Population Status of Broomrape Fly, Phytomyza orobanchia (Diptera:
Agromyzidae) with some Agricultural Practices under Semi-field Conditions
The use of some agricultural practices such as tillage and irrigation affected
the natural population of Phytomyza orobanchia Kalt., the main active
bioagent against broomrape in Egypt. During March of 2010/2011 season, fleshy
plants of Orobanche crenata shoots were collected from faba bean fields.
Under semi-field conditions, whole plants of Orobanche crenata shoots
were buried at different depths (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 cm) in sandy, sandy-loam
and clay soil in pots and treated with three treatments of water (moistened,
flooded and dry). At the beginning of the new activity season 2011/2012, emergence
percentages of the broomrape fly, P. orobanchia from Orobanche
shoots contained diapaused pupae were estimated, which were buried under the
effects of different agricultural practices. Results revealed that the emergence
percentage of Phytomyza adults had significantly reduced with increasing
the depth of buried O. crenata shoots. Highest mean emergence percentage
was (52.31%) occurred from puparia in Orobanche shoots buried in moist
soil. On the other hand, sandy-loam soil was enough for emergence of 42.40%.
It could be recommended to bury Orobanche shoots containing diapaused
Phytomyza pupae at 5 cm depth after collected during March. After that
it is recommended to cover the shoots with moistened and sandy-loam soil in
order to increase the rate of initial Phytomyza population working in
faba bean field against Orobanche crenata at the start of new seasons
October 29, 2013; Accepted: January 23, 2014;
Published: March 08, 2014
The broomrape fly, Phytomyza orobanchia Kalt. has three generations
annually (Shalaby, 1974; Al-Eryan,
1996). At the end of Orobanche season, larvae of last generation
migrate from Orobanche capsules towards the aerial and underground parts
for pupation to stay in diapause till the subsequent season (Tawfik
et al., 1976; Al-Eryan and Zaitoun, 1998).
The greatest numbers of diapaused pupae occur in the underground parts of the
plant (Mihajlovic, 1986). The third generation faces
some of environmental resistance factors such as agricultural practices and
natural enemies (insect parasitoids) causing significant reduction in Phytomyza
population size (Kroschel and Klein, 1999). In this respect,
the fleshy Orobanche shoots collected in early March were completely
free from the parasitoid (Tetrastichus phytomyzae), on one hand and since
P. orobanchia pupate and enter diapause in the underground parts of Orobanche,
it faces different death factors such as, some agricultural practices until
the new activity season, on the other hand. Factors limiting the natural population
of P. orobanchia such as pupal parasitoids, destruction of pupae by tillage
and flooding can be avoided by means of controlled rearing (Abu-Shall,
The present study was carried out during 2010/2011 faba bean season to estimate
the population status of P. orobanchia with some agricultural practice
(tillage and irrigation), aiming to reach high rates of the initial P. orobanchia
population during the new activity season 2011/2012 against O. crenata
spikes to guarantee a quick build-up of their population.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Sampling and estimation natural infestation rates by diapaused Phytomyza
pupae: During March of 2010/2011 season, fleshy plants of Orobanche crenata
shoots (Hess et al., 1997) infested with P.
orobanchia were collected from faba bean fields in the Agricultural Research
Station (ARS), Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Egypt.
In the laboratory, a random sample of 20 Orobanche shoots were picked
up and dissected when the pupation took place. The Orobanche shoots were
examined, to detach and count the diapaused pupae of Phytomyza per stem.
After that, the mean number of diapaused pupae per stem was determined as follows:
Effect of some agricultural practices on P. orobanchia under semi-field
conditions: At the end of 2010/2011 season, whole plants of O. crenata
shoots infested with diapaused pupae of Phytomyza were buried at different
depths 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 cm in sandy, sandy-loam and clay soil in plastic
pots (60 cm length and 20 cm width) to be similar to tillage under filed conditions.
Each type of soil was treated with three treatments of water (moistened, flooded
and dry) to be similar to irrigation under field conditions. Each treatment
consisted of 3 replicates and each replicate of 5 Orobanche shoots.
