 1
CysD
ECL_04100
KPN_03114
Adenylyl sulfate kinase
CysC
b2750
ECL_04099
Phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate reductase
CysH
ECL_04104
PA1756
Sulfite reductase (NADPH) hemoprotein beta-component
CysI
ECL_04105
CtCNB1_3170
Sulfite reductase (NADPH) flavoprotein alpha-component
CysJ
CtCNB1_3038
ENC_30120
Sulfite reductase (ferredoxin)
Sir
Abu_2013
Clopa_4350
DSR
Adenylyl sulfate reductase, subunit A
AprA
Tbd_0872
Desaf_0101
Clopa_4347
EUBREC_2472
Adenylyl sulfate reductase, subunit B
AprB
Tbd_0873
EUBREC_2471
Desaf_0100
Dissimilatory sulfite reductase alpha subunit
DsrA
Tbd_1309
Desaf_1370
Desca_2666
Dissimilatory sulfite reductase beta subunit
DsrB
Desca_2665
Tbd_2484
Desaf_1371
Pho
Acetate kinase
AckA
b2296
Ent638_2840
Phosphate acetyltransferase
Pta
PST_0690
BMAA0121
Acetyl-CoA synthetase
Acs
b4069
AKI40_4606
Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase
PhaC
PST_0683
O23A_p1564
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase
PhaZ
AC233_04595
DNRA: Dissimilatory nitrate reduction, DSR: Dissimilatory sulfate reduction and oxidation, Pho: Phosphorus accumulation

Phylogenetic analysis: Phylogenetic analysis was performed on bacterial species that showed at least one of the complete pathways listed in Table 1. Thus, 16S rRNA gene was used to compare all the analyzed bacteria. Sequence alignments were performed using CLUSTALW in the BioEdit Sequence Alignment Editor20. Phylogenetic tree construction was performed by the neighbor-joining method using the software MEGA-X21. Robustness was paramount and assessed by bootstrap analysis based on 1,000 repetitions.

Detailed analysis of the bacterial species with genes of several pathways: Bacterial species presenting three or more complete pathways for degradation and/or accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur were subjected to a detailed analysis. Reverse BLASTp and InterProScan were used to identify and confirm the best blast hits, which were then analyzed with Blast2GO 522 basic software.

RESULTS

Identification of the main bacterial genera in wastewater treatment plants: Identification of the dominant bacterial genera in wastewater treatment plants was based on previous studies data that performed metagenomic analyses in 8 different wastewater treatment plants (Table 2). Studies that conferred information about major genera and species of bacteria were considered as well as the proportion of each group within a sewage treatment plant.

In this study, the genome of 158 bacteria species belonging to 80 genera were scrutinized (Table 4). Genera present among the most abundant and identified in the largest number of analyzed wastewater treatment plants were listed in Table 3.

These 158 species (Table 4) were classified into 22 bacterial classes and one un classified: Acidimicrobiia, Actinobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Anaerolineae, Bacilli, Bacteroidia, Betaproteobacteria, Clostridia, Coriobacteriia, Deltaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Negativicutes, Nitrospira, Oligoflexia, Rubrobacteria, Saprospiria, Sphingobacteriia, Spirochaetia and Synergistia.

Identification of genes involved in nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur metabolic pathways and phylogenetic analysis: After analysis of the 158 bacterial genomes, 79 species conferred at least one of the complete pathways (Table 4). A Venn diagram was constructed to enhance visualization and analyze the relationship between78 bacterial species and pathways. Figure 1 correlates the pathways of phosphorus accumulation, assimilatory sulfate reduction, denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction and dissimilatory sulfate reduction and oxidation. Nitrification pathway were not added to Fig. 1 because it were present in a two bacteria species (Table 4), this made it impossible to construct the Venn diagram with all pathways.

