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Acaricidal Efficacy of Ivomec (Ivermectin) and Dectomax (Doramectin) on Sarcoptic Mange Mites (Sarcoptes spp.) of Arabian Camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Saudi Arabia



M.H. Abdally
 
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ABSTRACT

Acaricidal activities of Ivomec (Ivermectin) and Dectomax (Doramectin) were evaluated in camels infested with sarcoptic mange mites. The activity of Dectomax was stronger and last longer than Ivomec as it reduced the number of mites on the tested animals four weeks after treatment. The Ivomec (1% ivermectin) dose of 0.2 mg kg-1 on body weight basis is not effective in killing the mite infestation in a short period of time. Whereas, the Dectomax (1% dormaectin) dose of 0.2 mg kg-1 on body weight basis killed all the mite infestation quickly and was effective for a longer period of time. The acaricidal efficacy of Ivomec (Ivermectin) was less than Dectomax (Doramectin) (p<0.05) on sarcoptic mange mites (Sarcoptes spp.) of Camels (Camelus dromedarius) under the climatic conditions of Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. The mean values of glucose, urea, creatine, creatinine, GOT and GPT in the serum increased in camels treated with Dectomax (p>0.05 ) than those treated with Ivomec . The GOT values in the serum of camels treated with Dectomax were higher (p>0.05) than the normal or Ivomec treated animals. In conclusion, this endectocide might have affected the normal functions of liver or other organs of camels. Further studies on the use of endectocides for controlling all the parasitic helminthes and arthropods in Saudi camels are strongly recommended covering all the seasons in a year.

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M.H. Abdally , 2010. Acaricidal Efficacy of Ivomec (Ivermectin) and Dectomax (Doramectin) on Sarcoptic Mange Mites (Sarcoptes spp.) of Arabian Camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Entomology, 7: 95-100.

DOI: 10.3923/je.2010.95.100

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=je.2010.95.100
 

INTRODUCTION

In spite of the fact that mechanization had greatly supplanted camels quality as beasts of burden (Fahmy et al., 1998). But still, they are very dear in Saudi Arabia and other Gulf States because they are recognized as an important wealthy patrimony resources from the ancestors (Abdally, 2008). In fact, camels are considered as hard and tough animals which can tolerate the harsh climate and extremes of temperature encountered in the desert (Abdally, 2008; Fahmy et al., 1998). Unfortunately, mange infection affects these important animals and reduces their prices and causes huge losses of these wealthy patrimony resources. Because sarcoptic mange infection is a serious problem in many parts of the world posing a serious threat to animals health (Dorn et al., 1986; Higgins, 1985; Melaku and Gibreah, 2001; Kumar et al., 1992; Pegram and Higgins, 1992; Radostits et al., 2000; Walker, 1994). Ectoparasites by means of topically applied acaricides has not been universally successful due to difficulties with dipping or spraying of large number of camels (Fahmy et al., 1998; Koefer and Glawischnig, 1985). This could be true especially in the Gulf States where materials and labor are expensive. Therefore, difficulties with dipping or spraying of large numbers of camels may contribute to the failure of controlling mites in some places in the desert. As, it is laborious and often encounters problems for the application of acaricide washes due to water shortage in those remote places. Due to these difficulties, some investigators suggested an efficacious ectoparasitic control with particular reference to new available chemical technologies which can be adapted to camels (Abdul-Rahman and Bornstein, 1991). Consequently, the present work was carried to determine the effective acaricides which are not harmful to camel health and the environment. Thus, the acaricidal efficacy of Ivomec (Ivermectin) and Dectomax (Doramectin) against sarcoptic mange mites was carried in camels at Oraierah, Al-Ahsa District, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, the investigations on the effects of these two chemicals on renal and hepatic normal functions were conducted by detecting the mean values of glucose, urea, creatine, creatinine, GOT and GPT in the serum of healthy and infested camels before and after treatment.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Twenty four camels with age ranging from 2-8 years and weighing 450-650 kg were selected for experiment. These camels belonged to some private owners in Oraierah at Al-Ahsa District, Eastern Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. As a first step, each selected animal was examined for live mites by taking a skin scraping before and after treatment application. Then the microscopic examination for adult mites was carried on samples prepared in 10% KOH solution and identified according to Soulsby (1986) and Urquhart et al. (1987). The mean number of mites per microscopic field was calculated in each case. Later on, the mites infestation was evaluated by the number of live mites present on each camel and grouped as, + representing 1-10 live mites, ++ representing 10-100 live mites and +++ representing more than 100 live mites. This method was carried according to the procedure of Liebish et al. (1986). Based on the preliminary results of mites infestation, the camels were divided into two main groups i.e., infested groups and healthy groups (Fig. 1- 3). There were twelve camels in each group. Further, each group of the selected camels was divided into three sub-groups each having four camels. The first sub-group was considered as control (untreated animals) while the second and the third group were treated with Ivomec and Dectomax, respectively. The dose of Ivomec was 0.2 mg kg-1 of body weight (S/C injection) and that of Dectomax was 0.2 mg kg-1 of body weight (I/M injection). The examination of the skin scraping was repeated every week until the 8th week of post treatment.


