It is common knowledge that peoples, throughout the ages and from all nations
and communities under different environmental conditions in the world, developed
knowledge and skills which enabled them to live and survive under such conditions.
The common knowledge to a particular community or people living together in
a certain area , generated by their own and their ancestors experience is generally
referred to as Indigenous Knowledge (IK) to that specific society (Ohiokpehai,
2003), this term has been described as the local knowledge that is unique
to a given culture or society (Dan et al., 2010).
IK is the basis for decision-making by respective communities in developing
and finding solutions to day-to-day problems in relation, e.g., to food security,
health, social life, environment, spiritual or the transformation of natural
resources into useful products and services in order to enhance their livelihoods
(Boven and Morohashi, 2002). Such body of knowledge is
sometimes referred to as Indigenous Knowledge System (IKS) (De
Guchteneire et al., 2003). IKS is embedded in each specific culture;
in this sense, this knowledge is the local people’s capital (Mapaure
and Hatuikulipi, 2007; Cheikhyoussef et al.,
IKS has been developed, practiced and adapted and tested over the years based
on experiences of such specific community where it is created (Zwahlen,
1996). As such, IKS, of a particular community, is seen to >withstand
the test of time and therefore it is considered to be in congruence with the
living conditions of that specific community. During the 90’s and early
21st century, there has been a keen interest in utilizing IKS into the development
process. Agrawal (1995) emphasized that IKS can be linked
to the development process of any community. The IK can be seen as an alternative
way of promoting development in poor rural communities in many parts of the
world (Briggs, 2005). The centralized technical knowledge
is very often imported (western) and the peasants do not possess that knowledge.
By making use of IKS in development agenda, the peasants and the poor will be
empowered to act. Much of the IKS discussion for development concentrated on
notably agriculture, medicine, food production and environment (Wienecke,
In this study a number of traditional/indigenous production and or processing
technology systems, by specific population language groups, in Namibia, will
be presented with the aim to document and identify practices that have potential
for commercialization. The identified practices will be assessed for their development
potential using the Best Practices (BP) criteria as developed by United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and The Netherlands
Organization for International Cooperation in Higher Education (Nuffic). The
aim and purpose of developing BP criteria is to encourage the researchers, planners
and other policy-makers to incorporate IKS in their development processes (Boven
and Morohashi, 2002).
The Best Practices Criteria for IKS as developed by UNESCO and Nuffic has the following characteristics: IKS should be innovative (Innovative in addressing poverty and social exclusion). IKS should make a difference (IKS Best Practices must have tangible impact on living conditions of community). IKS should have a sustainable effect (IKS Best Practices to sustain eradication of poverty or social exclusion). IKS should be able to serve as inspiration to others (IKS Best Practices to serve as model for others to replicate).
The aim of the study is not to declare these practices as Best Practices as per UNESCO criteria but to use these measures to present and identify practices that have potential for replication and development in Namibia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Study locations: This study was conducted in the four regions of the 13 political regions of Namibia. These were the Omaheke, Oshikoto, Omusati and Kavango regions. Geographically the Omaheke region lies in the eastern part of Namibia; the Kavango is in the north east, while Omusati and Oshikoto regions are situated in the north and north central, respectively. Those regions were selected because of their cultural and plant species diversity. Furthermore diverse socio-economic aspects were also considered in selecting the study area in the sense that all the authors of the four pilot studies were originally from those respective communities/regions. They could speak the main language spoken in those regions and they share same cultural values and norms by understanding of the technological concepts which are under review in this study. In addition, Namibian society is a diverse society hence each of those regions visited had more than three ethnic groups.
Methodologies: The implementation of the field work was coordinated by the Science and Technology Division at the Multidisciplinary Research Center of the University of Namibia. The identification of the respondents was done informally by discussing with local people about IK and asked them to identify people with IKS in their localities with reference to the focus of the study which was mainly focusing on medicine, food, mining, construction and household’s equipment. Respondents were interviewed alone in their working places or at their respective homes. Where necessary; working stations were visited separately.