Table 2: Scientific references of main bacterial genera in wastewater treatment plants
Country pH Temperature (°C) References
China 7.3-7.8 35 M.C. Macey et al.26
Belgium 6.77-7.76 8.3-21.1 K. Meerbergen et al.16
China 7 34-36 Q. Ma et al.39
China Not show Not show Y. Yang et al.40
China Not show Not show L. Cai et al.1
China 6.4-7.3 Not show Q. Ma et al.39
China 6.75-7.5 8.5-13.5 Y. Yang et al.40
China Not show 31-32 Q. Huang et al.41


Table 3: Most abundant genera and the number of identified wastewater treatment plants
Genus Class
Number of identifications
Clostridium Clostridia
7
Nitrospira Nitrospira
6
Bacteroides Bacteroidia
5
Pseudomonas Gammaproteobacteria
5
Thauera Betaproteobacteria
5
Acidovorax Betaproteobacteria
4
Dechloromonas Betaproteobacteria
4
Dokdonella Gammaproteobacteria
4
Mycobacterium Actinobacteria
4
Streptococcus Bacilli
4
Arcobacter Epsilonproteobacteria
3
Bacillus Bacilli
3
Bifidobacterium Actinobacteria
3
Flavobacterium Flavobacteriia
3
Lactobacillus Bacilli
3
Paracoccus Alphaproteobacteria
3
Rhodobacter Alphaproteobacteria
3
Treponema Spirochaetia
3

Phylogenetic analysis was conducted with all bacteria that presented at least one of the complete pathways (Fig. 2). These 79 bacteria accounted for half of the initial sample and were divided into 9 classes and for majority of them were classified in the phylum Proteobacteria (86%). In addition, the analyses indicated that this phylum has the bacteria species with more genes for bioremediation. Initially, 83 Proteobacteria species were analyzed and 63of them (75.9%) had at least one of the nitrogen’s, sulfur or phosphorus pathways.

Nitrification was the least observed pathway, with only two bacteria species presenting the complete pathway: Candidatus Nitrospiranitrificans and Candidatus Nitrospiranitrosa (Fig. 2). In addition, all Nitrospira analyzed are among the most abundant in wastewater treatment plants (Table 3). Otherwise, denitrification was most common and was observed in 9 bacteria species (Fig. 1).

Twelve species conferred with complete dissimilatory sulfate reduction and oxidation pathway (DSR) but only Thiothrixnivea, from class Gammaproteobacteria, also has the complete pathways of assimilatory sulphate reduction and dissimilatory nitrate reduction (Fig. 1). Only Eight species of these bacteria belong to the class of Deltaproteobacteria and three species are classified in the Clostridia class (Fig. 2).

Image for - Identification of Bacterial Species with Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulfur Bioremediation Pathways in Wastewater Treatment Plants
Fig. 1: Venn diagram correlating 78 bacterial species that presented all genes of one or more pathways

Forty species of bacteria include at least two of the analyzed pathways (Table 4). Blast experiments showed that 47 bacterial species possess the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway genes and the other 40 possess dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA) pathway genes-also known as nitrate/nitrite ammonification. These two pathways are the most observed in the bacterial genomes. Among these species, 27granted all the genes related to both pathways, assimilatory sulfate reduction and DNRA (Fig. 1). From these 27bacteria species mentioned above, 22of them belong to the class Gammaproteobacteria and the others belong to the categories Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria (all belonging to the phylum Proteobacteria) (Fig. 2).

Bacterial species with genes of three or more pathways: Forty species exhibited all genes with more than one pathway (Fig. 1) but 11 of these bacteria had three or more complete pathways.