Image for - Acaricidal Efficacy of Ivomec (Ivermectin) and Dectomax (Doramectin) on Sarcoptic 
  Mange Mites (Sarcoptes spp.) of Arabian Camels (Camelus dromedarius) 
  in Saudi Arabia
Fig. 1:

Lesions of mange on the shoulder and chest region of 8 years old camel

Image for - Acaricidal Efficacy of Ivomec (Ivermectin) and Dectomax (Doramectin) on Sarcoptic 
  Mange Mites (Sarcoptes spp.) of Arabian Camels (Camelus dromedarius) 
  in Saudi Arabia
Fig. 2:

Lesions of mange on the ear of 2 years old camel

Image for - Acaricidal Efficacy of Ivomec (Ivermectin) and Dectomax (Doramectin) on Sarcoptic 
  Mange Mites (Sarcoptes spp.) of Arabian Camels (Camelus dromedarius) 
  in Saudi Arabia
Fig. 3:

Lesions of mange on the shoulder and neck of 4 years old camel

To investigate the side effects of these experimental chemicals on the normal physiological functions of the treated animals, blood samples were taken from all the sub groups animals before (at the beginning of the investigation) and after treatment (8 weeks post treatment). After collecting the blood samples, these were left to clot for collecting their sera for analysis according to the procedure of Rosenberger et al. (1979). The collected sera samples were analyzed for glucose, urea, creatine, creatinine, GOT and GPT levels according to the recommended method of Kaneko (1989).

The experimental data were subjected to statistical analysis according to Snedecor and Cochran (1989).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Among the various factors responsible for the improvement of general health of animals, effective control of ectoparasites infestations with effective pesticides such as endectocides is very important. Data revealed that the clearance of skin of infested camels from mange lesions occurred with both the Ivomec and Dectomax treatments (Table 1). Furthermore, no lesions were found during microscopic examination at 1st, 2nd and 3rd week post treatment with Ivomec. However, re-infestation was observed at 4th week post application of the compound. Contrary to these results, the animals treated with Dectomax did not show any lesions and re-infestation up to 8th week after treatment. The Dectomax was more effective for controlling the mange infestation than Ivomec (p>0.05).These results of camels agreed with the findings of cattle reported by Logan et al. (1993) who found that the duration of activity of Dectomax is longer as compared to Ivomec treatment. Also, similar results were reported by Roncalli et al. (1981), Gibney et al. (1985), Hen-Drickx et al. (1993) and Logan et al. (1993). The disappearance of skin lesions in camels treated with Dectomax up to 8th week after chemical application may be attributed to the longer action of the compound due to high lipid solubility of its molecules which consequently gave better protection with ease and quick results when compared with Ivomec (Logan et al., 1993 ).