Natural activity of initial Phytomyza population during the new season:
At the beginning of the subsequent season 2011/2012, the glass tube was hung
up at 10 to 15 cm height above the soil surface on wooden stake in each pot.
Piece of cotton saturated with honey solution was put in the glass tube (replaced
weekly) for feeding the emerged Phytomyza adults, (Abu-Shall,
2001). A plastic funnel was upset on the glass tube opening (Fig.
1). The glass tube was connected to the narrow opening of the plastic funnel,
through which, only the Phytomyza adults could pass into the funnel to
glass tube. Pot contents were covered with metal-screen cloth cage (Fig.
2). For bringing the glass tube out, a small window of 8x10 cm was cut into
the cloth cage to collect and count the emerged adults of Phytomyza weekly.
To calculate the percentage of emerged Phytomyza adults at the end of
season as follows:
Statistical analysis: Data were subjected to the analysis of variance
test (ANOVA), with mean separation at 5% levels of significance, Computer program
IRRISTAT and Duncans Multiple Rang Test was used to compare the averages
according to the method of Snedecor and Cochran (1967).
||Glass tube was hung up on wooden stake and provided with piece
of cotton saturated with honey solution, which connected to the narrow opening
of the plastic funnel, (a) Wooden stake, (b) Glass tube, (c) Piece of cotton
saturated with honey solution, (d) Plastic funnel and (e) Plastic pot contain
on whole plants of O. crenata shoots infested with diapaused Phytomyza
pupae, which buried in different depths and soils with three treatments
|| Metal-screen cloth cage with a small window was covered pot
contents, (a) Metal-screen, (b) Metal-screen with cloth cage cover the previous
plastic pot contents in Fig. 1 and (c) Metal-screen cloth
cage provided with a small window (8x10 cm)
The natural capacity of P. orobanchia to reduce the Orobanche population
is limited by several factors such as low temperature, cultural practices (soil
preparation, crop rotations, irrigation and the use of insecticides against
crop pests) and natural enemies (microorganisms and parasitoids) (Kroschel
and Klein, 1999). Also, the use of intensive agrotechnical measures includes
the following factors affecting the mass reproduction of Phytomyza populations:
soil cultivation, crop rotation and pesticide application.
||Emergence percentages of Phytomyza adults from Orobanche
shoots buried at different depths and soil with three water treatments
|Values are means of 3 replicates each of 5 Orobanche
shoots per treatment. Means followed by the different letter are significantly
different at the 5% level by DMRT, L.S.D0.05 (Type of soil) =
0.85, L.S.D0.05 (Buried depth of Orobanche shoots) = 1.26,
L.S.D0.05 (Treatments of water) = 0.68
In autumn and spring, during the preparation of soil for sowing, the broomrapes
were ploughed in together with the pupae of Phytomyza overwintering generation.
In spring, the flies did not manage to go out through the deeper layers of soil,
so they die in high percentages, thus decreasing the initial Phytomyza
population during the sprouting and the beginning of flowering of broomrapes
Emergence percentages of Phytomyza adults in the new season from diapaused
pupae in Orobanche shoots buried in different depths and soil with three
treatments of water are presented in Table 1. Results revealed
that emergence percentages were 58.89, 52.01, 39.19, 21.82 and 15.60% from different
depths 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 cm, respectively. At the level of treatments of
water, these were 52.31, 33.40 and 26.79% from moistened, dry and flooded soil,
respectively. Irrespective of treatments of water and bury depths of Orobanche
shoots, it was 36.72, 42.40 and 33.39% emergence in sandy, sandy-loam and clay
Statistical analysis revealed that emergence percentages of Phytomyza adults,
significantly, decreased with increasing the depth at which Orobanche shoots
containing diapaused pupae were buried. This finding indicated that 5 cm depth
to bury Orobanche shoots, significantly, led to emergence of highest
percentage of Phytomyza adults in the new season compared with other
depths. On the other hand, moist and sandy-loam soils were significantly rich
with emergence percent of Phytomyza adults in the new season.