Table 4: Bacteria list indicating complete bioremediation pathways presence
No. ID - NCBI Specie Nitrification Denitrification DNRA ASR DSR Phosphor
1 NZ_CP014692 Acetobacter aceti X
2 NZ_CP020917 Achromobacter denitrificans X
3 NZ_CYIG01000001.1 Acidovorax caeni X X X
4 NZ_ACQT01000638.1 Acidovorax delafieldii X X X
5 NZ_JXYQ01000001.1 Acidovorax temperans X X X
6 NC_014259 Acinetobacter oleivorans
7 NC_008570.1 Aeromonas hydrophila X X
8 NZ_CP007567.1 Aeromonas media X X
9 NZ_CP013119.1 Alcaligenes faecalis X X
10 NZ_JH370371.1 Alistipes indistinctus
11 NZ_JRGF01000001.1 Alistipes inops
12 NZ_DS499581.1 Alistipes putredinis
13 NC_014011 Aminobacterium colombiense
14 NZ_JAFZ01000001.1 Aminobacterium mobile
15 NC_013171.1 Anaerococcus prevotii
16 NC_014960.1 Anaerolinea thermophila
17 NC_009850.1 Arcobacter butzleri
18 NZ_NWVW01000010.1 Arcobacter canalis
19 NZ_JARS01000021.1 Arcobacter faecis
20 NC_011886.1 Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus
21 NZ_CP018863.1 Arthrobacter crystallopoietes
22 NZ_CP007514.1 Arthrobacter radiotolerans
23 NC_006274 Bacillus cereus
24 NC_000964.3 Bacillus subtilis
25 NC_022873.1 Bacillus thuringiensis
26 NZ_CP011531 Bacteroides dorei
27 NZ_AKBZ01000001.1 Bacteroides finegoldii
28 NC_006347.1 Bacteroides fragilis
29 NZ_CP012938.1 Bacteroides ovatus
30 NC_004663.1 Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron
31 NC_009614.1 Bacteroides vulgatus
32 NC_021017.1 Bacteroides xylanisolvens
33 NC_005363 Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus
34 NZ_CP012373.1 Beggiatoa leptomitoformis X
35 NC_008618.1 Bifidobacterium adolescentis
36 NC_012815 Bifidobacterium animalis
37 NC_014638.1 Bifidobacterium bifidum
38 NZ_AUAO01000001.1 Brevundimonas aveniformis
39 NZ_JNIX01000001.1 Brevundimonas bacteroides
40 NZ_CP009323.1 Burkholderia gladioli X
41 NZ_CP013433.1 Burkholderia vietnamiensis X X X
42 FLQX01000001.1 Candidatus Accumulibacter Aalbogensi X
43 NC_013194 Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis X
44 NC_020449.1 Candidatus Cloacamonas acidaminovorans
45 NZ_HG422565.1 Candidatus Microthrix parvicella
46 NC_014355 Candidatus Nitrospira defluvii X
47 NZ_CZPZ01000001.1 Candidatus Nitrospira nitrificans X
48 NZ_CZQA01000001.1 Candidatus Nitrospira nitrosa X X
49 NZ_JARQ01000001.1 Chryseobacterium hispalense
50 NZ_LFNG01000001.1 Chryseobacterium koreense
51 NZ_CP007557 Citrobacter freundii X X
52 NZ_CP019986 Citrobacter werkmanii X X
53 NZ_GG730308.1 Citrobacter youngae X X
54 NZ_CP013252.1 Clostridium butyricum
55 NZ_CP017603 Clostridium formicaceticum
56 NZ_ACXX02000031.1 Clostridium papyrosolvens
57 NC_021182.1 Clostridium pasteurianum
58 NZ_CP024160.1 Collinsella aerofaciens
59 NZ_CP016603.1 Comamonas aquatica X X
60 NZ_AXVM01000001.1 Comamonas badia X
61 NZ_BBJX01000034.1 Comamonas granuli X
62 NZ_CP020121.1 Comamonas kerstersii X X
63 NZ_CP006704 Comamonas testosteroni X
64 NZ_CYHD01000001.1 Comamonas thiooxydans X X X
65 NC_004369.1 Corynebacterium efficiens
66 NC_003450.3 Corynebacterium glutamicum
67 NC_007298.1 Dechloromonas aromatica X X
68 NC_013173 Desulfomicrobium baculatum X
69 NZ_AUAR01000001.1 Desulfomicrobium escambiense X
70 NC_013216 Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans X
71 NC_021184.1 Desulfotomaculum gibsoniae X
72 NC_015565 Desulfotomaculum nigrificans X
73 NC_016629.1 Desulfovibrio africanus X
74 NZ_KE383875.1 Desulfovibrio aminophilus X
75 NZ_KE386885.1 Desulfovibrio putealis X