In each region the specific type of medicinal or food technology or products may differ because of the geographical distribution and cultural differences. With respect to the practical IKS issues in the studied areas, the elements of the UNESCO and Nuffic IKS Best Practices criteria included the following:
||Theme of the practice
||Introducing the process (including location, local context, social features,
time of the year, is it current/relevancy?)
||Context and approach (including: purpose, how it is implemented? Who participate?)
||The role of IKS (including: specific IKS features, relation to community
values, already recorded? How does knowledge transfer takes place?
||Achievements (including: qualification features as Best Practices?-giving
attention to: sustainability, innovativeness, cost effectiveness, strengths,
weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of practice, lessons learnt,
potential for fostering development/commercialization)
||Source of inspiration (including: possible replication in part or whole,
community participation important)
With respect to this study, the general criteria will be used to assess the characteristics of IKS practices in Namibia but the format of description may differ from case to case.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Indigenous medical and pharmaceutical technologies/products: There are
many indigenous technologies regarding medical and pharmaceutical treatments
practiced by the traditional healers of the local communities in the studied
regions; these treatments are shown in Table 1.
|| Indigenous medical and pharmaceutical treatments practiced
by the traditional healers in the studied regions
|*Oshimbaanhu/Oshindonga; indigenous languages in Omusati region,
**Rukwangali; indigenous language in Kavango region, ***Otjiherero; indigenous
language in Omaheke region, ****Oshindonga/Oshimbaanhu; indigenous languages
in Oshikoto region
According to Gracey and King (2009), virtual 400 million
indigenous people have low standards of health care due to poverty, malnutrition,
overcrowding etc. However, it essential to mention that though the local community
might face the above condition of health services, there is quite a number of
locally available health services to the community. As Table 1
indicates, medical and pharmaceutical technologies under study were those concerned
with the treatment of: wounds and swelling, stomach pain, epileptic fit, poisoning,
bad spirits, infertility, hemorrhoid, surgery; polio, bleeding, headache, diarrhea,
constipation, general sickness, stomachache, vomiting mosquito repellent, dentistry,
small pox and treatment of high blood pressure. These ailments or diseases have
been treated by medicinal plants elsewhere as reported by Chaudhary
et al. (2006), Ao et al. (2008), Cheikhyoussef
et al. (2011b) and Agrawal et al. (2011).
For the socio-economic significance of these Indigenous Technologies; the few selected indigenous technologies represent a fraction of larger Namibian IKS which in turn constitute the socio-economic fabrics of the indigenous peoples of Namibia before the era of colonialism. Other forms of IKS are among others: philosophy, religion believes mathematics, astronomy, culture, geo-science, navigation, etc.
Indigenous Knowledge Systems Technology (IKST) on the other hand constitutes and it signifies the ability and ingenuity of the indigenous communities in Namibia to integrate nature and their environment into their way of life. The few of the IKST recorded in the studied regions represent the methods and systems by which the indigenous communities in various regions transformed the nature and their environment to advance their livelihood.
The cultural practices and the social needs of the indigenous communities living
in and around these regions are the driving force behind the formation of specific
indigenous technologies. Wanjala et al. (2006)
stated that some aspects of indigenous knowledge may be adopted in development
projects; some may be adopted after validation research while some aspects of
the knowledge may hinder successful project development and hence need corrective
action. For many technologies and products, there is no continuity in terms
of imparting skills to young people. On the other hand, it is quite clear from
the study that the socio-economic changes which colonialism brought about destroyed
the viability of the indigenous operating context, particularly, among the young.
On the other hand, imported western technologies have not yet established operating
social context. Due to the lack of any appropriate operating context, young
indigenous Namibians, particularly in the studies regions; are largely unemployed
because they lost/missed relevant indigenous skills to implement indigenous
technologies and they have not achieved the westernization (colonization) level
sufficient to enable them to operate in the technological operating context
of the west. Relevant IKST should be preserved for relevant purposes of commercialization
or cultural heritage.
As the western (colonial) influence is likely to continue in Namibia, the more
the mismatch continues. On the other hand, indigenous people can never become
Europeans however, much they try the western way of life. The best way out is
to understand and where possible develop and commercialize indigenous technologies
as well as assimilating western technologies into the indigenous technological
operating context. Inadvertently, this will close the gap between the indigenous
and western operating context in terms of technological performance (Gupta,
It is understandable that the medical and pharmaceutical products have to undergo
number of tests with regard to their short and long-term effects on patients.