The serum analysis for renal and hepatic functions of healthy and infested animals with and without treatment with the two chemicals (before and after treatments) was presented (Table 2). The mean values of glucose, urea, creatine, creatinine, GOT and GPT in the sera of infested animals before treatment were 5.20±0.35 mmol L-1 14.50±4.18 mg dL-1, 11.50±4.18, 119.5±13.12, 123.5±13.12 and 14.5±7.00 U L-1, respectively. However, these values increased significantly after treatment by Decomax (p>0.05) and were 5.11±0.39 mmol L-1, 13.7±2.01 mg dL-1, 11.2±4.02, 122.7±13.10, 247.6±48.50 and 17.9±8.8 U L-1, respectively to approach normal values (the healthy animals free from mange infestation) which were 5.40±0.41 m mol L-1, 15.6±2.31 mg dL-1, 12.31±4.8, 122. 1±13.21, 241.2±10.0 and 17.0±0.8 U L-1, respectively.


Table 1:

Effect of ivomec and dectomax on sarcoptic mange in camels

Image for - Acaricidal Efficacy of Ivomec (Ivermectin) and Dectomax (Doramectin) on Sarcoptic 
  Mange Mites (Sarcoptes spp.) of Arabian Camels (Camelus dromedarius) 
  in Saudi Arabia
+: 1-10 live mites, ++: 10-100 live mites, +++: More than 100 live mites, -: No live mites

Table 2:

Effect of ivomec and dectomax treatment on liver and kidney functions in camels infested with mites

Image for - Acaricidal Efficacy of Ivomec (Ivermectin) and Dectomax (Doramectin) on Sarcoptic 
  Mange Mites (Sarcoptes spp.) of Arabian Camels (Camelus dromedarius) 
  in Saudi Arabia

The values of glucose, urea, creatine, creatinine, GOT and GPT in the sera of infested animals treated by Ivomec were 4.72±0.32 mmol L-1, 12.9±1.93 mg dL-1, 10.89±3.91, 117.1±11.85, 228.8±43.20 and 17.9±8.8 U L-1, respectively. Actually, the values of the above parameters were significantly less by Ivomec (p≥0.05) than Dectomax treated animals.

The increase in the values of different liver and kidney functions with the application of Dectomax than Ivomec could be attributed to improvement in the general health of the animals after treatment of mange lesions which showed improvement in their performance and was reflected in some parameters of liver and kidney functions toward the normal values (Liebish, 1986 and Stendel, 1986). It was observed that Dectomax, as a novel systemic endectocide, proved to be effective for controlling the sarcoptic mange in other animals (Bolt et al., 2003; Roncalli et al., 1981; Gibney et al., 1985; Hen-Drickx et al., 1993; Logan et al., 1993).

It was also noted in this study that animals treated with Dectomax felt more comfortable and docile besides its high performance rate, efficacy of long protection period and quick relief of infested animals . However, the GOT values showed increases in the camels treated with Dectomax (p≥0.05) as compared to those treated with Ivomec and the control (untreated) animals . This was clear in healthy camels (p>0.05) where, it was 241.20±10.00 for untreated, 242.00±10.00 for Ivomac treated and 341.20±10.00 for Dectomax treated camels. While in case of infested camels, it was 121.50±13.12 (p≥0.05), 228.80 ±43.20 (p≥0.05) and 347.6±48.50 (p>0.05) for untreated, Ivomec treated and Dectomax treated animals, respectively. This gave an indication that treatment of Ivomec is more safe than Dectomax in the case of hepatic functions. As such, Dectomax treatment may have an acute effect on liver or other organs of camels. Further study regarding endectocides on Saudi camels against all the parasitic helminthes and arthropods is strongly recommended for all the seasons in a year.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I thank The Camel Research Centre and The Veterinary Teaching Hospital at College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Resources, King Faisal University for help and support in conducting this study. I also thankful to Mr. Nayief Al-Shehri for help in sample collection from camels. Finally I wish to express my great appreciation to my colleagues Dr. E.M. Al-Hassan, Dr. Ezuldeen Babikir and Professor Dr. A.M.M. Humaidah for their useful comments for improving the manuscript.

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