76 NC_012881 Desulfovibrio salexigens X
77 NC_002937 Desulfovibrio vulgaris X
78 NZ_CP017037.1 Dialister pneumosintes
79 NZ_CP015249.1 Dokdonella koreensis X
80 CP003026.1 Enterobacter asburiae X X
81 CP025225.1 Enterobacter cancerogenus X X
82 NC_014121.1 Enterobacter cloacae X X
83 NC_020995.1 Enterococcus casseliflavus
84 NC_004668 Enterococcus faecalis
85 NZ_CP016625 Escherichia coli X X
86 NC_012778.1 Eubacterium eligens
87 NC_012781.1 Eubacterium rectale
88 NZ_GG688422.1 Eubacterium saphenum
89 NZ_KB907512.1 Eubacterium siraeum
90 NZ_DS264288.1 Eubacterium ventriosum
91 NZ_CP030777.1 Faecalibacterium prausnitzii
92 NC_009441.1 Flavobacterium johnsoniae
93 NC_015321 Fluviicola taffensis
94 NC_012489.1 Gemmatimonas aurantiaca
95 NZ_CP011454.1 Gemmatimonas phototrophica
96 NZ_CP014963.1 Geobacter anodireducens
97 NC_002939 Geobacter sulfurreducens
98 CP009706.1 Hafnia alvei X X
99 NZ_LXET01000001.1 Hafnia paralvei X X
100 NC_015510.1 Haliscomenobacter hydrossis
101 NZ_CP011636.1 Klebsiella oxytoca X X
102 NZ_CP020847 Klebsiella pneumoniae X X
103 NZ_CP016766 Lactobacillus agilis
104 NC_004342.2 Leptospira interrogans
105 NC_012803.1 Micrococcus luteus
106 NZ_FPCG01000031.1 Micrococcus terreus
107 NZ_CP007220 Mycobacterium chelonae X
108 NC_007964 Nitrobacter hamburgensis X X
109 NZ_MWPQ01000040.1 Nitrobacter vulgaris X X X
110 NC_007406 Nitrobacter winogradskyi X X X
111 NC_004757 Nitrosomonas europaea
112 NC_008344.1 Nitrosomonas eutropha X
113 NZ_FODO01000081.1 Nitrosomonas oligotropha X
114 NZ_CP021106.3 Nitrosospira lacus
115 NC_007614 Nitrosospira multiformis X
116 NZ_LT828648.1 Nitrospira japonica X
117 NZ_CP011801.1 Nitrospira moscoviensis
118 NZ_FUYQ01000044.1 Parabacteroides chartae X
119 NC_009615 Parabacteroides distasonis
120 NZ_KE159513.1 Parabacteroides goldsteinii
121 NZ_JH976465.1 Parabacteroides johnsonii
122 NZ_JH976452.1 Parabacteroides merdae
123 NC_008686.1 Paracoccus denitrificans X X X X
124 CP025430.1 Paracoccus zhejiangensis X X
125 NC_013061.1 Pedobacter heparinus
126 NC_007498 Pelobacter carbinolicus
127 NC_008609.1 Pelobacter propionicus
128 CZAM01000001.1 Prevotella copri
129 NZ_CP021852 Proteus mirabilis X X
130 GG662004.1 Proteus penneri X
131 NC_002516.2 Pseudomonas aeruginosa X X X
132 NC_016830 Pseudomonas fluorescens X X X
133 NC_002947.4 Pseudomonas putida
134 NC_014034.1 Rhodobacter capsulatus X
135 NC_009428.1 Rhodobacter sphaeroides X
136 NC_008268.1 Rhodococcus jostii X
137 NC_003197.2 Salmonella enterica X X
138 NZ_CP011642 Serratia marcescens X X
139 NZ_AP017655.1 Sphingobium cloacae X X
140 NZ_CP012900.1 Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila X X
141 NC_016826 Streptococcus infantarius
142 NZ_CP007201.1 Sulfurospirillum multivorans X
143 NC_008554.1 Syntrophobacter fumaroxidans X
144 NZ_BBCE01000001.1 Syntrophomonas palmitatica
145 NC_008346.1 Syntrophomonas wolfei
146 NZ_CGIH01000001.1 Syntrophomonas zehnderi
147 NC_007759.1 Syntrophus aciditrophicus
148 NZ_CP028339.1 Thauera aromatica X X
149 NC_007404 Thiobacillus denitrificans X X
150 NZ_CP020046 Thiomonas intermedia X
151 NZ_KB904746.1 Thiothrix flexilis X
152 NZ_JH651381.1 Thiothrix nivea X X X
153 NC_015732.1 Treponema caldarium
154 NC_014158.1 Tsukamurella paurometabola X
155 NC_009456.1 Vibrio cholerae X
156 NZ_JMCG01000001.1 Vibrio navarrensis X X
157 NZ_CQBU01000001.1 Yersinia bercovieri X X
158 CP009364.1 Yersinia frederikseni X X
Bacteria shaded in gray do not have any complete pathway