Also, one need to do a thorough chemical and biological composition analysis
to identify chemicals within those products in order to say for sure that the
product does treat disease A and B. It is evident enough from the findings in
Table 1 that indigenous people depend on the traditional healers
in these regions and had very strong ethnopharmacological knowledge on the medical
uses of medicinal plants to treat many ailments and diseases. This result is
in agreement with Cheikhyoussef et al. (2011b)
who, reported that the traditional healers in Oshikoto region used 61 medicinal
plants species for the treatment of various diseases and disorders with the
highest number of species being used for mental diseases followed by skin infection
and external injuries. It is also in agreement with Busia
(2005) who, reported on the common ailments in Africa such as headaches
or coughs are considered to be diseases with natural causes and hence their
symptoms are treated at the household level.
Similar ethnobotanical knowledge studies have been reported in other Namibian
regions and local communities; these include Oshikoto region (Shapi
et al., 2009), Caprivi region (Chinsembu and Hedimbi,
2010), San community (Dan et al., 2010).
Also this knowledge on the medical uses of medicinal plants is starting to be
acknowledged by the rest of the world; so it shows the role played by indigenous
people African traditional healing system (Idu and Onyibe,
2007), This also explaining why close to half the world’s best-selling
pharmaceuticals were either natural products or their derivatives (ONeill
and Lewis, 1993). Therefore, investigation of natural remedies as a source
of new drugs gained great interest in recent years (Abdelrahman,
The socio-economic importance of traditional healing is enormous in the sense that a number of the IK holders we spoke to get involved in the practising more than 40 years ago. This is an indication that there were people using the services. Furthermore these types of health services are usual locally found.
Indigenous food and brewing processing technologies /products: Under food and Brewing processing, a number of indigenous food and brewing processing technologies were studied. Table 2 depicts the various food and beverage technologies studies in the selected regions. However, the absence of food and brewing technologies in Kavango region does not mean there is nothing happening in that area but is was deliberately not studied.
Omalovu: It is a popular traditional beer to all Oshiwambo and Rukavango speaking Namibians. It also has potential to be popularized into other population groups in Namibia as well as in neighboring countries. The raw material of omalovu is sorghum and pearl millet which are locally available. Both Oshiwambo and Rukavango speaking subsistence farmers know and have skills how to farm it. It is therefore viable and sustainable to commercialize the production of omalovu in Namibia, southern Angola and south western Zambia. Omalovu not only has potential for commercialization in Angola and Zambia but in Namibia interior as well. This is so because there many people in Windhoek and other towns from the northern part of the country and making omalovu available to them connects them to their original places and keeps the culture and tradition alive. The spinoff would be large scale long-term employment of subsistence farmers, the mechanization of agricultural production; utilization of locally established resources and the preservation of culture. Commercialization would make omalovu accessible, preserve-able and easy to store and transport.
Oshikundu, oshikwiila and oshinghandeba: These products are value-added
products from pearl millet (mahangu). Like Omalovu; Oshikundu is similarly popular
to the population of North central and Kavango region.
|| Indigenous food and brewing processing technologies /products
by the local people in the studied regions
|*Oshimbaanhu/Oshindonga; indigenous languages in Omusati region,
**Otjiherero/Oshimbaanhu; indigenous language in Omaheke region, ***Oshindonga/Oshikwanyama;
indigenous languages in Oshikoto region
In Kavango; it is called Shikundu in Rukwangali language. However, Oshikundu
is a non-alcoholic beverage and is culturally used as a home drink for both
elderly and children alike. Oshikundu is regarded as a soft drink as well as
juice of these populations. It is very nutritional especial for babies and children
alike. Commercializing the production of Oshikundu would guarantee the utilization
of local traditional resources, preservation of culture, jobs creation for subsistence
farmers and the reduction of poverty. What is left is to identify the principles
behind the traditional processing technologies? and there after develop an effective
production system which would allow the products to be commercialized. Oshikwiila
on the other hand is very delicacy pearl millet cake which is also liked by
the inhabitants of the two regions. It is also value-added product. It is tastier
when it is prepare freshly after the flower is miller.
The processing of oshinghandeba (making of cake from Berchemia discolor eembe
fruits) and edible oil from marula nuts (Sclerocarya birrea) are equally value-addition
to locally resources. Currently attempts are being made to commercialize the
processing technology of oil from marula nuts in Omusati region. A cold-pressing
process has been identified. For large scale processing both the supply of raw
materials and the processing technologies need to be improved. Oshinghandeba
has potential but more studies in terms of demand quantification have to go
hand in hand with the identification of the principles behind the traditional
processing technology of oshinghandeba. It is mainly processed from indigenous
fruits; these indigenous fruits are generally regarded as food for children
and don’t forms a major parts of the indigenous peoples meals (Okeke
et al., 2008).