In this regard, Abu-Shall (2001) indicated that the
dry (both clay and sandy) soil is the optimum type of soil for preservation
and storage the collected pupae of P. orobanchia till the next season.
Also, the suitable depth to bury P. orobanchia pupae (5-10 cm) should
be undertaken in release programs to improve emergence of Phytomyza adults.
While, Trenchev (1981) found that the pupae of P.
orobanchia which have been buried at a depth of 20-25 cm resulted to an
emergence rate of only 21% and the beneficial role of the fly was diminished
by autumn ploughing. Moreover, the deep tillage and the incorporation of Orobanche
shoots by ploughing may have caused a mechanical destruction of pupae and adults
were only able to emerge after hatching from a soil depth of maximum 20 cm.
For the same target, Cubero (1983) pointed out that pupae
could be destroyed by irrigation.
At the level of the effect on O. crenata, Zahran
(1982) noted that subsoil ploughing did not differ significantly from conventional
tillage in its effect on O. crenata in faba bean. Consequently, deep
plowing will be a solution only in limited cases. Zero or minimum tillage so
far provided hardly significant differences when compared to conventional tillage
(Kukula and Masri, 1984). This finding is conflicting
with the effect of tillage on emergence Phytomyza adults from diapaused
pupae. While, several observations document the less severe Orobanche
infestation under high moisture levels or after periods of flooding (Cubero,
1983). Zahran (1982) reported a decrease of O.
crenata infestation in faba bean after two weeks of flooding prior to the
sowing of the crop in Egypt. Also, he reported about 65% reduction in O.
crenata infestation in faba beans following a flooded rice crop when compared
with fallow. On the other hand, the respective values of reduction in Orobanche
spikes were found to be 0 and 25% with 10 and 30 day irrigation interval without
pre-sowing flood, compared with 4 and 36% with pre-sowing flood (Hassanein
and Salim, 1999). Also, it was found that irrigation during summer reduced
the infestation with O. crenata in Spain (Mesa-Garcia
et al., 1984). This finding is conflicting with the effect of flood
on emergence Phytomyza adults from diapaused pupae. According to Van
Hezewijk et al. (1993), it was found that a prolonged period of moistening
induced secondary dormancy in O. crenata seeds. There are some reports
that indicated a reduction of Orobanche infestation after a period of
flooding, as for rice, but the mechanism is not yet fully understood. The decline
of the Orobanche population may be a result of an enhanced microbial
activity and decay of the seeds or shoots. Anaerobic conditions in the soil,
which favor the formation of toxins that lead to a decrease in the viability
of the seed population, may also contribute to the detrimental effect on broomrape
infestation (Sauerborn and Saxena, 1986; Mohamed-Ahmed
and Drennan, 1994).
Another approach to increase the initial population of Phytomyza was
reported by Bronstejn and Kabulov (1961) who stated
that the simplest method to enhance the survival rate of pupae in the field
is to store collected Orobanche shoots at field borders. A mechanical
destruction caused by tillage there can be avoided. In the former USSR, (Tsybulskaya
and Skoklyuk, 1978) calculated the number of infested Orobanche stems
required for release of the fly over one hectare. Therefore, the best method
is the stems containing puparia should be released in the field as soon as flowers
appear on the weed and bury them in special trenches cut between the crop rows,
which are then filled up with a 20 cm layer of soil to pass and to purify the
From semi-field experiment, fleshy Orobanche shoots collected during
March and buried on depth 5 cm in moist and sandy-loam soil caused the highest
emergence percent of Phytomyza orobanchia, being required to increase
the rate of initial Phytomyza population in faba bean fields against
Orobanche crenata in the new activity season. These findings may be helpful
in the future field studies which related to the damage effects of some agricultural
practices such as tillage and irrigation. This study should be undertaken in
release programs for increasing the population of P. orobanchia first
generation which play an important role in biological control of the emerging
O. crenata. Consequently, the number of infested Orobanche shoots
contained diapaused Phytomyza pupae, which are required for early release
of the fly adults in field should be calculated per feddan. After that, Orobanche
shoots could be buried at 5 cm depth at field borders and covered with moistened
and sandy-loam soil.
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