Paracoccus denitrificans stands out for having the greatest number of complete pathways, possessing the genes of denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction, assimilatory sulfate reduction and phosphorus accumulation processes (Fig. 1).

Thiothrixnivea was the only species that possessed the genes necessary to complete the two routes of sulfur, both assimilatory (ASR) and dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) (Fig. 1).

Burkholderia vietnamiensis, Comamonas thiooxydans, Nitrobacter vulgaris and Nitrobacter winogradskyi have genes that act on the same pathways, i.e., dissimilatory nitrate reduction, assimilatory sulfate reduction and phosphorus accumulation (Fig. 1). Burkholderia vietnamiensis and Comamonas thiooxydans belong to the Betaproteobacteria class, while Nitrobacter vulgaris and Nitrobacter winogradskyi belong to the Alphaproteobacteria class (Fig. 2).

Image for - Identification of Bacterial Species with Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Sulfur Bioremediation Pathways in Wastewater Treatment Plants
Fig. 2: 16S rRNA phylogeny of bacteria presented at least one of the complete pathways
Class level lineages are indicated on the blue lines

DISCUSSION

In this study, 158 bacterial genomes were analyzed in search of genes that act in six bioremediation processes. Half of the analyzed species (79) have at least one of the complete pathways (Table 4) and 18 of them have 3 or more analyzed pathways (Table 3), which indicate a better metabolic capacity of these species.

Gammaproteo bacteria was the most leading class, with 18.9% of analyzed species, followed by Betaproteobacteria (15.1%), Clostridia (10.7%), Bacteroidia (10.2%), Deltaproteobacteria (8.2%), Actinobacteria (7.5%) and Alphaproteobacteria (6.9%), with predominant species belonging to the phylum Proteobacteria (52.5%). This result was similar with other studies23-26, indicating that this study sampling with the most common bacteria in different sewage treatment plants is significant.

Clostridium was the most identified genus in different wastewater treatment plants analyzed (Table 3) and these bacteria are found in different environments and inhabiting the intestines of several animal species27,28. The second most identified genus was Nitrospire, that are found in many environments and are responsible for nitrification processes29. Remarkably, all bacteria listed in Table 3 belong to the phylum Proteobacteria. These species presented genes that enable them to act in cycles of the three nutrients studied (nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur). Because of this, it is possible that Proteobacteria is the predominant phylum in practically all sewage treatment plants analyzed30,31.