Specific products such as Oshikundu, omalovu, oshinghandeba and the Oshiwambo/eambaanhu
traditional homestead design are products which in terms of origins are only
linked to the indigenous communities, part of whom inhabit north central regions.
Omashikwa in oshiwambo, Mpofu in Rukwangali and Omaere (traditional fermented
buttermilk) in Otjiherero culture is one of the most popular sour milk product
processed in the rural areas Namibia for quenching thirst or as a condiment
for use with stiff porridge (Oshifima in oshiwambo; Yisima in Rukwangali and
Oruhere in Otjiherero), or for mixing with gruel and for income generation.
Omashikwa is the main product for the family and for income. The product has
a composition of 3.28% crude protein, 1.6% fat, 89.8% moisture, 0.76% ash, 4.56%
lactose, 10.2% Total Solids (TS) and 8.6% Solids-Not-Fat (SNF) with a pH of
3.25 and no whey separation (Bille et al., 2002).
Ongondivi and Omaze Uozongombe in Otjiherero, Omagadhi goongombe in Oshiwambo and Magadi gongombe in Rukwangali are value-addition milk products and are highly valued in all the northern and eastern regions of Namibia. There is potential in commercializing most of the IKST found in the studied regions if some have not been commercialized already like the Omaere (sour milk), Omatuka (buttermilk in otjiherero) and Ongondivi (butter) products by rietfontein or Namibia dairies. The commercialized products are strikingly similar in the taste and sometimes texture but if one looks at Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) and employment creation one can promote this product by the people.
For socio-economic significance of Indigenous Technologies; brewing and food
products have the greatest potential in R and D for value -addition. This is
in agreement with (Ohiokpehai, 2003) who, emphasized
on the importance of traditional foods as a source of local income to the household
in villages as it provides foods all times and times of foods scarcity. The
majority of Namibians are subsistence farmers and any value addition to their
products would have socio-economic significance. Omaze Uozongombe has many uses
apart from cooking and is therefore rated very highly by most of the Namibian
communities in country. Normally, in some culture, ghee is stored for later
use during the drought and added to dry meat or for spreading on traditional
bread. It is also mixed with traditional red powder and used as lotion for the
skin and as a protective aid against cracking of calabashes. The elders of Herero
community use it for lighting of the sacred fires and as a medicine to treat
constipation and to facilitate proper digestion (Bille and
Kandjou, 2008). Ghee producers in Namibia can benefit from producing quality
commercial ghee for their own use and for marketing in both the urban and rural
areas of Namibia and in the neighbouring regions. In addition, the current influx
of Asian community in Namibia can benefit from locally produced ghee and the
small-holder milk producers can benefit from ghee processing technology. Also
the country can save some foreign exchange from importing cooking oils and fats
(Bille and Kandjou, 2008).
However, it should be noted though that even though there is potential for
commercialization of a number of technologies some of the products like Omagadhi
goongombe and Omagongo are more seasonal. And the supply side of their production
is very limited due to the long and cumbersome process involved. Omugongo tree
where these two products are delivered take years to grow in order to get ongoongo
nuts. Even if one decides to set up an irrigated plant of such tree, production
will only be realized after ten years at most. The root of Boscia albitrunca
tree is believed to add flavor to the traditional butter, increasing the rate
of milk fermentation and helps in churning (Bille and Kandjou,
Some of these indigenous foods undergo some form of processing (e.g., fermentation)
but in most cases, traditional foods do not undergo serious processing before
consumption apart from the normal cooking process (Okeke
et al., 2009). The fermentation processes normally add different
special flavor and extend the shelf life of milk products. This is in agreement
with Van den Berg (1985) who, stated that in Africa, Asia
and Europe, fermented milk is known to be more stable and beneficial to people
than fresh milk because of its medicinal, cosmetic and other usage of which
sour milk has been developed mainly as a means of providing a variety of foods
and of preserving it against spoilage. The traditional/indigenous food and beverages
varieties are of important potentials for commercialization to many industrial
sector in Namibia such as dairy and bakery products. Present results from the
present study are in agreement with Cheikhyoussef (2011c)
who, surveyed the indigenous knowledge on traditional foods and beverages in
Karas region and reported the rich indigenous food culture and many of these
fermented beverages would have a great potential for industrial application.
Mining/ metallurgy indigenous technologies /products: Under mining/metallurgy processing, several technologies/products in the Omusati and Kavango region were studied (Table 3). The potential for commercializing traditional iron ore processing technology for purposes of value-addition was somehow favorable. Moreover, the art, the skills and tradition to process household equipment such as knives, spears, hoes and other equipment from raw iron ore is useful in order to upgrade the trade and skills in iron monger. These technological systems and methods have evolved over time. Products such as axes, knives, hoes are products, which in terms of origins are only associated with cultures of some specific indigenous communities, part of which still inhabit these regions. Further research in this area for preservation of cultural heritage and the collection of artifacts for museum collection is necessary.
Tanning technologies: Under tanning technology in Omaheke regions; two indigenous tanning methods from two ethnic groups in the region were documented. These ethnics were the Tswana and Herero speaking Namibians.
Making blankets from jackal or big eared jackal hide in the Tswana culture: The technical steps in this process are presented in the Fig. 1. The making of blanket from jackal or big eared jackal hide is very essential to the livelihood of Setswana people. It is important to them because it preserves their identity as one of Namibian population groups. Many Setswana people make use of this blanket as a decoration in their house. It has the potential of job creation.
Making mats from Hartebeest Hide in the Setswana tradition: The flow chart for this process is presented in Fig. 2. The making of mats from hartebeest hide is very essential to the livelihood of Setswana people. Many Setswana people make use of these mats as decoration in their house. They prefer to decorate their house with is mate as source of their identity and proud. Recently, mats from animal skins have entered formal market and as a result it has a potential for job creation.
Making ropes and horse saddles from hide in the Herero tradition: The
steps of this process are presented in Fig. 3. Horses are
prestigious animals in the Herero community and virtually every Herero house
has a horse. Because of the fact that many Herero house have horses the demand
of horse saddle is very high in this community. As a result the manufacturing
of horse saddle has a high potential to create jobs for the rural folks. Further,
ropes made from the animal skins are very essential to almost in all communities
of Namibia especially in the northern part of the country. These are ropes from
cattle skin. They are made for various purposes similar to the modern ropes
in the formal markets. The potential for commercialisation is limited but it
is vital for the preservation of cultural heritage. The reported technologies/products
fit with the technology definition of Ibitoye (2011)
as he considered the technology refers to tools such as a crowbar or wooden
spoon or complex machines that may be used to solve people’s problems.
|| Mining/metallurgy indigenous technologies/products
|*Oshimbaanhu; indigenous language in Omusati region, **Rukwangali;
indigenous language in Kavango region
||Dyeing process for blankets from Jackal in the Setswana tradition
||Making mats from Hartebeest Hide in thedd Setswana tradition
||Making ropes and horse saddles from hide in the Herero tradition
||Indigenous construction and infrastructure technologies by
the local people in Omusati region
|*Oshimbaanhu; indigenous language in Omusati region
Construction and infrastructure technologies: With regard to construction
and infrastructure the following indigenous building technologies were studied
in the Omusati region (Table 4). Oshiwambo Traditional homesteads
are usually built out of Mopani palisades. The materials, although renewable,
are currently in short supply. Oshiwambo traditional house designs offer privacy
and abundant space at minimum costs. Due to the lack of Mopani palisades and
limiting measures against deforestation, houses are nowadays made out of tarred
poles, reeds, mahangu straws or from bricks in order to insure privacy. These
materials are also freely available and can be obtained by everyone. The collection
and use of the materials may offer jobs to the unemployed traditional builders.
However, more young people need to be trained in order for the traditional trade
and skills to continue. Pottery offers job opportunities and livelihoods for
artwork, tourist trade by communities or individuals based on existing traditional
skills and technologies.
Commercialization using these materials is going to be difficult. However,
the identification of the principles and skills behind the traditional building
technologies and practices would be useful to develop building methods and practices
how to integrate the choices of building materials and environmental considerations
into those building practices. The potential for commercialization and value-addition
in terms of developing appropriate design and building technologies is very
much necessary. It is also important to record Namibia’s own cultural
heritage in terms of design and building technologies in our museums. This line
of judgment applies equally to the construction of eanda (Oshiwambo granary).