Nitrification was the least observed pathway, with two Nitrospira bacteria presenting the complete pathway (Fig. 2). Separation of nitrification into two steps led to a cross-feeding interaction between different species of bacteria. On the other hand, those that could catalyze the complete nitrification pathway had growth advantages over the others32.

Dissimilatory sulfate reduction and oxidation pathway (DSR) are present in 12 bacteria species (Fig. 1). SRB controlled application in wastewater treatment carry several advantages: promotes pathogen and heavy metal removal, reduction of sludge disposal and perform a pre-treatment before anaerobic digestion that results in higher biogas yields33.

Assimilatory Sulfate Reduction (ASR) and Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction (DNRA) are the pathways present in a greater number of bacteria (Fig. 1). Recent studies have demonstrated that the nitrogen cycle is also tightly linked to other biogeochemical cycles, such as the sulfur cycle34,35 and suggest that biogenic sulfide induces DNRA with coproduction of ammonium and nitrite36.

Denitrification pathway was observed in 9 bacteria species and these bacteria also have genes from other pathways (Fig. 1). Sulfate reduction can indirectly stimulate P release and when sulfate is reduced to sulfide, this molecule can bind its self to Fe(II), leading to more P availability37. Curiously, four bacteria species were identified with genes for performing denitrification and phosphorus accumulation (P. denitrificans and three bacteria of Acidovorax genus) (Fig. 1). Therefore, this combination of genes should make these species efficient nitrate and phosphorus removers.

The bacterium with the greatest capacity for bioremediation is Paracoccus denitrificans possessing the genes of 4 pathways: denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction, assimilatory sulfate reduction and phosphorus accumulation processes (Fig. 1). It is a nonmotile coccoid soil organism and is taxonomically part of the Rhodobacteraceae family from a subdivision of the phylum Proteobacteria38. P. denitrificans can live in oxic and anoxic environments in response to environmental changes, such as oxygen and nitrogenous oxide concentration.

Another interesting bacterium in the bioremediation process is Thiothrixnivea, having all genes for assimilatory (ASR) and dissimilatory sulfate reduction (DSR) (Fig. 1). ASR is characterized by sulfate reduction in small amounts required for the synthesis of cellular material, whereas DSR is described as the sulfate reduction in great excess of nutritional requirements, producing massive amounts of sulfide32.

The main limitation of this study was to have analyzed a fraction of the species in a wastewater treatment plant, which has 1700-3600 species16,17. However, the 158 analyzed species are quite representative, being the most abundant in several wastewater treatment plants. Identification of the main species described in the study, such as Paracoccus denitrificans, Thiothrixnivea and Nitrospiranitrosa, would allow to evaluate in vitro the metabolic capacities of these species in the wastewater bioremediation.

Therefore, the results of this observation could be used to increase the sewage treatment efficiency, indicating/ allocating the most appropriate bacterial species in degradation of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur compounds. Additionally, this study could be used in the development of more coherent genetically modified organisms in wastewater bioremediation.

CONCLUSION

Knowledge of the bacterial community composition and how it interacts inside the wastewater treatment plants are essential for better designed bioremediation strategies. Bacteria having genes for the pathways studied here can be introduced into a sewage treatment plant to increase organic matter degradation, for example, P. denitrificans, T. and N. nitrosa. A combination of these three bacteria would have all the genes analyzed in this study.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT

This study identified the main bacterial species that perform wastewater bioremediation process and these results can be used to improve bioremediation processes. The bacteria indicated in the study can be added to treatment plants in a selective enrichment method, increasing nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus compounds bioremediation.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This study was supported by Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior CAPES-Brazil (CAPES). The authors are grateful to LBAM/UFU for providing the infrastructure for the development of this study.

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