Household equipment/ technologies: Under Household Equipment/Technology;
the following indigenous technologies in the tree regions of Oshikoto, Omusati
and Kavango were studied (Table 5). The commercialization
of the traditional processing technology of mining clay pottery on the other
hand is important (Fig. 4). The regions have the potential
to establish a modern clay pot industry in Namibia. What need to be done is
to identify the principles and skills behind the traditional mining processing
technologies of clay and see if these can be commercialized for mass production
of clay products. Clay deposits are here and there in the north and north central
regions but the extent to which the size of such deposits need to be established.
A full scale demand and supply analysis for commercialization of traditional
mining processing technology of clay needs to be carried out. Clay works can
be extended to include the making of utensils, fine arts and bricks. This form
of traditional technology can provide employment and income for a number of
people and communities (Fig. 4). The local vocational schools
and community centers should incorporated pottery as a subject in their training
to insure sustainability of the survival of all of the household products are
already being sold in the region. The main emphasis therefore, should be on
the production scale. Palm leaves are the sources of many baskets which are
used as household utensils in many rural homes especially in Omusati and Oshikoto
regions. The raw materials are renewable and the basket products are in demand
across the north central regions. Though the ram material (palm trees) plenty
in these regions the problem is the rate at which they grow. These trees they
grow very slowly and this makes them to be easily exhaustible. The potential
for commercializing the principles of indigenous production technology of basket-making
is there, provided the supply side of the raw materials is sufficiently established
(Fig. 4). Traditional shoes are in demand. The problem is
the organization to bring existing skills together in order to supply the market.
The potential to commercialize the principles of indigenous shoe processing
technology is viable. More unemployed people would get jobs in such shoe making
factories and of course many local people can afford to have shoes at a low
||Clay pots and other traditional products in local market in
|| Indigenous Household Equipment/ Technologies by the local
people in the studied regions
|*Oshimbaanhu; indigenous language in Omusati region, **Otjiherero;
indigenous language in Omaheke region, ***Oshindonga/Oshikwanyama; indigenous
languages in Oshikoto region
|| Namibia Best Practice comparison with UNESCO & Nuffic
Production technologies in transition: The impact of colonialism on
IKST is the mismatch between a western way of life which the people aspire to
live and the indigenous technological context which the young people want to
leave behind. Indigenous young people living in a largely indigenous environment
of Omusati, try to assume the western way of life which cannot be sustained
by the abundant indigenous technological skill-base, which is freely available
to them. As the western (colonial) influence is likely to continue in Namibia,
the more the mismatch continues. On the other hand indigenous people can never
become Europeans however; much they try the western way of life. The best way
out is to understand, develop and commercialize indigenous technologies as well
as assimilating western technologies into the indigenous technological operating
context. Inadvertently, this will close the gap between the indigenous and western
operating context in terms of technological performance (Gupta,
1999). The more the research and development is concentrated on IKST, the
more local products and markets you have which are indigenous and the more jobs
you have locally. Present study is in agreement with Gracey
and King (2009) who, reported on the powerful effects of colonization on
indigenous peoples worldwide of which this colonization adversely affected physical,
social, emotional and mental health and well-being in traditional societies.
The extrapolation between different groups (indigenous and western) is unwise
because local circumstances differ greatly (Gracey and King,
Namibia best practice comparison with UNESCO and Nuffic protocol: Using UNESCO and Nuffic Protocol as the base, Table 6 presents the some of the selected technologies/ products/ practices in the studied regions based on their importance and potentials for income generation and commercialization.
The research study presented in this paper gives an insight into many indigenous
technologies and practices various Namibian communities having the potential
for commercialization. The results of this study revealed that pottery, leather
products, traditional treatments with medicinal plants, making blankets and
fermented milk products such as Omaere have very important values and many of
them have the potential to be carried to an industrial level. This indigenous
knowledge should be considered for incorporation into industrial processes and
the development of locally value added products. There is no doubt that indigenous
technologies/practices contribute significantly to the household security of
which it is the main source of their daily life income. These indigenous technologies/practices
have their own strong and weak points; therefor researchers have to conduct
some scientific validations before incorporation into the national development
process in Namibia.
The researchers would like to thank all the resources persons in this manuscript for being open to share their wisdom with the public at large. Secondly, many thanks is extended to the Research and Publication office of the University of Namibia for the initiative taken to show interest in recording our indigenous knowledge systems, which ourselves and our offspring’s have to be proud of. Thirdly; thanks to the assistance of Ndateelela Fransina Kahungu; as the data collector. The researchers further acknowledge the assistance of the interviewees as resource persons for their perseverance during interviews.